kompendium ketahanan energi

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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KOMPENDIUM

KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN
DAN PEMBANGUNAN



KETAHANAN
ENERGI



Dikoleksi

oleh


Prof Dr
Ir

Soemarno
, MS 30 March 2012

PPSUB
-

MALANG

KETAHANAN NASIONAL

PENGERTIAN KETAHANAN NASIONAL INDONESIA


Kondisi

dinamik

bangsa

Indonesia yang
melingkupi

seluruh

aspek

kehidupan

nasional

yang
terintegrasi
,
berisi

keuletan

dan

ketangguhan

yang
mengandung

kemampuan

mengembangkan

kekuatan

nasional

dalam

menghadapi

dan

mengatasi

segala

tantangan

ancaman

hambatan

dan

gangguan

baik

yang
datang

dari

luar

maupun

dari

dalam
.
Untuk

menjamin

identitas
,
integritas

kelangsungan

hidup

bangsa

dan

negara

serta

perjuangan

mencapai

tujuan

nasionalnya
.


Konsepsi

ketahanan

nasional

Indonesia
adalah

konsepsi

pengembangan

kekuatan

nasional

melalui

pengaturan

dan

penyelenggaraan

kesejahteraan

dan

keamanan

yang
seimbang

serasi

dalam

seluruh

aspek

kehidupan

secara

utuh

dan

menyeluruh

berlandaskan

Pancasila
, UUD 45
dan

Wasantara
.


Kesejahteraan

=
Kemampuan

bangsa

dalam

menumbuhkan

dan

mengembangkan

nilai
-
nilai

nasionalnya

demi

sebesar
-
besarnya

kemakmuran

yang
adil

dan

merata

rohani

dan

jasmani
.


Sumber
:
umi_k.staff.gunadarma.ac.id/.../Bab+3_
ketahanan

……
diunduh

30/3/2012

Keamanan

=
Kemampuan

bangsa

Indonesia
melindungi

nilai
-
nilai

nasionalnya

terhadap

ancaman

dari

luar

maupun

dari

dalam
.


KETAHANAN NASIONAL

Sumber
:
umi_k.staff.gunadarma.ac.id/.../Bab+3_
ketahanan

……
diunduh

30/3/2012

.

HAKEKAT KETAHANAN NASIONAL DAN KONSEPSI KETAHANAN NASIONAL INDONESIA



Hakekat

Ketahanan

Nasional

Indonesia =
Keuletan

dan

ketangguhan

yang
mengandung

kemampuan

mengembangkan

kekuatan

nasional

untuk

dapat

menjamin

kelangsungan

hidup

dan

tujuan

negara
.

Hakekat

Konsepsi

Ketahanan

Nasional

Indonesia =
Pengaturan

dan

penyelenggaraan

kesejahteraan

dan

keamanan

secara

seimbang
,
serasi

dan

selaras

dalam

seluruh

aspek

kehidupan

nasional
.




ASAS
-
ASAS KETAHANAN NASIONAL
INDONESIA

Kesejahteraan

dan

keamanan

Komprehensif

Integral (
Menyeluruh

Terpadu
)

Mawas

kedalam

dan

keluar

Kekeluargaan


SIFAT KETAHANAN NASIONAL INDONESIA

Mandiri

=
Percaya

pada

kemampuan

dan

kekuatan

sendiri

bertumpu

pada

identitas
,
integritas

dan

kepribadian
.
Kemandirian

merupakan

prasyarat

menjalin

kerjasama

yang
saling

menguntungkan

Dinamis

=
Berubah

tergantung

pada

situasi

dan

kondisi

bangsa

dan

negara

serta

kondisi

lingkungan

strategis
.

Wibawa

=
Pembinaan

ketahanan

nasional

yang
berhasil

akan

meningkatkan

kemampuan

bangsa

dan

menjadi

faktor

yang
diperhatikan

pihak

lain.

Konsultasi

dan

Kerjasama

=
Sikap

konsultatif

dan

kerjasama

serta

saling

menghargai

dengan

mengandalkan

pada

kekuatan

moral
dan

kepribadian

bangsa
.


KETAHANAN NASIONAL

Sumber
: http://wartawarga.gunadarma.ac.id/2010/03/pengertian
-
ketahanan
-
nasional
-
indonesia/ ……
diunduh

30/3/2012

SIFAT
-
SIFAT KETAHANAN NASIONAL


1.
Manunggal

.
Aspek

kehidupan

bangsa

Indonesia
dikelompokkan

ke

dalam

delapan

gatra

atau

astagatra
.

2.
Mawas

ke

dalam

dan

Mawas

ke

luar
.
Ketahanan

nasional

terutama

diarahkan

pada

diri

bangsa

dan

negara

sendiri
.

3.
Kewibawaan
.
Semakin

meningkatnya

pembangunan

nasional
,
akan

meningkatkan

ketahanan

nasional
.

4.
Berubah

menurut

Waktu
.
Ketahanan

nasional
,
sebagai

kondisi

bangsa

tidak

selalu

tetap
,
tergantung

dari

upaya

bangsa

dalam

pembangunan

nasional

dari

waktu

ke

waktu

dan

ketangguhannya

menghadapi

ancaman
,
tantangan
,
hambatan

dan

gangguan
.

5.
Tidak

Membenarkan

Adu

Kekuatan

dan

Adu

Kekuasaan
.
Konsep

ketahanan

nasional

tidak

hanya

mengutamakan

kekuasaan

fisik

tetapi

juga

kekuatan

moral yang
dimiliki

suatu

bangsa
.

6.
Percaya

Pada

Diri

Sendiri
.
Ketahanan

nasional

ditingkatkan

dan

dikembangkan

didasarkan

atas

kemampuan

sumber

daya

yang
ada

pada

bangsa

dan

sikap

percaya

kepada

diri

sendiri
.


ASTA
-
GATRA

Model
Astagatra

merupakan

perangkat

hubungan

bidang

kehidupan

manusia

dan

budaya

yang
berlangsung

diatas

bumi

degan

memanfaatkan

segala

kekayaan

alam
.
Terdiri

8
aspek

kehidupan

nasional

:


1).
Tiga

aspek

(tri
gatra
)
kehidupan

alamiah
,
yaitu

:

a).
Gatra

letak

dan

kedudukan

geografi

b).
Gatra

keadaan

dan

kekayaan

alam

c).
Gatra

keadaan

dan

kemampuan

penduduk


2). Lima
aspek

(
panca

gatra
)
kehidupan

social,
yaitu

:

a).
Gatra

ideologi

b).
Gatra

Politik

c).
Gatra

ekonomi

d).
Gatra

social
budaya

e).
Gatra

pertahanan

dan

keamanan
.


Terdapat

hubungan

korelatif

dan

interdependency
diantara

ke
-
8
gatra

secara

komprehensif

dan

integral.


KETAHANAN NASIONAL

Sumber
: http://wartawarga.gunadarma.ac.id/2010/03/pengertian
-
ketahanan
-
nasional
-
indonesia/ ……
diunduh

30/3/2012

KATA KUNCI DALAM KONSEP KETAHANAN NASIONAL


1.
Keuletan

merupakan

kualitas

diri
.

2.
Ketangguhan

adalah

kualitas

yang
menunjukkan

kekuatan

atau

kekokohan

sebagaimana

dipersepsikan

dari

luar

oleh

pihak

lain.

3.
Ancaman

merupakan

hal

atau

usaha

yang
bersifat

mengubah

kebijaksanaan

dan

dilaksanakan

secara

konsepsional

kriminal

serta

politis
.

4.
Tantangan

merupakan

usaha

yang
bertujuan

atau

bersifat

menggugah

kemampuan
.

