Student Laboratory Kit

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Student Laboratory Kit

Introductory Presentation

President’s Council of Student Advisors

Presentation Overview


What is Materials Science


Ceramics


Metals


Polymers


Composites


What Does this Kit Provide


Items Included in the Kit


Important Lab Information


Introductory/Supplemental Information for Each
Lab Lesson


PCSA Website Information


References


Acknowledgments

What is Materials Science


Materials science is the study of solid matter


Investigating the relationship between the atomic or
molecular structure of a material and its micro
-

and
macroscopic properties


Examining and understanding what influences the
properties of a material so that the right material can be
selected for a particular application


A material will typically fall into one of four
classes:


Ceramics


Metals


Polymers


Composites

Metals

Ceramics

Polymers

Composites


What is a ceramic?


I
norganic, nonmetallic solid created through


heating and then cooling


What are some unique properties of
ceramics?


Ceramics are generally brittle, hard, and strong


in compression,
but not other types of
loading


They
are generally better at withstanding


corrosive
environments and high
temperatures


What are some common ceramic materials?


Silica (sand)


Alumina


CorningWare
®


Porcelain


What is Materials Science

Ceramics

Alumina
labware

Ceramic coffee mugs

Porcelain vase

CorningWare
®

What is Materials Science

Metals


What is a metal?


Elements or compounds that have good
electrical and thermal conductivity


What are some unique properties of
metals?


Metals are metallically bonded, and therefore
their outer electrons can easily be
removed


They
are generally malleable and ductile, and
have higher densities than
nonmetals


What are some common metal
materials?


Elements: iron, copper, gold, silver, tin


Alloys: steel,
nitinol


Metal bridge supports

Metal tools


What is a polymer?


Chemical compound with a structure of many repeating
sub
-
units, often called monomers


What are
some unique
properties of polymers?


They tend to form glasses and semi
-
crystalline structures
rather than crystalline structures


Polymers are strong
,
flexible
, non
-
reactive, and
moldable


What are some common polymer materials?


Polvinyl

chloride (PVC)


Wool


Shellac


Rubber


Nylon

What is Materials Science

Polymers

PVC Pipe

Wool

Shellac


What is a composite?


A material created from the combination of 2 or more
different materials








What
are some unique properties of
composites?


Composites exhibit characteristics different from the
characteristics of the individual materials
included


Properties can be tailored for a specific application by
changing the amounts of individual materials included


What is Materials Science

Composites

+

+

=

+

Portland cement

Water

Fine aggregate:

Sand

Coarse aggregate:

Gravel

Concrete

What is Materials
Science

Composites


What are some common
composites?


Concrete


Most widely used man
-
made material


Composed
of Portland cement, water,
and

aggregate


Wood


Natural composite made of cellulose
fiber


cells’ that are held together with
a
natural

glue
called
lignin


Tires


Composed of rubber and one or more
types

of
fibers


Rubber holds the
air
inside
while
the
fibers

withstand
the stresses
imposed on
the tire

as
the car is being driven


Concrete

Wood

Tires

What Does this Kit Provide


An introduction to materials science through
hands
-
on student labs


Glass
Bead
on a
Wire
:

ceramics lab that demonstrates glass
can be
a ‘phase of matter’ rather than a particular material and
examines
the
ability
of
glasses
to absorb other ions during thermal
treatments


Engineered Concrete


How
Would You Design
a
Composite
?
:
composites lab that demonstrates the influence of preparation
(design) on the final composite’s properties


Happy Ball /

Sad
B
all
:

polymer lab that demonstrates property
dependence on temperature and material structure


Thermal Processing of Bobby Pins
:
metals lab that demonstrates
the influence
that
thermal processing can
have on
the properties
of a
material


Chocolate Strength


How Strong is Your Chocolate?
:
general
lab that demonstrates
how material properties, such as
microstructure, can influence the strength of a material


Items Included in the Kit


20’ copper wire (18 gauge)


20’
nichrome

wire (20 gauge)


3 Neoprene
®

balls (Happy ball)


