1 |Road Maintenance with TC-Geosynthetics

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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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1

|Road Maintenance with TC
-
Geosynthetics



Road Maintenance with Geosynthetics

K.Boychev

3

|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Crack Appearance on Bituminous Roads


-

Reflective Cracking

-

Thermal Cracking

-

Differential Settlements

-

Frost Heave

(
-

Rutting)


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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Crack Appearance on Bituminous Roads



(e.g. Differential Settlements)

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Crack Appearance on Bituminous Roads



(e.g. Differential Settlements)

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Paving Product Matrix

Paving Products

SAMI / reflective cracking

“Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer”

Asphalt reinforcement

Non
-
woven

Continuous filament

Non
-
woven

Staple/short fiber

Geogrids

Geocomposites

Glass

PET

Coated/

Uncoated

PP/PET nonwoven

+ Glass


Uncoated

PP or PET

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


PGM

is a mechanically bonded continuous
filament nonwoven of 100% Polypropylene
with
optimum bitumen retention capacity
.

(EN 15381 or acc. Texas D.O.T Item 3099)


Reflective Cracking (STR) + Seals the surface (B)







Literature: EN 15381

PGM

PGM
-
G

is a high strength geocomposite,

PGM + alkali resistant glass fibre reinforcement








Reflective Cracking(STR)+Seals the surface(B)+Reinforcement(R)









Literature: EN 15381


Group 1


PGM
-
G50/50

PGM
-
G100/100

PGM
-
G150/150




Group 2


PGM
-
G30/30
E

PGM
-
G50/50
E

PGM
-
G100/100
E



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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Road Construction


General

Location of PGM, PGM
-
G & PGM
-
G E

Literature GESTRATA Handbook Sep.2002

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Road Construction


Stress Relieving Layer





Conventional Method

Bore Cores Taken from

Hungarian Highway!

Stress relieving layer thickness

up to 90mm thickness!

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Road Construction


Stress Reliefe Layer (SAMI)





PGM and PGM
-
G Method

Bore Cores Taken from

Hungarian Highway!

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Applications

PGM 14 only

PGM 14

PGM
-
G & E Grades

(1)
Bituminous Overlays

Hot Rolled Asphalt

(2) Surface Dressing

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Typical Crack Growth

Bituminous Overlay

Subbase

Crack Growth

PGM & PGM
-
G

Thermal expansion

and contraction

Bituminous Overlay

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


TenCate PGM & PGM
-
G

Stress Relief Layer (SAMI)

without PGM
with PGM
Stress Concentration!

Stress

Reduction!

Increases the

Life Time

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Working Procedures

(1) Cleaning the road surface



(2)
Filling of the potholes and cracks
(>3mm) with bitumen



On highly damaged roads a levelling


layer is recommended

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Working Procedures

(3)
Tack Coat Spray





Pour Bitumen or Emulsion



Quantity >1.1 kg/m² Bitumen (PGM
-
G)




Quantity >0.4 kg/m² Bitumen (PGM
-
G E)



High Viscosity > 65% Bitumen Content

(4)
Paving Geocomposite or



Paving Fabric Installation


-

Installation device (recommended)


-

no folds


-

no overlapping required

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


-
after the PGM & PGM
-
G installation

-
possibility of temporary trafficking

Working Procedures

-
After Installation of Geosynthetics


tack coat spray

-

Application of chipping

b)
Surface Dressing

a)
Bituminous Wearing Coarse


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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


-
Apply asphalt layer after the installation
of PGM & PGM
-
G products

-
Pavers on tracks is recommended

-
Installation temperature between 120
°
C
to 165
°
C, depending on layer thickness

-
If the tyres are sticking: Spread asphalt
in the wheel tracks

(1)
Working Procedures


Bituminous Overlays



Installation of PGM & PGM
-
G products

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Example


Installation of asphalt overlay

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


-
Application of tack coat to existing
pavement installation of PGM; 2nd.
application of tack coat 0,8 kg/m² emulsion

-
Volume of emulsion, amount and grading of
chipping, in accordance with guidelines for
surface dressing

-
Immediately after 1.chipping layer rolling
necessary

-
In case of 2 or more chipping layers, a
sufficient bonding is required between the
layers

-
After 1
-
3 days test driving the
unbounded
chips has to be removed



(2) Working Procedures


Surface Dressing


Installation of PGM

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Example of Surface Dressing

(A143, Bungay Norfolk UK)

Road Surface before treatment

6mm surface dressing being applied on PGM 14

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Project Introduction



Mrozow/Poland July 2008

Surface Dressing with PGM14

Access Road on countryside

Hot Rolled Asphalt (e.g. 4 or 5cm) is
COSTLY
!