5.
Hambatan

merupakan

usaha

yang
bertujuan

melemahkan

secara

tidak

konsepsional

yang
berasal

dari

diri

sendiri
.

6.
Gangguan

adalah

hambatan

yang
berasal

dari

luar

yang
bertujuan

melemahkan

secara

tidak

konsepsional
.

7.
Identitas

adalah

ciri

khas

suatu

bangsa

dilihat

secara

keseluruhan

yang
membedakannya

dengan

bangsa

lain.

8.
Integritas

adalah

kesatuan

yang
menyeluruh

dalam

kehidupan

nasional

suatu

bangsa
,
baik

aspek

alamiah

maupun

aspek

sosial
.


Integritas

(Integrity)
adalah

bertindak

konsisten

sesuai

dengan

nilai
-
nilai

dan

kebijakan

organisasi

serta

kode

etik

profesi
,
walaupun

dalam

keadaan

yang
sulit

untuk

melakukan

ini
.
Dengan

kata

lain,

satunya

kata

dengan

perbuatan
”.
Mengkomunikasikan

maksud
,
ide

dan

perasaan

secara

terbuka
,
jujur

dan

langsung

sekalipun

dalam

negosiasi

yang
sulit

dengan

pihak

lain.


Indikator

Perilaku
:

1.
Memahami

dan

mengenali

perilaku

sesuai

kode

etik


a.
Mengikuti

kode

etik

profesi

dan

perusahaan
.

b.
Jujur

dalam

menggunakan

dan

mengelola

sumber

daya

di

dalam

lingkup

atau

otoritasnya
.

c.
Meluangkan

waktu

untuk

memastikan

bahwa

apa

yang
dilakukan

itu

tidak

melanggar

kode

etik
.

2.


Melakukan

tindakan

yang
konsisten

dengan

nilai

(values)
dan

keyakinannya


a.
Melakukan

tindakan

yang
konsisten

dengan

nilai

dan

keyakinan
.

b.
Berbicara

tentang

ketidaketisan

meskipun

hal

itu

akan

menyakiti

kolega

atau

teman

dekat
.

c.
Jujur

dalam

berhubungan

dengan

pelanggan
.

3.


Bertindak

berdasarkan

nilai

(values)
meskipun

sulit

untuk

melakukan

itu


a.
Secara

terbuka

mengakui

telah

melakukan

kesalahan
.

b.
Berterus

terang

walaupun

dapat

merusak

hubungan

baik
.


4.


Bertindak

berdasarkan

nilai

(values)
walaupun

ada

resiko

atau

biaya

yang
cukup

besar


a.
Mengambil

tindakan

atas

perilaku

orang

lain yang
tidak

etis
,
meskipun

ada

resiko

yang
signifikan

untuk

diri

sendiri

dan

pekerjaan
.

b.
Bersedia

untuk

mundur

atau

menarik

produk
/
jasa

karena

praktek

bisnis

yang
tidak

etis
.

c.
Menentang

orang
-
orang

yang
mempunyai

kekuasaan

demi

menegakkan

nilai

(values).

KETAHANAN NASIONAL

“NATIONAL SECURITY”

Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_security ……
diunduh

27/3/2012

National security

is the requirement to maintain the survival of the state through the use
of economic, diplomacy, power projection and political power. The concept developed
mostly in the United States of America after World War II. Initially focusing on military
might, it now encompasses a broad range of facets, all of which impinge on the non
military or economic security of the nation and the values espoused by the national
society. Accordingly, in order to possess national security, a nation needs to possess
economic security, energy security, environmental security, etc. Security threats involve
not only conventional foes such as other nation
-
states but also non
-
state actors such as
violent non
-
state actors, narcotic cartels, multinational corporations and non
-
governmental
organisations
; some authorities include natural disasters and events
causing severe environmental damage in this category.


Indikator

untuk

mewujudkan

ketahanan

nasional

a.l
. :

1.
using diplomacy to rally allies and isolate threats

2.
marshalling economic power to facilitate or compel cooperation

3.
maintaining effective armed forces

4.
implementing civil defense and emergency preparedness measures
(including anti
-
terrorism legislation)

5.
ensuring the resilience and redundancy of critical infrastructure

6.
using intelligence services to detect and defeat or avoid threats and
espionage, and to protect classified information

7.
using counterintelligence services or secret police to protect the nation
from internal threats


NATIONAL SECURITY: DEFINISI


A typical dictionary definition, in this case from the Macmillan Dictionary (online version),
defines the term as
"the protection or the safety of a country’s secrets and its citizens"

emphasising

the overall security of a nation and a nation state.

Walter Lippmann (1943), defined it in terms of
war

saying that
"a nation has security
when it does not have to sacrifice its legitimate
ínterests

to avoid war, and is able, if
challenged, to maintain them by war

.

A later definition by Harold
Lasswell
, a political scientist, in 1950, looks at national security
from almost the same aspect, that of external coercion:

"The distinctive meaning of national security means freedom from foreign dictation."

Arnold
Wolfers

(1960), while
recognising

the need to segregate the subjectivity of the
conceptual idea from the objectivity, talks of threats to
acquired values
:

"An ambiguous symbol meaning different things to different people. National security
objectively means the absence of threats to acquired values and subjectively, the absence
of fear that such values will be attacked."

The 1996 definition propagated by the National
Defence

College of India accretes the
elements of national power:

"National security is an appropriate and aggressive blend of political resilience and
maturity, human resources, economic structure and capacity, technological
competence, industrial base and availability of natural resources and finally the
military might.“

"National security then is the ability to preserve the nation's physical integrity and
territory; to maintain its economic relations with the rest of the world on
reasonable terms; to preserve its nature, institution, and governance from
disruption from outside; and to control its borders."


In Harvard history professor Charles Maier's definition of 1990, national security is
defined through the lens of national power:

"National security... is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and
foreign conditions that the public opinion of a given community believes necessary
to enjoy its own self
-
determination or autonomy, prosperity and wellbeing."


Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_security ……
diunduh

27/3/2012

UNSUR KETAHANAN NASIONAL

Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elements_of_national_security ……
diunduh

27/3/2012

The umbrella concept of
national security

has a number of component
elements

which,
when individually satisfied, provide a nation with security of its values, interests and
freedom to choose policy. These are listed differently by various authorities. Besides the
military aspect of security, the aspects of politics, society, environment, energy and
natural resources, and, economics are commonly listed. The elements of national security
corelate

closely to the concept of the elements of national power.

KETAHANAN MILITER = Military security

This is traditionally, the earliest
recognised

form of national security. Military
security implies the capability of a nation to defend itself, and/or deter military
aggression. Alternatively, military security implies the capability of a nation to
enforce its policy choices by use of military force. The term "military security" is
considered synonymous with "security" in much of its usage. One of the
definitions of security given in the
Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms
,
may be considered a definition of "military security":

A condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective
measures that ensure a state of inviolability from hostile acts or influences.


Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms


KETAHANAN POLITIK = Political security


The political aspect of security has been offered by Barry
Buzan
, Ole
Wæver
,
Jaap

de Wilde as an important component of national security, Political
security is about the stability of the social order. Closely allied to military
security and societal security, other components proposed in a framework for
national security in their book "Security: a new framework for analysis", it
specifically addresses threats to sovereignty.
[


System referent objects are defined, such as nation
-
states, nations,
transnational groups of political importance including tribes, minorities, some
religious
organisations
, systems of states such as the European Union and the
United Nations, besides others. Diplomacy, negotiation and other interactions
form the means of interaction between the objects


KETAHANAN EKONOMI = Economic security


Historically, conquest of nations have made conquerors rich through plunder,
access to new resources and enlarged trade through controlling of the
conquered nations' economy. In today's complex system of international trade,
characterised

by multi
-
national agreements, mutual inter
-
dependence and
availability of natural resources etc., the freedom to follow choice of policies to
develop a nation's economy in the manner desired, forms the essence of
economic security. Economic security today forms, arguably, as important a
part of national security as military security.