3
Norsorex
®

balls (Sad ball)


10 plastic measuring spoons


1 mass balance (0.1
-
1000g limit)


5 plastic cups with twine


1 package of bobby pins


5 c
-
clamps


Flash drive containing all of the


lesson documents

Copper wire

Measuring spoons

Bobby pins

Cup with twine

Nichrome

wire

C
-
clamp

Happy/Sad balls

Flash drive

Balance

Important Lab Information


The labs in this kit have been designed to be
performed by
small
groups of students


The recommended group size can be found on the
first slide for each lab in this presentation


The
materials list included in the
Teacher
Instructions
for each lab is designed for a
class of 20
students


You may need to modify the instructions and
materials list if you have more than 20 students in
your class


Feel free to modify any of the lesson
documents to meet your classroom’s needs!


Important Lab Information


For each lab, some items are provided in the
kit and some will need to be purchased


Items that must be purchased should be commonly
available at a grocery or hardware store and were
not included in the kit due to shipping issues or the
need to replace these items after every lab


For each lab, several documents are
provided on the included flash drive:


Teacher Instructions


Teacher Discussion Questions


Student Lab Handout


Student Questions Handout





The remainder of the presentation will
focus on introductory/supplementary
information for each lab


Glass Bead on a Wire


The student lab documents were written for
groups of 2 students, materials included in the
kit are enough for 10 groups



Materials included in the kit


20ft Copper wire


20ft
Nichrome

wire



Materials not included in the kit


Borax


Bunsen burner


Pliers/tongs/corks


Heat
-
resistant container


Plastic baggies (optional)

Powdered Borax

Bunsen

Burner

Heat
-
resistant

container

Copper wire

Nichrome

wire

Glass Bead on a Wire


Objective of this lab


To demonstrate that glass can be a ‘phase of matter’ rather
than a particular material and to examine the unique ability
of
glasses
to absorb other ions during thermal
treatments


Background Information


Glasses are amorphous solids


No long
-
range order of atoms

Crystalline structure

Amorphous structure

Glass Bead on a Wire


Background Information, continued


Upon heating to a certain temperature, glasses have the
ability to incorporate metal ions and additional oxygen ions
into their atomic structure


The level of oxygen and type of metal ion gives glass its ‘color’


For some materials, glass is a ‘phase of matter’ rather than
an actual material


Borax and quartz sand will transition from a crystalline structure
to an amorphous structure (glass) upon heating to a

certain temperature


Quartz sand is the main raw material used in the

glasses we see every day (drinking glasses,

windows, etc.)

Quartz sand

Glass Bead on a Wire


Lab Description


Borax bead test


Popular method for determining the presence of certain metals


A hot metal wire loop is dipped into powdered Borax and heated
again


Borax undergoes a crystalline to amorphous transition during
heating to form a ‘bead’ on the wire


Color of the bead is dependent on:


The type of metal in the wire


The amount of oxygen incorporated into

the Borax atomic structure during heating


Amount of oxygen added during heating

can be controlled using different parts

of a Bunsen flame


Beads from a Borax bead test

Glass Bead on a Wire


Lab Description, continued


Bunsen burner flame

Oxidizing region of flame

(high amounts of oxygen)

Reducing region of flame

(low amounts of oxygen)

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bunsen_burner.jpg

Glass Bead on a Wire


Keyword Definitions


Amorphous
: non
-
crystalline solid that lacks a long
-
range
order of atoms


Oxidation
: addition of oxygen to a material


Reduction
: removal of oxygen from a material


Borax bead test
:
heat
-
induced transition
of
Borax from a
crystalline state to an amorphous state that is typically
used to test for the presence of certain metals


Water of crystallization
: water
that
is incorporated in the
crystalline structure of a material

Glass
Bead
on a
Wire


Real world applications


Glass can be heated to
a molten (liquid) state
and molded into many
different shapes, from
vases to sheets of
colored glass for
‘stained glass’
windows. Introduction
of different ions during
the heating process
can yield glass in any
desired color.


