Genetic Engineering - Agriscience.msu.edu

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10 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Note Taking Guide


Topic # 0008D

Genetic Engineering
Tony Hoffman

What is Genetics…?
What do things look like? and why?

___________
- The branch of science that studies _______ and ____________, or how
characteristics are passed from parents to children.

Why do things look the way they do?

______________-__
(deoxyribonucleic acid) - a large ___________-stranded, ____________
_
molecule that contains genetic ____________
__ for growth, development and replication.

This _______
__ is a set of _____________ that tells cells to form in a particular way. DNA is the
reason we have so many different kinds of cells. It is very __________
_ and __________

amounts can be found in each ______________-
_.

What is DNA made up of?

__________
_ - the molecular building blocks of DNA: __________
__ (A), ____________ (C),
___________ (G) and ___________
__ (T). In DNA, A attaches only to ___
_, and C attaches only
to ___
_. These pairs are called ____________
_.

Is DNA a long strand that travels throughout an organism? ______
_.

_______________
__ - a long __________
_ strand in the ____________
_, made up of DNA and
protein.

DNA is organized into ____________
__ so that it is not one long strand. These segments are
called __________________
_.

Chromosomes are broken down further into……

_________
_ - the unit of heredity in ________________
__; a segment of double-stranded
________.

___________
__ are small little _______________
__ segments on each chromosome. Each of
these genes is a different ____________
_ that is displayed by the organism that carries it. A
chromosome can carry ______________
__ of ______________
__.

Size connection………
____________
_ have many _____________________
__. Chromosomes are made up of a long
strand of _______________
__. DNA is made up of thousands of ________________
_.

Can we change DNA?

__________
_ we can…by a method called ______________
_ - the process of cutting the
_____________
_ of a ____________
_ in order to add _____________
_ pairs.

1. Chemicals called __restriction enzymes
__ act as the scissors to cut the DNA rings, called
__plasmids
__. Once it finds that sequence in a strand of DNA, it attacks it and _splits
_ the base
pairs apart, leaving __single
__ strands at the end of two _double
_ strands.

2. Scientists are then free to _add
_ any __genetic
__ sequence they wish into the broken chain.
Usually there is a __gene of interest
__, which is the gene they are adding to the existing
__DNA
__.

3. Afterwards, the chain is __repaired
__ (as a longer chain with the added DNA) with another
__enzyme
__ called a __ligase
__.