UNSUR KETAHANAN NASIONAL

Green Economy

What is the Green Economy?


The
“green economy”
refers to economic sectors
that are focused on
environmental
sustainability.


The
green economy seeks
to address the
interdependence of human
economic development
with the health of the
natural ecosystem
.


Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elements_of_national_security ……
diunduh

27/3/2012

KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental security


Environmental security deals with environmental issues which threaten the
national security of a nation in any manner. The scope and nature of
environmental threats to national security and strategies to engage them are
a subject of debate. While all environmental events are not considered
significant of being
categorised

as threats, many transnational issues, both
global and regional would affect national security.


Romm

(1993) classifies these as

:

Transnational environmental problems that threaten a nation's security, in its broad
defined sense.

These include global environmental problems such as climate change due
to global warming, deforestation and loss of biodiversity, etc.


Environmental or resource problems that threaten a nation's security, traditionally
defined
. These would be problems whose outcomes would result in conventional threats
to national security as first or higher order outcomes. Such disputes could range from
heightened tension or outright conflict due to disputes over water scarcity in the
Middle
East
, to illegal immigration into the United States caused by the failure of agriculture in
Mexico. The genocide in
Rwanda
,indirectly

or partly caused by rise in population and
dwindling availability of farmland, is an example of the extremity of outcome arising from
problems of environmental security.


UNSUR KETAHANAN NASIONAL

Environmentally threatening outcomes of warfare
, e.g. Romans
destroyed the fields of Carthage by pouring salt over them;
Saddam Hussein's burning of oil wells in the Gulf War; the use
of Agent Orange by the USA in the Vietnam War for
defoilating

forests for military purposes.


Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elements_of_national_security ……
diunduh

27/3/2012

National security and rights & freedoms


The measures adopted to maintain national security in the face of threats to society has
led to ongoing dialectic, particularly in liberal democracies, on the appropriate scale and
role of authority in matters of
civil

and human rights.

Tension exists between the preservation of the state (by maintaining self
-
determination
and sovereignty) and the
rights

and
freedoms

of individuals.

Although national security measures are imposed to protect society as a whole, many
such measures will restrict the rights and freedoms of all individuals in society. The
concern is that where the exercise of national security laws and powers is not subject to
good governance, the
rule of law
, and strict checks and balances, there is a risk that
"national security" may simply serve as a pretext for suppressing unfavorable political and
social views.


Taken to its logical conclusion, this view contends that measures which may ostensibly
serve a national security purpose (such as mass surveillance, and censorship of mass
media), could ultimately lead to an Orwellian dystopia.


UNSUR KETAHANAN NASIONAL

Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elements_of_national_security ……
diunduh

27/3/2012

KETAHANAN ENERGI DAN SUMBERDAYA ALAM


Security of energy and natural resources


A resource has been defined as:

"...a support inventory... biotic or
abiotic
, renewable or expendable,... for sustaining life at
a heightened level of well
-
being."


Prabhakaran

Paleri

(2008)

Resources include water, sources of energy, land and minerals. Availability of adequate
natural resources is an important for a nation to develop its industry and economic power.
Lack of resources is a serious challenge for Japan to overcome to increase its national
power.

In the Gulf War of 1991, fought over economic issues, Iraq captured Kuwait in order to
capture its oil wells, among other reasons. Water resources are subject to disputes
between many nations, including the two nuclear powers, India and Pakistan.

Nations attempt to attain energy and natural resource security by acquiring the needed
resources by force, negotiation and commerce.


UNSUR KETAHANAN NASIONAL

Sustainable Energy Management (SEM)

Energi

Hijau






Green energy is the term used to describe sources of energy that are
considered to be environmentally friendly and non
-
polluting, such as
geothermal, wind, solar, and hydro. Sometimes nuclear power is also
considered a green energy source.

Green energy sources are often considered "green" because they are
perceived to lower carbon emissions and create less pollution.

Green energy is commonly thought of in the context of electricity
generation.

Renewable energy certificates (green certificates or green tags) have been
one way for consumers and businesses to support green energy.

Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elements_of_national_security ……
diunduh

27/3/2012

KETAHANAN HUMANIORA = Human security

Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_security……
diunduh

27/3/2012

Human security

is an emerging paradigm for understanding global
vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national
security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the
individual rather than the state.

Human security holds that a people
-
centered view of security is necessary
for national, regional and global stability.


The concept emerged from a post
-
Cold War, multi
-
disciplinary understanding of security
involving a number of research fields, including development studies, international
relations, strategic studies, and human rights. The United Nations Development
Programme's

1994 Human Development Report is considered a milestone publication in
the field of human security, with its argument that insuring "freedom from want" and
"freedom from fear" for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of global
insecurity.

Critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its effectiveness; that it has
become little more than a vehicle for activists wishing to promote certain causes; and that
it does not help the research community understand what security means or help
decision makers to formulate good policies.




Ketahanan

sosial

suatu

komunitas

dapat

dimaknai

sebagai

kemampuan

suatu

komunitas

dalam

mengatasi

resiko

akibat

perubahan

sosial
,
ekonomi
,
politik

yang
mengelilinginya
.

Suatu

komunitas

memiliki


ketahanan

sosial
” yang
baik

apabila

(1)
ia

mampu

melindungi

secara

efektif

anggotanya

termasuk

individu

dan

keluarga

yang
rentan

dari

gelombang

perubaha

sosial

yang
mempengaruhinya
; (2)
ia

mampu

melakukan

investasi

sosial

dalam

jaringan

sosial

yang
menguntungkan
;
dan

(3)
ia
,
mampu

mengembangkan

mekanisme

yang
efektif

dalam

mengelola

konflik

dan

kekerasan
.

KETAHANAN SOSIAL

HUMAN SECURITY: UNDP's 1994 definition

Dr.
Mahbub

ul

Haq

first drew global attention to the concept of human security in the
United Nations Development
Programme's

1994
Human Development Report

and sought to
influence the UN's 1995 World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen. The UNDP's
1994 Human Development Report's definition of human security argues that the scope of
global security should be expanded to include
threats in seven areas
:


Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_security……
diunduh

27/3/2012


KETAHANAN EKONOMI = Economic security



Economic security requires an
assured basic income for individuals, usually from productive and remunerative
work or, as a last resort, from a publicly financed safety net. In this sense, only
about a quarter of the world’s people are presently economically secure. While the
economic security problem may be more serious in developing countries, concern
also arises in developed countries as well. Unemployment problems constitute an
important factor underlying political tensions and ethnic violence.


KETAHANAN PANGAN = Food security



Food security requires that all people
at all times have both physical and economic access to basic food. According to
the United Nations, the overall availability of food is not a problem, rather the
problem often is the poor distribution of food and a lack of purchasing power. In the
past, food security problems have been dealt with at both national and global
levels. However, their impacts are limited. According to UN, the key is to tackle the
problems relating to access to assets, work and assured income (related to
economic security).


KETAHANAN KESEHATAN = Health security



Health Security aims to
guarantee a minimum protection from diseases and unhealthy lifestyles. In
developing countries, the major causes of death traditionally were infectious and
parasitic diseases, whereas in industrialized countries, the major killers were
diseases of the circulatory system. Today, lifestyle
-
related chronic diseases are
leading killers worldwide, with 80 percent of deaths from chronic diseases
occurring in low
-

and middle
-
income countries.