Glass Bead on a Wire


Supplementary Information


Websites that provide additional information about the
borax bead test, including other metals that can be used


http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bead_test


http://
webmineral.com/help/BoraxBead.shtml


Supplier for replacement copper and
nichrome

wire


McMaster
-
Carr


http://www.mcmaster.com/#standard
-
copper
-
wire/=
m8fuhp


http://www.mcmaster.com/#nickel
-
chromium
-
%28nichrome%29
-
wire/=
m8fut2


Engineered Concrete:

How Would You Design a Composite?


The student lab documents were written for
groups of 3 students


Materials included in the kit


10 Plastic measuring spoons


1 Mass balance


Materials not included in the kit


Styrofoam bowls/PVC pipe molds


Portland cement


Permanent marker


Reinforcement materials


Sandwich
bags (optional
)


Latex/Non
-
latex
gloves (optional)


Portland cement

Measuring spoons

Balance


Popsicle sticks


Plastic
wrap


Plastic
cups


Duct tape


Vaseline


Q
-
tips

Engineered Concrete:

How Would You Design a Composite?


Objective of this lab


To demonstrate how preparation (design) of a material can
affect the final material properties and to provide an
introduction to
composites


Background Information


Composite
materials exhibit characteristics

different
from the characteristics of the

individual
materials used to create the
composite


Concrete is the most commonly used


man
-
made composite (
and
one
of the oldest)


Composed of Portland cement, water, sand,

and gravel


Final material properties are dependent on how much of each
individual material is used

Roman concrete aqueduct

Modern concrete bridge

Engineered Concrete:

How Would You Design a Composite?


Background Information, continued


Portland cement is a ceramic material that, when combined
with water, forms the building block of concrete


Concrete goes through a curing process


When water is mixed with Portland cement, it forms a bond with
the cement particles and hardens into an intertwining matrix


The sand (fine aggregate) and gravel (coarse aggregate) get
trapped within this matrix and act as reinforcement to provide
strength to the material


Concrete strength is dependent upon several factors


Water to cement (w/c) ratio


Need the right amount of water to react with the Portland cement


Type of reinforcement added


Sand vs. gravel vs. fibers vs. combination of several types


Amount of reinforcement added

Engineered Concrete:

How Would You Design a Composite?


Background Information, continued


Influence of w/c ratio on thickness of puck



w/c=0.25

(10
spoonfuls
)

w/c=0.37

(15
spoonfuls
)

w/c=0.49

(20
spoonfuls
)

w/c=0.61

(25
spoonfuls
)

Engineered Concrete:

How Would You Design a Composite?


Background Information, continued


Pucks after dropping from a height of at least 15ft


Influence of w/c ratio


‘average’ ratio of 0.49 exhibits best
performance (majority of the puck still intact)


w/c=0.25

(10
spoonfuls
)

w/c=0.37

(15
spoonfuls
)

w/c=0.49

(20
spoonfuls
)

w/c=0.61

(25
spoonfuls
)

Engineered Concrete:

How Would You Design a Composite?


Lab Description


Experiment with various w/c ratios to determine the
amount of water that should be added to a set amount of
Portland cement and reinforcement to create a workable
cement paste


Evaluate the influence of w/c ratio on the strength of a
reinforced cement paste puck


Create a new mix design based on the results of the first
round of pucks


How much water should be added?


How much reinforcement should be added?


Evaluate the second mix design in terms of strength of a
reinforced cement paste puck

Engineered Concrete:

How Would You Design a Composite?


Keyword Definitions


Portland cement
: fine powder composed primarily of
ground clinker (mostly ground limestone)


Concrete
:

composite material composed of Portland
cement, water, and aggregate


Composite
: a material that is composed of 2 or more
materials and has different properties from the original
materials


Design
:

a plan for how to prepare a material or a method
for combining the materials in a composite (% of each
material that should be added, how to combine the
materials, curing conditions, etc.)