Actual Problem

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Requirement of Quality Paving Geocomposites

Prevention of Reflective Cracking + Asphalt Reinforcement


TC PGM
-
G










Type of product
:

Mechanically bonded continuous filament nonwoven






combined with glass filaments

Raw material
:


100%

Polypropylene,
UV stabilised, alkali resistant g
lass

fibres


Mechanical

properties

Standard

Unit

PGM
-
G50/50

PGM
-
G100
/100

PGM
-
G
150/150

Bitumen R
etention

(unloaded)

EN15381


Texas D.O.T.
Item 3099


kg/m²



l/m²


0.45



1.1

0,45



1.1

0,45



1.1

Melting point

EN ISO 3146

°C

Glass filaments are incombustible and temperature
resistant up to 400 °C

T
ensile strength

Elongation at

Maximum L
o
ad

Strength at
2%

strain

ENISO10319




K
N/m

%


K
N/m

50/5
0

3


45
/
45

100
/100

3


90
/
90


150/150

3


135
/
13
5

Mesh width of glass
filaments

-

mm

40 x 40

23 x 23

11 x 11

Mass per unit area

EN
ISO9864

g/m²

3
81

581

794


* ) The strength values refer to the glass

filament reinforcement

Benefits



Crack Relief (STR)



Sealing (B)



Reinforcement (R)




Literature: EN 15381





Elongation of Asphalt Concrete approx. 0,1%


0
°
Grad


approx.2% 20
°
Grad

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Paving Geocomposites
(E
-

Types)





PGM
-
G30/30 E

Rehabilitation of Asphalt Roads







PGM
-
G50/30 E















PGM
-
G100/100 E

















Elongation of Asphalt Concrete approx. 0,1%


0
°
Grad


approx.2% 20
°
Grad

Type of product :

Mechanically bonded continuous filament nonwoven






combined with glass filaments

Raw material :


100%

Polypropylene, UV stabilised
, alkali resistant

g
lass



Mechanical

properties

Standard

Unit

PGM
-
G30
/30

E

PGM
-
G50
/50

E

PGM
-
G100
/100

E

Bitumen R
etention

(unloaded)

EN15381

Texas DOT Item 3099

kg/m²

l/m²

1.1


0.7

1.1

0.7

1.1

0.7

Melting point

EN ISO 3146

°C

Glass filaments are incombustible and temperature
resistant up to 400 °C

T
ensile strength

Elongation at

Maximum L
oad

Strength at
2%

strain

E
NISO10319




K
N/m

%


K
N/m

30/30

3


25/25

60/60

3


47/47

100/100

3


90/90

Mesh width of glass
filaments

-

mm

4
0 x
4
0

23

x
23

11

x
11

Mass per unit area

EN
ISO9864

g/m²

300

314

561


* ) The strength values refer to the glass filament reinforcement

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


NEW

Paving
Geocomposites

for Road
Extentions




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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Functions according EN 15381


Geotextiles and geotextile related products








R + STR + B












R=

reinforcement

= reinforce the bituminous layer, stopping and controlling the
cracking process


STR=
stress relief

=
function provided by a bitumen
-
saturated paving fabric (non
-
woven or purpose
-
built composite) which, when is properly

installed between a road surface and a new asphalt overlay

allows for slight differential movements two layers and thus

provides stress relief, which delays or arrests crack propagation

in the
asphalt overlay


B=
interlayer barrier

=
function provided by paving fabrics,

which act in conjunction with a bitumen layer as a barrier to

the ingress of water and thus prevent or delay the deterioration

of the pavement











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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics



Sealing

Permeability Conventional Method vs. PGM

& PGM
-
G

Literature:


Transportation

Research Center


by M. L. Marienfield and



T. L.Baker

The non
-
woven works

as Bitumen Storage.


The sprayed bitumen will

kept in place.