According to the United Nations, in both developing and industrial countries,
threats to health security are usually greater for poor people in rural areas,
particularly children. This is due to malnutrition and insufficient access to health
services, clean water and other basic necessities.


HUMAN SECURITY: UNDP's 1994 definition

Dr.
Mahbub

ul

Haq

first drew global attention to the concept of human security in the
United Nations Development
Programme's

1994
Human Development Report

and sought to
influence the UN's 1995 World Summit on Social Development in
Copenhagen
. The UNDP's
1994 Human Development Report's definition of human security argues that the scope of
global security should be expanded to include
threats in seven areas
:


Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_security……
diunduh

27/3/2012


KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental security



Environmental security aims to
protect people from the short
-

and long
-
term ravages of nature, man
-
made threats in
nature, and deterioration of the natural environment. In developing countries, lack of
access to clean water resources is one of the greatest environmental threats. In industrial
countries, one of the major threats is air pollution. Global warming, caused by the
emission of greenhouse gases, is another environmental security issue.


KETAHANAN PERSONAL = Personal security



Personal security aims to protect people
from physical violence, whether from the state or external states, from violent individuals
and sub
-
state actors, from domestic abuse, or from predatory adults. For many people,
the greatest source of anxiety is crime, particularly violent crime.


KETAHANAN KOMUNITAS = Community security



Community security aims to protect
people from the loss of traditional relationships and values and from sectarian and ethnic
violence. Traditional communities, particularly minority ethnic groups are often
threatened. About half of the world’s states have experienced some inter
-
ethnic strife.
The United Nations declared 1993 the Year of Indigenous People to highlight the
continuing vulnerability of the 300 million aboriginal people in 70 countries as they face a
widening spiral of violence.


KETAHANAN POLITIK = Political security



Political security is concerned with whether
people live in a society that honors their basic human rights. According to a survey
conducted by Amnesty International, political repression, systematic torture, ill treatment
or disappearance was still
practised

in 110 countries. Human rights violations are most
frequent during periods of political unrest. Along with repressing individuals and groups,
governments may try to exercise control over ideas and information.

Since then, human security has been receiving more attention from the key global
development institutions, such as the World Bank.

KETAHANAN ENERGI

Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_security ……
diunduh

27/3/2012

Energy security

is a term for an association between national security and the
availability of natural resources for energy consumption.

Access to cheap energy has become essential to the functioning of modern
economies. However, the uneven distribution of energy supplies among
countries has led to significant vulnerabilities.

Threats to
energy security

include the political instability of several energy
producing countries, the manipulation of energy supplies, the competition
over energy sources, attacks on supply infrastructure, as well as accidents,
natural disasters, rising terrorism, and dominant countries reliance to the
foreign oil supply.

ANCAMAN KETAHANAN ENERGI

(Energy Security threats)


The modern world relies on a vast energy supply to fuel everything
from transportation to communication, to security and health
delivery systems. Due to their vital roles energy sources are logical
targets for attacks that seek to weaken infrastructure. That said,
threats to energy sources extend beyond basic tactical aggression or
terrorism.

One of the leading threats to energy security is the significant
increase in energy prices, either on the world markets


as has
occurred in a number of energy crises over the years


or by the
imposition of price increases by an oligopoly or monopoly supplier,
cartel or country. In some cases the threat might come from a single
energy superpower


those states able to significantly influence world
markets by their action alone.

KETAHANAN ENERGI & TEKNOLOGI TERBARUKAN

Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_security_and_renewable_technology ……
diunduh

27/3/2012
The environmental benefits of renewable energy technologies are widely
recognised
, but
the contribution that they can make to energy security is less well known. Renewable
technologies can enhance energy security in electricity generation, heat supply, and
transportation.

Access to cheap energy has become essential to the functioning of modern economies.
However, the uneven distribution of fossil fuel supplies among countries, and the critical
need to widely access energy resources, has led to significant vulnerabilities. Threats to
global energy security include political instability of energy producing countries,
manipulation of energy supplies, competition over energy sources, attacks on supply
infrastructure, as well as accidents and natural disasters.

Renewable
biofuels

for transport represent a key source of diversification from petroleum
products.
Biofuels

from grain and beet in temperate regions have a part to play, but they
are relatively expensive and their energy efficiency and CO2 savings benefits, are variable.
Biofuels

from sugar cane and other highly productive tropical crops are much more
competitive and beneficial. But all first generation
biofuels

ultimately compete with food
production for land, water, and other resources. Greater efforts are required to develop
and commercialize second generation
biofuel

technologies, such as
biorefineries

and
ligno
-
cellulosics
, enabling the flexible production of
biofuels

and other products from
non
-
edible plant materials.

According to the International Energy Agency (IEA),
cellulosic ethanol commercialization could allow ethanol
fuels to play a much larger role in the future than
previously thought. Cellulosic ethanol can be made from
plant matter composed primarily of inedible cellulose
fibers that form the stems and branches of most plants.
Dedicated energy crops, such as
switchgrass
, are also
promising cellulose sources that can be produced in many
regions of the United States.

KETAHANAN ENERGI JANGKA PANJANG


Long term measures to increase energy security center on reducing dependence on any
one source of imported energy, increasing the number of suppliers, exploiting native
fossil
fuel

or renewable energy resources, and reducing overall demand through energy
conservation measures. It can also involve entering into international agreements to
underpin international energy trading relationships, such as the Energy Charter Treaty in
Europe. All the concern coming from security threats on oil sources long term security
measures will help reduce the future cost of importing and exporting fuel into and out of
countries without having to worry about harm coming to the goods being transported.

The impact of the 1973 oil crisis and the emergence of the
OPEC

cartel

was a particular
milestone that prompted some countries to increase their energy security. Japan, almost
totally dependent on imported oil, steadily introduced the use of
natural gas
, nuclear
power, high
-
speed mass transit systems, and implemented energy conservation measures.
It has become one of the world leaders in the use of renewable energy. The United
Kingdom began exploiting North Sea oil and gas reserves, and became a net exporter of
energy into the 2000s.

In other countries energy security has historically been a lower priority. The United States,
for example, has continued to increase its dependency on imported oil although,
following the oil price increases since 2003, the development of
biofuels

has been
suggested as a means of addressing this.


Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_security ……
diunduh

27/3/2012

Increasing energy security is also one of the reasons behind a
block on the development of natural gas imports in Sweden.
Greater investment in native renewable energy technologies
and energy conservation is envisaged instead. India is
carrying out a major hunt for domestic oil to decrease its
dependency on OPEC, while Iceland is well advanced in its
plans to become energy
-
independent by 2050 through
deploying 100% renewable energy.


KETAHANAN ENERGI JANGKA PENDEK

Petroleum


Petroleum or otherwise known as "crude oil" has become the resource most used by
countries all around the world including Russia, China and the United States of America.
With all the oil wells located around the world energy security has become a main issue to
ensure the safety of the petroleum that is being harvested. In the middle east oil fields
become main targets for sabotage because of how heavily countries rely on oil. Many
countries hold strategic petroleum reserves as a buffer against the economic and political
impacts of an energy crisis. All 28 members of the International Energy Agency hold a
minimum of 90 days of their oil imports, for example.

The value of such reserves was demonstrated by the relative lack of disruption caused by
the 2007 Russia
-
Belarus energy dispute, when Russia indirectly cut exports to several
countries in the European Union.

Due to the theories in peak oil and need to curb demand, the United States military and
Department of Defense had made significant cuts, and have been making a number of
attempts to come up with more efficient ways to use oil.


Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_security ……
diunduh

27/3/2012

www.ricksquires.com/.../

Sustainable Energy
Management (SEM)


Energi

berkelanjutan

:


1.
Sumber

energi

yang
renewable:
biofuels
, solar
power, wind power, hydro
power, wave power,
geothermal power
dan

tidal power.


2.
Teknologi

yng

mampu

meningktkn

energy
efficiency.


GAS ALAM = NATURAL GAS

Compared to petroleum, reliance on imported natural gas creates significant short term
vulnerabilities. Many European countries saw an immediate drop in supply when
Russian gas supplies were halted during the Russia
-
Ukraine gas dispute in 2006.

Natural gas has been a viable source of energy in the world. Consisting of mostly
methane natural gas is produced using two methods, biogenic and
thermogenic
.


Biogenic comes from
methogenic

organisms located in marshes and landfills where
thermogenic

comes from buried material that is heated up from the earths core. Russia
is the current leading country in production of natural gases.

One of the biggest problems currently with natural gas is the ability to storage and
transport it. With its low density it becomes harder to have pipelines in North America
to transport enough natural gas as the demand increases. These pipelines are reaching
near capacity and even at full capacity do not produce the amount of gas needed.


Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_security ……
diunduh

27/3/2012

EKONOMI HIJAU vs. EKONOMI HITAM


‘The Black economy’:


pembangunan ekonomi yang bertumpu pd bahan
bakar fosil seperti batubara, minyak bumi dan gas
alam.


“The green economy”

bertumpu pd pengetahuan
ekologi
-
ekonomi
dengan tujuan menyelaraskan hubungan ekonomi
-
manusia dengan ekosistem
-

alam serta MINIMUM
dampak negatif akibat kegiatan ekonomi terhadap
lingkungan


ENERGI NUKLIR

Uranium for
nuclear power

is
mined

and
enriched

in diverse and "stable" countries. These
include Canada (23% of the world's total in 2007), Australia (21%), Kazakhstan (16%) and
more than 10 other countries. Uranium is mined and fuel is manufactured significantly in
advance of need. Nuclear fuel is considered by some to be a relatively
-
reliable power
source, though a debate over the timing of
peak uranium

does exist.

Although a very viable resource nuclear power comes under fire a lot of times because of
the danger that people associate to it, nuclear power is stable but if something were to
happen there are very little options that have been proposed to fix that problem. Another
big factor in the debate with nuclear power is that many people or companies do not
want this high waste energy solution near them due to possible radiation leaks, nuclear
runoff into streams and lakes and also the nuclear power plant ruins how appealing a city
or state looks to other people in the country.

Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_security ……
diunduh

27/3/2012

Arah

Kebijakan

Energi

Terbarukan

Nuklir


Krisis

listrik

nasional

sudah

berlangsung

cukup

lama, yang
telah

mengakibatkan

terganggunya

kehidupan

sosial
,
pertumbuhan

industri
,
ekonomi
,
dan

sebagainya
.
Salah

satu

diantaranya

adalah

banyak

angkatan

kerja

yang
tidak

dapat

tertampung
.
Pembangkit

Listrik

Tenaga

Nuklir


(PLTN)
di

samping

ramah

lingkungan

juga

dapat

mengatasi

krisis

listrik

dalam

waktu

yang
relatif

cepat

untuk

kapasitas

yang
sangat

besar
.
Oleh

sebab

itu
, PLTN
merupakan

solusi

untuk

mengatasi

krisis

listrik

nasional
.

Pemerintah

meningkatkan

kegiatan

eksplorasi

sumberdaya

nuklir

nasional
.

Pemerintah

harus

konsisten

dalam

menerapkan

kebijakan

pemanfaatan

energi

nuklir

sesuai

dengan

UU No. 17
tahun

2007
tentang

RPJP,
dimana

pada

Bab. IV.2.3. RPJM ke
-
3
( 2015


2019 ),
dinyatakan
: “...
mulai

dimanfaatkannya

tenaga

nuklir

untuk

pembangkit

listrik

dengan

mempertimbangkan

faktor

keselamatan

secara

ketat
,...”.


Pemerintah

perlu

segera

membentuk

lembaga

atau

BUMN
khusus

yang
ditugaskan

untuk

mengimplementasikan

program PLTN
sesuai

dengan

UU No. 17
tahun

2007.
Studi

kelayakan

PLTN yang
lebih

komprehensif
,
termasuk

penetapan

waktu

pembangunan

PLTN
pertama
,
sebagaimana

amanat

Sidang

DEN yang ke
-
4,
dikoordinasikan

oleh

lembaga

tersebut
.

Pengembangan

nuklir

untuk

energy security of supply
dan

lingkungan
.

Perlu

peningkatan

sosialisasi

dengan

data
dan

informasi

yang
obyektif

(
teknis
,
ekonomis
,
keamanan
/
kendala

dan

sebagainya
)


dengan

dana

yang
memadai
,
baik

itu

untuk

generasi

muda

maupun

untuk

unsur

masyarakat

lainnya
.

(
sumber
: http://esdm.go.id/news
-
archives/56
-
artikel/3342
-
pokok
-
pokok
-
kebijakan
-
energi
-
nasional.html )

ENERGI TERBARUKAN (Renewable energy)

The
deplopment

of renewable technologies usually increases the diversity of electricity
sources and, through local generation, contributes to the flexibility of the system and its
resistance to central shocks. For those countries where growing dependence on imported
gas is a significant energy security issue, renewable technologies can provide alternative
sources of electric power as well as displacing electricity demand through direct heat
production. Renewable
biofuels

for transport represent a key source of diversification
from petroleum products.

As the resources that have been so crucial to survival in the world to this day start declining in numbers,
countries will begin to realize that the need for renewable fuel sources will be as vital as ever. With the
production of new types of energy including, solar, geothermal, hydro
-
electric,
biofuel

and wind power.
With the amount of sun that hits the world in one hour there is enough energy to power the world for
one year. With the addition of solar panels all around the world a little less pressure is taken off the need
to produce more oil.

Geothermal can potentially lead to other sources of fuel, if companies would take the heat from the
inner core of the earth to heat up water sources we could essentially use the steam creating from the
heated water to power machines, this option is one of the cleanest and efficient options. Hydro
-
electric
which has been incorporated into many of the dams around the world produces a lot of energy and is
very easy to produce the energy as the dams control the water that is allowed through seams which
power turbines located inside of the dam. Bio
-
fuels have been researched using many different sources
including ethanol and algae, these options are substantially cleaner than the consumption of petroleum


Sumber
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_security ……
diunduh

27/3/2012

Arah

Kebijakan

Energi

Terbarukan


1.
Pengembangan

energi

terbarukan

difokuskan

pada

panas

bumi

(
geothermal
),
energi

biomass,
surya

(solar)
dan

bahan

bakar

nabati
.

2.
Penyediaan

dana

khusus

untuk

penelitian

dan

pengembangan

energi

terbarukan

guna

menurunkan

biaya

produksi
.

3.
Pengaturan

dan

pemberlakuan

harga

khusus

untuk

energi

terbarukan
.

4.
Peningkatan

pengembangan

industri

peralatan

produksi

energi

terbarukan

dalam

negeri

(
peralatan

penyulingan

BBN, solar cell
dan

panel
harus

menggunakan

produksi

dalam

negeri
).

5.
Pengalokasian

dana

dengan

skema

khusus

(
smart funding
)
untuk

pengembangan

energi

terbarukan

diluar

BBN,
khususnya

untuk

skala

kecil
.

6.
Pemerintah

melakukan

pengaturan

dan

pengalokasian

dana

dari

program
Clean Development Mechanism
(CDM),
sehingga

insentif

karbon

kredit

dapat

memberi

manfaat

pada

publik
.