Reinforcement
:

material that is typically added to another
material to give it increased mechanical properties (e.g.
addition of steel rebar or fibers to concrete)

Engineered Concrete:

How Would You Design a Composite?


Real world applications

To strengthen the
concrete in large
structures such as
the foundation of a
wind turbine (shown
here), a lattice
frame of reinforcing
steel bars (“rebar”)
are set in place.
The concrete will be
poured around it to
form a composite.

Engineered Concrete:

How Would You Design a Composite?


Supplementary Information


Suppliers for Type I or Type I/II Portland Cement


Ace Hardware


http
://
www.acehardware.com/product/index.jsp?productId=2041962


Home Depot


http://
www.homedepot.com/p/t/100561820?catalogId=10053&langI
d=
-
1&keyword=portland+cement&storeId=10051&N=5yc1v&R=1005618
20
#.
UWMEWzeyJrY


Lowes


http://www.lowes.com/pd_10322
-
286
-
112447_0__?productId=3006038&Ntt=portland+cement&pl=1&curre
ntURL=%3FNtt%3Dportland%2Bcement&facetInfo
=



Happy Ball/Sad Ball


The student lab documents were written for groups
of 4
-
8 students to rotate through 3 stations:


Room temperature station


Chilled temperature station


Heated temperature station



Materials included in the kit


3 Neoprene
®

balls (Happy)


3
Norsorex
®

balls (Sad)


1 Mass balance



Materials not included in the kit



6 Meter
Sticks


Hotplate


Dry ice/liquid
n
itrogen (Optional)

Happy/Sad balls


2 Pans


Tongs


Freezer


Salt


Water


Cup of ice

Happy Ball/Sad
B
all


Objective of this lab


To demonstrate the dependence of material properties on
temperature and material structure by examining two
polymers,
which visually look identical but have different
material
structures


Background Information


Developing an understanding of material properties is the
first step in understanding why different materials are used
for different
applications


Many material properties cannot be determined just by
visually examining a
material


Two materials that
look
identical (such as the Happy/Sad
balls)
may
exhibit very
different material properties
due
to
differences in the material
structure

Happy Ball/Sad Ball


Background Information, continued


Neoprene
®

(Happy ball)


Composed of
polychloroprene



Has a softer texture and bounces well


Has high hysteresis


When it is deformed, it immediately wants to return to its original condition


Commonly used for swimsuits and wetsuits as it is very flexible,
maintains its shape, and retains heat well


Norsorex
®
(Sad ball)


Composed of
polynorbornene


Does not bounce well


Has low hysteresis


When it is deformed, it has no desire to return to its original condition


Commonly used for body armor as it has the ability to spread
impact forces over a wide area

Wetsuit

Body Armor

Happy Ball/Sad Ball


Keyword Definitions


Material property
: characteristic attribute of a material which
can measured in a meaningful way


Polymer
: chemical compound with a structure of many
repeating sub
-
units


Impact
: a force applied over a short period of time when 2 or
more bodies collide


Rebound
: to bounce back after colliding with another body


Absorb
: to receive an impact or vibration without rebound


Elasticity
: ability of a material to deform when loaded and
then return to its original shape upon unloading


Deform
: to alter the original shape of a material, usually by
pressure or stress


Friction
: force that resists the motion of 2 materials sliding
against each
other


Happy Ball/Sad Ball


Lab Description


Students will
test the material properties of two seemingly
identical polymer
balls


Comparisons of the
mass, radius, density, and rebound of the
balls
at different temperature
conditions

will be made


Three stations will be set
-
up


Room temperature Happy/Sad ball station


Chilled temperature Happy/Sad ball station


Heated temperature Happy/Sad ball station


Students will rotate through the stations performing the same set
of experiments at each station to evaluate the influence of
temperature on the material properties of the two
balls


Happy Ball/Sad
Ball


Real world applications

The polymers in a
tennis ball and the
racquet strings
must be engineered
to
transfer

as
much energy as
possible for the best
performance.

The plastic bumpers of cars are
designed to
absorb

as much
energy as possible so it is not
transferred to the passengers.
This helps prevent serious
injuries during a head
-
on
collision.