(
Sumber
: http://esdm.go.id/news
-
archives/56
-
artikel/3342
-
pokok
-
pokok
-
kebijakan
-
energi
-
nasional.html ……
diunduh

28/3/2012)

Pokok
-
Pokok

Kebijakan

Energi

Nasional

Sumber
: http://esdm.go.id/news
-
archives/56
-
artikel/3342
-
pokok
-
pokok
-
kebijakan
-
energi
-
nasional.html
…… diunduh 28/3/2012
Pokok
-
pokok

Kebijakan

Energi

Nasional

meliputi
,
arah

kebijakan

energi

minyak

dan

gas
bumi
,
batubara
,
energi

terbarukkan
,
energi

terbarukkan

bahan

bakar

nabati

(BBN),
panas

bumi
,
energi

terbarukan

surya
, PLT
tenaga

laut

dan

arah

kebijakan

energi

terbarukan

nuklir
.
Pokok
-
pokok

Kebijakan

Energi

Nasional

yaitu
:


I.
Arah

Kebijakan

Energi

Minyak

dan

Gas

Bumi


1.
Perlu

sistem

fiskal

untuk

minyak
,

gas

bumi

dan

CBM

(
coal

bed

methane
)

yang

lebih

menjamin

keuntungan

atau

mengurangi

resiko

kontraktor

dengan

memberikan

bagian

pemerintah


atau

GT

(
government

take
)

yang

kecil

untuk

R/C

(
revenue/cost)

yang

kecil

dan

GT

yang

besar

untuk

R/C

yang

besar
.


2.

Perlu

segera

membangun

infrastruktur

gas
termasuk

LNG (
liquefied natural gas
)
receiving terminal,
pipa

transportasi
, SPBG (
stasiun

pengisi

bahan

bakar

gas),
infrastruktur

gas
kota

dan

lain
-
lain.
Perlu

harga

gas
dosmetik

yang
menarik
.

3.

Perlu

peningkatan

kualitas

informasi

untuk

wilayah

kerja

yang
ditawarkan

melalui

perbaikan

ketersediaan

data
antara

lain data
geofisika

dan

geologi
.

4.
Perlu

peningkatan

kemampuan

nasional

migas

dengan

keberpihakan

pemerintah

misalnya

untuk

kontrak
-
kontrak

migas

yang
sudah

habis

maka

pengelolaannya

diutamakan

untuk

perusahaan

nasional

dengan

mempertimbangkan

program
kerja
,
kemampuan

teknis

dan

keuangan
.



5.

Perlu

mendorong

perbankan

nasional

untuk

memberikan

pinjaman

guna

membiayai

kegiatan

produksi

energi

nasional
.

Dana depletion premium
dari

energi

tak

terbarukan

sangat

diperlukan

guna

meningkatkan

kualitas

informasi

untuk

penawaran

konsesi
-
konsesi

migas

baru
,
peningkatan

kemampuan

sumber

daya

manusia

dan

penelitian
,
infrastruktur

pendukung

migas
,
serta

untuk

pengembangan

energi

non
-
migas

dan

energi

di

pedesaan
.

6.

Perlu

dikaji

segera

kemungkinan

impor

gas (LNG),
karena

lebih

baik
/
murah

mengimpor

gas
daripada

mengimpor

minyak

dan

BBM. Di
sektor

rumah

tangga
,
pemakaian

LPG
lebih

murah

dari

pemakaian

minyak

tanah
. Di
sektor

transportasi
,
penggunaan

BBG
lebih

murah

dan

lebih

bersih

daripada

BBM.

7.
Perlu

diperbaiki

sistem

birokrasi

dan

informasi

serta

kemitraan

di

lingkungan

ESDM
di

samping

koordinasi

antar

institusi

untuk

mengatasi

permasalahan
-
permasalahan

fiskal
,
perijinan
,
tanah
,
tumpang

tindih

lahan
,
lingkungan
,
permasalahan

desentralisasi

dan

lain
-
lain.

Pokok
-
Pokok

Kebijakan

Energi

Nasional

Sumber
: http://esdm.go.id/news
-
archives/56
-
artikel/3342
-
pokok
-
pokok
-
kebijakan
-
energi
-
nasional.html
…… diunduh 28/3/2012
Arah

Kebijakan

Batubara


1.
Mengutamakan

kebutuhan

dalam

negeri

dan

melakukan

pembatasan

ekspor
.

2.
Melakukan

pengaturan

harga

domestik

dan

kebutuhan

internasional

(
ekspor
).

3.
Mengatur

tatalaksana

produksi

dan

pasar

mulai

dari

hulu

sampai

hilir

termasuk

pembentukan

badan

pengatur

yang
independen
.

4.

Mengembangkan

infrastruktur
,
transportasi
,
stockpiling

dan

blending
.

5.
Menerapkan

prinsip

pembangunan

berkelanjutan

pada

pertambangan

batubara

antara

lain
memasukkan

biaya

lingkungan
, good mining practices,
pembatasan

open
surface mining
,
mengutamakan

tambang

dalam
,
prioritas

tata

ruang
,
konservasi

lingkungan

dan

pemanfaatan

teknologi

bersih
.

6.
Melakukan

regionalisasi

batubara

termasuk

mine mouth power plant
.

7.
Meningkatkan

eksplorasi

sumber

daya

(
laju

produksi

seimbang

dengan

laju

penambahan

sumber

daya

dan

cadangan
).


Arah

Kebijakan

Energi

Terbarukan

Bahan

Bakar

Nabati

(BBN)


1.
Pengembangan

BBN
untuk

menggantikan

sebagian

BBM.

2.
Pada

tahap

awal

pengembangan

BBN
dilakukan

oleh

beberapa

perusahaan

besar

yang
dipilih

untuk

mencapai

nilai

keekonomian
.

3.
Pengaturan

quota mandatory BBN
bagi

perusahaan

penyedia

listrik
.

4.
Penyempurnaan

penetapan

besaran

quota mandatory
dalam

penggunaan

BBN
untuk

sektor

transportasi
.

Pokok
-
Pokok

Kebijakan

Energi

Nasional

Sumber
: http://esdm.go.id/news
-
archives/56
-
artikel/3342
-
pokok
-
pokok
-
kebijakan
-
energi
-
nasional.html
…… diunduh 28/3/2012
Arah

Kebijakan

Energi

Terbarukan

Surya


1.
Penerapan

mandatory
penggunaan

solar cell
pada

pemakai

tertentu

(
industri

besar
,
gedung

komersial

dan

rumah

mewah
, PLN).

2.
Mensinergikan

mandatory
dan

penerapan

feed in
tarrif
.

3.
Penerapan

audit
teknologi

terhadap

komponen
/
peralatan

instalasi

PLTS.

4.
Mengembangkan

industri

komponen
/
peralatan

instalasi

PLTS.

5.
Mentargetkan

pencapaian

keekonomian

PLTS
ke

grid connected
tarrif

dalam

waktu

10
tahun
.

6.
Mengembangkan

penguasaan

teknologi

PLTS
dalam

negeri

baik

melalui


pembelian

license
atau

meningkatkan

penelitian

dan

pengembangannya
.



Arah

Kebijakan

Energi

Terbarukan


PLT
Tenaga

Laut


1.
Meningkatkan

ekplorasi

sumberdaya

energi

berbasis

arus
,
gelombang

dan

perbedaan

suhu

air
laut
.

2.
Meningkatkan

kemampuan

nasional

untuk

peningkatan

pemanfaatan

energi

arus
,
gelombang

dan

perbedaan

suhu

air
laut
,
baik

skala

industri

maupun


domestik

di

seluruh

kawasan

laut

Indonesia yang
potensial
.