Thermal Processing of Bobby Pins


The student lab documents were written for
groups of 4 students


Materials included in the kit


5 Plastic cups with twine


5
C
-
clamps


1 Package of bobby pins


Materials not included in the kit


Bunsen burner


Pennies


Cup of cold water


Pliers/tongs/corks


Cup with twine

C
-
clamp

Bobby pins

Bunsen

Burner

Thermal
Processing
of
Bobby Pins


Objective


To
show the difference that processing, especially thermal
processing, can have on the properties of a
material


Background Information


Thermal processing is used to change the
microstructure
of
a
material, and thus change its physical properties


Annealing weakens metals


Makes them
easier to form into desired
shapes


Involves heating a material
above a critical

temperature
,
maintaining
that
temperature,
and

then allowing the material to slowly cool


Quenching makes metals hard and brittle


Process is the same as annealing except the

material is rapidly cooled to room temperature

Photomicrograph:

Annealed steel

Photomicrograph:

Quenched steel

Thermal
Processing
of
Bobby Pins


Lab Description


The influence of thermal treatment on bobby pins will be
examined


A bobby pin will be annealed by heating with a Bunsen burner
and slowly cooling


A bobby pin will be quenched by heating with a Bunsen burner
and quickly cooling by plunging the pin in a cup of cold water


The control bobby pin, annealed bobby pin, and quenched
bobby pin will be subjected to an end flexural loading


This type of loading is also referred to as a cantilevered beam
loading


The deflections of each pin will be compared to determine
the influence of thermal treatment on the mechanical
properties of the metal

Thermal
Processing
of
Bobby Pins


Keyword Definitions


Thermal
processing
:

using temperature changes to impact
material properties


Annealing
: heating a material and allowing it to cool slowly


Quenching
: heating a material and forcing it to cool quickly


Strength
: ability of a material to withstand applied stress
without failure


Stiffness
: ability of a material to withstand deformation
(bending)


Elasticity
: ability of a material to deform non
-
permanently
without breaking


Plasticity
: ability of a material to deform permanently
without breaking


Ductility
: ability of a material to deform under tensile stress

Thermal
Processing
of
Bobby Pins


Keyword Definitions, continued


Malleability
: ability of a material to deform under
compressive
stress


Over
-
aging
: having been annealed for too long, decreasing
desired material properties


Deflection
:

amount of displacement experienced by a
structural element (e.g. beam) under a load


Elastic Modulus
: the tendency of a material to deform
elastically (i.e. not permanently)


Microstructure
: structure of a material as observed through
microscopic examination


Grain
: an individual crystal in a
polycrystal


Dislocation
: a defect or irregularity in the ordered
arrangement of atoms in a material

Thermal
Processing
of
Bobby Pins


Real world applications

Heat treatment is the most important
factor in the processing of metal
parts. High temperatures and slow
cooling rates will allow large grains to
form in the metal, which deform more
easily than small grains
. When making
a hardened metal for a hammer, drill,
or gear, the metal must be quenched
to keep the grains small. Quenching
can also “freeze in” a crystal structure
that only otherwise exists at high
temperature.


Aircraft landing gear
glowing red
-
hot
about to be
quenched in oil.


Chocolate Strength:

How Strong is Your Chocolate?


The lab documents were written for groups of
3
-
4 students


Materials included in the kit


5 Plastic cups with twine


1 Mass balance


Materials not included in the kit


Pennies


5 rulers


5 protective mats


Milk chocolate bars


Almond chocolate bars


Crisped rice chocolate bars

Cup with twine

Balance

Chocolate Strength:

How
Strong
is
Your
Chocolate?


Objective of this lab


To
demonstrate how material properties, such as
microstructure, can influence the strength of a material



Background Information


The materials we use everyday are subjected to a variety
of stresses and must be designed to provide a certain
measure of strength


Engineers must understand how a material will respond to
stresses in order to choose the right material for a
particular application



Chocolate Strength:

How
Strong
is
Your
Chocolate?