3.
Meningkatkan

kemampuan

penelitaan

dan

pengembangan

di

bidang

energi

laut

menuju

pemanfaatannya

secara

ekonomis
.


Pokok
-
Pokok

Kebijakan

Energi

Nasional

Sumber
: http://esdm.go.id/news
-
archives/56
-
artikel/3342
-
pokok
-
pokok
-
kebijakan
-
energi
-
nasional.html
…… diunduh 28/3/2012
Arah

Kebijakan

Energi

Terbarukan

Panas

Bumi


1.
Meningkatkan

ekplorasi

panas

bumi

dan

membuat

perkiraan

biaya

yang
layak

pada

lokasi

yang
berbeda
-
beda
.

2.
Memastikan

status
tataguna

lahan

di

hutan
-
hutan

yang
memiliki

potensi

panas

bumi
.

3.
Mengkaji

implementasi

peraturan

perundang
-
undangan

di

sektor

panas

bumi

untuk

mendekatkan

sektor

hulu

dan

hilir
.

4.
Melakukan

penyempurnaan

di

dalam

pengelolaan

dan

persyaratan

tender
panas

bumi
, yang
antara

lain
meliputi

:
Pendelegasian

kepada

PLN
untuk

melaksanakan

tender,
pembagian

resiko

yang
menguntungkan

antara

PLN
dan

pengembang
,
harga

jual

dan

mekanismenya

serta

pembinaan

untuk

skala

kecil

dan

penyehatan

BUMN.

5.
Meningkatkan

kemampuan

dalam

negeri

untuk

mendukung

kegiatan

eksplorasi

dan

industri

pendukung

kelistrikan
.

PANAS BUMI = Geothermal energy


Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the
earth itself, both from kilometers deep into the Earth's
crust

in some
places of the globe or from some meters in geothermal heat pump in
all the places of the planet .


It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low
resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites.


Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the
Earth
's core.


DEWAN ENERGI NASIONAL (DEN)

Sumber
: http://www.den.go.id/index.php/page/readPage/1 ……
diunduh

26/3/2012

Sumber

daya

energi

merupakan

kekayaan

alam

sebagaimana

diamanatkan

dalam

Pasal

33
Undang
-
Undang

Dasar

Negara
Republik

Indonesia
Tahun

1945
dikuasai

negara

dan

dipergunakan

untuk

sebesar
-
besarnya

kemakmuran

rakyat
.
Peranan

energi

sangat

penting

artinya

bagi

peningkatan

kegiatan

ekonomi

dan

ketahanan

nasional
,
sehingga

pengelolaan

energi

yang
meliputi

penyediaan
,
pemanfaatan
,
dan

pengusahaannya

harus

dilaksanakan

secara

berkeadilan
,
berkelanjutan
,
rasional
, optimal,
dan

terpadu
.

Cadangan

sumber

daya

energi

tidak

terbarukan

terbatas
,
maka

perlu

adanya

kegiatan

penganekaragaman

sumber

daya

energi

agar
ketersediaan

energi

terjamin
.

Berdasarkan

pertimbangan
-
pertimbangan

tersebut
,
negara

telah

mengamanatkan

kepada

pemerintah

untuk

membentuk

suatu

Dewan

Energi

Nasional

(DEN).


Dewan

Energi

Nasional

sesuai

dengan

amanat

UU No. 30
Tahun

2007
bertugas
:

1.
Merancang

dan

merumuskan

kebijakan

energi

nasional

untuk

ditetapkan

oleh

pemerintah

dengan

persetujuan

DPR.

2.
Menetapkan

rencana

umum

energi

nasional
.

3.
Menetapkan

langkah
-
langkah

penanggulangan

kondisi

krisis

dan

darurat

energi
.

4.
Mengawasi

pelaksanaan

kebijakan

di

bidang

energi

yang
bersifat

lintas

sektoral
.

DEN
Rancang

Kebijakan

Energi

Nasional

Jangka

Panjang

Dewan

Energi

Nasional

telah

menyepakati

Rancangan

Kebijakan

Energi

Nasional

(
Rancangan
-
KEN) yang
telah

dirumuskan

dengan

memperhatikan

saran
dan

masukan

yang
disampaikan

oleh

Anggota

DEN.

Rancangan
-
KEN
adalah

perubahan

paradigma

pengelolaan

energi

nasional

yang
menempatkan

sumber

daya

energi

sebagai

modal
pembangunan

nasional
,
bukan

hanya

sebagai

komoditi

ekspor
.
Rancangan

KEN
disusun

dengan

tujuan

sebagai

pedoman

dalam

pengelolaan

energi

untuk

mewujudkan

ketahanan

dan

kemandirian

energi

dalam

mendukung

pembangunan

nasional

berkelanjutan
.


Untuk

mencapai

tujuan
,
sasaran

Rancangan
-
KEN
meliputi
,
ketersediaan

energi
,
prioritas

penyediaan

energi
,
pemanfaatan

sumber

daya

energi
,
cadangan

energi

nasional
,
konservasi

dan

diversifikasi
,
lingkungan

dan

keselamatan
,
harga

subsidi

dan

insentif

energi
,
penelitian

dan

pengembangan

energi
,
kelembagaan

dan

pendanaan
.

Rancangan

Kebijakan

Energi

Nasional

(KEN)
ini

akan

segera

disampaikan

kepada

DPR
-
RI
untuk

mendapatkan

persetujuan

sebelum

ditetapkan

pemerintah

dan

kebijakan

energi

nasional

(KEN)
akan

digunakan

sebagai

pedoman

dalam

penyusunan

Rencana

Umum

Energi

Nasional

(RUEN)
dan

Rencana

Umum

Ketenagalistrikan

Nasional

(RUKN).

(SUMBER: http://www.ristek.go.id/index.php/module/News+News/id/10503)

BLUEPRINT

PENGELOLAAN ENERGI NASIONAL 2006
-

2025

Sesuai

Peraturan

Presiden

Nomor

5
Tahun

2006

JAKARTA, 2006

Sumber
:
www.esdm.go.id/.../714
-
blue
-
print
-
pengelolaan
-
energi
-
nasional
-
pen....
……
diunduh

26/3/2012

KERANGKA REGULASI ENERGI

(
Menurut

Undang
-
Undang

No.30
Tahun

2007
tentang

Energi
)

UU No. 30/2007

Tentang

Energi

Peraturan

Pemerintah

(PP)

Peraturan

Presiden

(
Perpres
)

I.
Amanat

Pembuatan

Peraturan

Pemerintah

(PP)
tentang

:

1.
Penyediaan

dan

pemanfaatan

energi

oleh

Pemerintah



(
Pasal

22
ayat

2)

2.
Klasifikasi

Jasa

Energi

(
Pasal

23
ayat

6)

3.
Kewajiban

pengusahaan

energi

oleh

Badan

Usaha
Energi



(
Pasal

24
ayat

2)

4.
Pelaksanaan

Konservasi

Energi
,
Pemberian

Kemudahan

Insentif

dan

Disinsentif

Konservasi

Energi

(
Pasal

25
ayat

5)

5.
Pemberian

kemudahan

dan

atau

insentif

terhadap

pemanfaatan

energi

baru

dan

sumber

energi

terbarukan

oleh

Pemerintah



(
Pasal

22
ayat

1)

6.
Pendanaan

untuk

pengembangan

dan

pemanfaatan

hasil

penelitian

tentang

energi

baru

dan

energi

terbarukan

dari

pendapatan

negara

yang
berasal

dari

energi

tak

terbarukan

(
Pasal

30
ayat

4)


II.
Amanat

Pembuatan

Peraturan

Presiden

(
Perpres
)
tentang

:

1.
Ketentuan

tentang

cara

penyaringan

Calon

Anggota

Dewan

Energi

Nasional

(
Pasal

13
ayat

7)


2.
Ketentuan

tentang

penyusunan

Rencana

Umum

Energi

Nasional

(
Pasal

17
ayat

3)


III.
Amanat

Penetapan

oleh

Presiden

tentang

:

1.
Kebijakan

Energi

Nasional

(
Pasal

11
ayat

1)


IV.
Amanat

Pembuatan

Peraturan

Daerah (
Perda
)
tentang

:

1.
Pemberian

kemudahan

dan

atau

insentif

terhadap

pemanfaatan

energi

baru

dan

terbarukan

oeleh

Pemerintah

Daerah


(
Pasal

22
ayat

1)

2.
Penyediaan

dan

pemanfaatan

energi

oleh

Pemerintah

Daerah


(
Pasal

22
ayat

2)

PP No. 70
tahun

2009

ttg
.
Konservasi

Energi

Perpres

No. 26 /2008

ttg
.
Pembentukan

DEN
dan

Tata Cara
Penyaringan

Calon

Anggota

DEN

Domain Negara
(Legislasi)

Domain Pemerintah
(Regulasi)

RPP
ttg
.

Pengelolaan

Diversifikasi
Energi

RPP
ttg
.

Energi

Baru

dan

Energi

Terbarukan

(EBT)

Rancangan

Perpres

ttg
.

Penyusunan

RUEN

Rancangan

Keppres

ttg
.

Kebijakan

Energi

Nasional

(KEN)

0

Perda

ttg
.
EBT

Peraturan

Menteri

(
yg

diamanatkan

UU &
PP)


Rancangan

Perpres

ttg
.
Hak

Keuangan

bagi

Ketua

Harian

&
Anggota

DEN
(
Pelaksanaan

Pasal

25
ayat

1,
Perpres

No.
26/2008

Peraturan

Daerah

(
Perda
)


Batuba
ra,
34.6%

Gas
Bumi,
20.6%

Minyak
Bumi,
41.7%

EBT,
3.1%

Batu
bara,
33%

Gas
Bumi
,

30
%

Minya
k
Bumi,

20
%

EBT,

17
%

,
0.0
%

Batu
bara
;
32%

Gas
Bum
i
;
23%

Miny
ak

Bumi
;

20%

EBT
;
25
%

Batubar
a,
30.7%

Gas
Bumi,
21.0%

Minyak
Bumi,

43.9%

EBT,
4.4%

ARAH
KEBIJAKAN
ENERGI

EBT

Gas
Bumi

Batubara

M
.
Bumi

2
1

%

30,7

%

43,9
%

4,4

%

EBT

Gas
Bumi

Batubara

M
.
Bumi

2010
*

2015

2020

2025

KONSERVA
SI ENERGI

(37,25%)

DIVERSIFIKASI

ENERGI

BAU**

Sumber:
*
Prakiraan

2010
,
**Blueprint PEN 2006
-
2025

PERPRES
5/2006

VISI
25/25

2
5 %

32

%

20

%

23

%

41.7
%

20,6
%

34.6
%

3,1
%

5100
Juta
SBM

32
00
Juta
SBM

32
00
Juta
SBM

113,1
Juta
SBM

KEBIJAKAN

UTAMA ENERGI

1.
Konservasi

Energi

untuk

meningkatkan

efisiensi

penggunaan

energi

di

sisi

suplai

dan

pemanfaatan

(
Demand

Side
)
.

2.
Diversifikasi

Energi

untuk

meningkatkan

pangsa

energi

baru

terbarukan

dalam

bauran

energi

nasional

(
Supply

Side
)
.

Sustainable Energy
Management (SEM)

Renewable
energy

:


Energi

yang
dihasilkan

dari

sumberdaya

alam

seperti

radiasi
-
matahari
,
angin
, air,
hujan
,
pasang
-
surut
,
panas

bumi
,
dan

hayati
………


……. yang
secara

alamiah

dapat

diperbaharui


Efficient energy use,
sometimes simply called
energy efficiency, is using
less energy to provide the
same level of energy
service.



Rencana

Induk

Konservasi

Energi

Nasional


(
RIKEN)

Rencana

Induk

Diversifikasi

Energi

Nasional


(
RIDEN)

Rencana

Induk

Energi

Konvensional
/
F
osil

KEBIJAKAN ENERGI SEKTORAL

Kebijakan

Energi Sektor
Rumah

Tangga

Kebijakan

Energi Sektor
Bangunan

Komersial

Kebijakan

Energi Sektor
Transportasi

Kebijakan

Energi Sektor
Industri

KEBIJAKAN
ENERGI KLASTERAL*)

Energi

Baru

Kebijakan

Energi

Klaster
Nuklir

Kebijakan

Energi Klaster
Panas

Bumi

Energi

Terbarukan

Kebijakan

Energi Klaster
CBM

Kebijakan

Energi Klaster
Gasified
Coal

Kebijakan

Energi Klaster
Liquified

Coal

Kebijakan

Energi

Klaster
Hidrogen

Kebijakan

Energi Klaster
Hidro

Kebijakan

Energi Klaster
Bioenergi

Kebijakan

Energi Klaster
Energi

Surya

Kebijakan

Energi

Klaster
Energi

Angin

Kebijakan

Energi

Klaster
Samudera

Kebijakan

Energi Klaster M
inyak

Bumi

Kebijakan

Energi Klaster
Gas
Bumi

Kebijakan

Energi

Klaster
Batubara

Visi


Energi Baru
Terbarukan

25/25

*)
Klaster

sesuai

dengan

UU 30/2007
tentang

Energi

Energi


Tak
Terbarukan

Sisi kebutuhan

Sisi Penyediaan

BLUEPRINT

PENGELOLAAN ENERGI NASIONAL 2006
-

2025

Sesuai

Peraturan

Presiden

Nomor

5
Tahun

2006

JAKARTA, 2006

Sumber
:
www.esdm.go.id/.../714
-
blue
-
print
-
pengelolaan
-
energi
-
nasional
-
pen....
……
diunduh

26/3/2012

KONDISI SAAT INI ENERGI INDONESIA


1.

Kebijakan

Umum

Bidang

Energi

(KUBE) : 1981, 1987, 1991, 1998
dan

KEN 2003

2.

Potensi

sumber

daya

energi

cukup

besar

3.

Akses

masyarakat

terhadap

energi

masih

terbatas

4.

Pangsa

konsumsi

BBM : 63%
dari

energi

final

5.

Ekspor energi besar, impor BBM besar


Ekspor

minyak

bumi

514
ribu

barel

per
hari
,
pemakaian

dalam

negeri

611
ribu

barel

per hari dan impor 487 ribu
barel per hari


Ekspor

gas
bumi

4,88 BCF per
hari
,
pemakaian

dalam

negeri

3,47 BCF per
hari


Ekspor batubara 92,5 juta ton per tahun, pemakaian dalam
negeri 32,91 juta ton per
tahun


6.
Harga

ekspor

gas
dan

batubara

lebih

tinggi

dari

harga

pemasaran

dalam

negeri


6.
Kemampuan
/
daya

beli

konsumen

dalam

negeri

terhadap

batubara

dan

gas
rendah

dan

belum

adanya

insentif

ekonomi

baik

fiskal

maupun

non
fiskal

bagi

energi

fosil

untuk

pemakaian

dalam

negeri


BLUEPRINT

PENGELOLAAN ENERGI NASIONAL 2006
-

2025

Sesuai

Peraturan

Presiden

Nomor

5
Tahun

2006

JAKARTA, 2006