Background Information, continued


Engineers use a variety of mechanical tests to evaluate the
ability of a material to sustain stresses


Compressive

Testing

Tensile

Testing

Flexural

Testing

Chocolate Strength:

How
Strong
is
Your
Chocolate?


Background Information, continued


A material’s microstructure influences the strength of the
material under various loadings


Sometimes microstructure can be altered due to processing


M
ilk chocolate bars that have something added to them such as
almonds, crisped rice, or air voids


It is important to understand how microstructural changes
can affect the final properties of the material


Will the changes produce a stronger material?


A weaker material?


A more durable material (even if it is weaker)?

Chocolate Strength:

How
Strong
is
Your
Chocolate?


Lab Description


Different types of chocolate bars will be tested to
demonstrate the influence of different ‘microstructures’ on
the strength of the bar


3
-
point bending test set
-
up will be utilized


3
-
point bending test set
-
up

Chocolate Strength:

How
Strong
is
Your
Chocolate?


Keyword Definitions


Mechanical properties
: description of how a material
behaves in response to applied forces


Stress
:

force applied per unit area


3
-
point bending test
:

standard test used to measure
the flexural strength of a material


Microstructure
: structure of a material as observed
through microscopic examination



Chocolate Strength:

How
Strong
is
Your
Chocolate?

Impurities and other elements in your material can
strengthen

it
(Engineered Concrete) OR
weaken

it (How Strong is Your
Chocolate?). In most modern materials, the processing is so well
-
controlled that impurities are not a problem, and other materials are
added on purpose to strengthen the material.

An excess of sulfur and phosphorous in the steel of the Titanic is
widely believed to have made it more susceptible to cracking.


Real world applications

The metal blades of a
jet engine are mostly
nickel but can have
more than 10 other
elements added to
improve performance.

Chocolate Strength:

How
Strong
is
Your
Chocolate?


Supplementary Information


3
-
point bending test

for a chocolate bar

Example of a chocolate

fracture surface

PCSA Website Information


Additional information can be found on the
PCSA website, including:


Teacher Demonstration kit available for purchase


FREE downloadable versions of the lesson
documents for
this kit and the Teacher Demonstration kit


FREE downloadable supplementary kit for use with liquid
nitrogen


Videos demonstrating the labs and providing trouble
shooting information (coming soon!)


Check the website often for new information!


www.ceramics.org/pcsasciencekits



References


Image References


Metal (gallium) crystals
-

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gallium_crystals.jpg


Porcelain vase
-

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Blue_and_white_vase_Jingdezhen_Ming_Yongle_1403_1424.jpg


Polymer shellac
-

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shellac_varities.png


Composite plywood
-

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spruce_plywood.JPG


Corning
Ware
-

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Corningware_%28flower
-
print_casserole_dishes%29.jpg


PVC
pipe
-

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PVC_pressure.jpg


Wool


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wool.www.usda.gov.jpg


Portland Cement


http://www.cement.org/basics/howmade.asp


Water


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2006
-
02
-
13_Drop
-
impact.jpg


Fine Aggregate: Sand


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sand_03374.JPG


Coarse Aggregate: Gravel


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:20mm
-
aggregate.jpg


Concrete


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Concrete_aggregate_grinding.JPG


Concrete Casting


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Concreteathruz.jpg


Wood


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Taxus_wood.jpg


Tires


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Discarded_tires_at_an_automotive_shop.JPG


Borax


http://
www.acehardware.com/product/index.jsp?productId=3006766&cagpspn=pla&CAWELAID=143758775


Bunsen Burner


http://
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bunsen_burner.jpg


Heat
-
resistant container


http://
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bariumchloratepowder.jpg


Quartz sand
-

http://
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Piasek_kwarcowy.jpg


Bunsen burner flame
-

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bunsen_burner_flame_types_.jpg


Stained glass window
-

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chartres_
-
_cath%C3%A9drale_
-
_rosace_nord.jpg


Multi
-
colored vase
-

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Foglio_
-
_David_Patchen_9416.jpg








References


Image
References, continued


Glass bottle
-

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:0.5_GL_Borjomi_Glass_Bottle.jpg


Glass sculpture
-

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Glass.sculpture.kewgardens.london.arp.jpg


Molten glass


http://www.brooklynartscouncil.org/directory/16237


Glass vases
-

http://
www.artinstituteshop.org/item.aspx?productID=4343


Wetsuit


http://
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Surfanzug.jpg


Body
armor
-

http://
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stabvestback.jpg


Tennis racket hitting ball
-

http://techsciencedaily.com/?attachment_id=478


Crashed
cars
-

http://www.bmwblog.com/2010/05/26/world
-
premiere
-
new
-
bmw
-
5
-
series
-
passes
-
first
-
crash
-
test
-
using
-
brake
-
intervention
/


Portland
cement bag


http://
www.lowes.com/pd_10352
-
47471
-
4609_4294858248_4294937087?productId=3006059


Roman concrete
aqueduct
-

http://
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pont_Du_Gard.JPG


Modern
concrete bridge
-

http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Salginatobelbruecke_suedost_unten.jpg


Wind turbine foundation
-

http://www.windynation.com/community/threads/lots
-
of
-
cement.769
/


Photomicrograph of annealed and
quenched steel
-

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Photomicrograph_of_annealed_and_quenched_steel,_
from_1911_Britannica_
plates_11_and_14.jpg


Aircraft
landing gear
-

http://
cirrusengineering.blogspot.com/2011_02_01_archive.html


Compressive Testing


http://
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Concrete_Compression_Testing.jpg


Tensile
Testing


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tensile_testing_on_a_coir_composite.jpg


Flexural Testing


http://
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Three_point_flexural_test.jpg


Titanic picture


http://
americanhistory.si.edu/collections/object
-
groups/titanic
-
group


Airplane jet
-

http://
semyx.com/aerospace.html


All other images were taken by the PCSA








Acknowledgments


Special thanks to
the following companies and
individuals,
whose generous donations ensure the
continued operation of the PCSA, which allows for
projects such as
this kit
to come to
fruition!*



Advanced
Cerametrics
, Inc. (2013)


Almatis
, Inc. (2013)


Association of American Ceramic Component Manufacturers (AACCM)
(2010, 2011)


ACerS Basic Science Division (2010)


Ceramco

Inc. (2010, 2012, 2013)


Corning Incorporated (2010)


Deltech
, Inc. (2011, 2013)


ACerS Electronics Division (2010)


Fusion Ceramics Inc. (2013)


ACerS Glass and Optical Materials Division (2010)


Jain,
Dilip

(2010)


Kyocera International, Inc. (2010)


Marra, Jim and Sharon (2010)


*Donors from 1/1/2010 through 9/27/2013


Acknowledgments

Special thanks, continued*



Mo
-
Sci

Charitable Foundation (2011, 2012, 2013)


Mo
-
Sci

Corporation (2011, 2012, 2013)


ACerS New Mexico Section (2010, 2012, 2013)


ACerS Nuclear and Environmental Technology Division (2010)


Ohio State University’s Center for Emergent Materials (2013)


Okamura,
Kiyohito

(2010)


ACerS Pacific Northwest Section (2012)


Reldon

& Hattie Cooper Charitable Fund (2010, 2011, 2012, 2013)


Spahr, Charlie (2010, 2012)


Superior Technical Ceramics (2012, 2013)


Unifrax

Corporation (2010)


Zircoa
, Inc. (2012)








*Donors from 1/1/2010 through 9/27/2013


Acknowledgments


The PCSA would also like to thank the following
individuals for their valuable input and feedback in
the creation of these lesson documents:



Debbie Goodwin, ASM Master Teacher


Andy Nydam, ASM Master Teacher


Teacher attendees from the ASM Materials Camp
®

Teachers Camps, June
24
-
28, 2013, and July 22


26, 2013, Columbus, Ohio

D
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