Conventional constructions

PGM Application

Water Permeability

Reduction from

10
-
1

to 10
-
5
mm/sec

(140g/m² nonwoven)

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics



Polyfelt PGM

14
-

Flexural Fatigue Test



Vertical loading

(amplitude 0.2 mm)

Crack Detektors

Horizontal

loading

(0,6 mm/h)

Overlay

PGM 14

Asphalt Concrete

Crack

Base plate

Frame

Frame

0

1

C

r

a

c

k



d

e

p

t

h



[

c

m

]

100

200

300

400

500

600

Time [min]

3

2

4

5

6

without PGM

with PGM

1m

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Fatigue

Test Data

(prepared by Resource Int, Ohio)


at 20
°
C

50

Rubber Foundation

Notch 3mm

P

Steel
Plate

Rubber

25

Applied Load:

890N


Asphalt Type:

AC20


Thickness:


5cm


Beam:


7,5cmx7,5cmx61cm

Applied Load:

890N


Asphalt Type:

AC20


Thickness:


5cm


Beam:


7,5cmx7,5cmx61cm


Product Type:

PGM 14


Tack Coat:


0,9 kg/m²

Result

Fatigue Data:


C
-
1

11.800


C
-
2

10.076


C
-
3

12.084

Result

Fatigue Data:


F
-
1

20.850


F
-
2

16.976


F
-
3

18.564

25

50

Rubber Foundation

Notch 3mm

P

Steel
Plate

Rubber

PGM

FEF


-

FEF


1,7

ESAL =no of cycles in 1.000

ESAL =no of cycles in 1.000

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


25

Applied Load:

890N


Asphalt Type:

AC20


Thickness:


5cm


Beam:


7,5cmx7,5cmx61cm


Product Type:

PGM 14


Tack Coat:


1,3kg/m²

Result

Fatigue Data:


F
-
4

24.826


F
-
5

31.637


F
-
6

29.387

Result

Fatigue Data:


F
-
7

48.117


F
-
8

46.846


F
-
9

49.587

50

25

50

Rubber Foundation

Notch 3mm

P

Steel
Plate

Rubber

PGM

FEF


2,6

FEF


4,3

Rubber Foundation

Notch 3mm

P

Steel
Plate

Rubber

PGM

Applied Load:

890N


Asphalt Type:

AC20


Thickness:


5cm


Beam:


7,5cmx7,5cmx61cm


Product Type:

PGM 14


Tack Coat:


1,1 kg/m²

ESAL =no of cycles in 1.000

ESAL =no of cycles in 1.000

Fatigue Test Data
(prepared by Resource Int, Ohio)


at 20
°
C

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Analysis of the tests
(Faculty Polytechnico Milano/Italy



Four Point Beam test 2008)

Comparison of the elastic modulus of reinforced and unreinforced beams
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
0
20.000
40.000
60.000
80.000
100.000
120.000
Cycles
Elastic modulus [%]
Without PGM-G 100
With PGM-G 100
Message 1

Message 2

Message 1: Cycle
Increase

at

the

same
loss

of

elastic

modulus

(%)


Message 2:
With

same
load

cyles

an
increase

of

bearing

capacity

of

25%



will
be

achieved

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Road Rehabilitation 2003/ Trento/Italy

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Bridging


Effect of used paving fabric

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Spraying of Tack coat

Complete Bitumen Spraying
required

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Installation
of PGM
-
G products

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Bituminous
O
verlays

approx. 10cm lateral distance

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Installation side by side laying

(butt joint)

….ready for the asphalt layer
application…

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics



Installation of PGM 14 on Cement Stab. Layer

-

3,5 cm SMA11 LKI (
´
05)

-

12,0 cm BT32 LKI

-

TenCate

PGM 14

-

1,9 kg/m² O70 K PM

-

Evaporation Protection

-

30 cm Cement Stab.

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Factors of success


Installation Support & Installation Equipment


Manual Equipment for

max 1,90m width

(expandable)

Equipment for max 3,80m

Mounted on excavator, Bobcat, etc.


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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Factors of success


Usage of products which can get trafficked


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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


a)

Installation of geosynthetic interlayers commencing

April 2008

(3 groups Geotextiles, Geocomposite, Geogrids &
Conventional Section)

b)

Subsequently Trafficking for 3 month on the test area

(Teerag Asdag in Vienna)

c)

Drilling of 350 bore cores on the site by end of
June 2008 by “MAPAG”

2 Years Research Project
-

TU
-
Vienna

d)

Start wedge splitting test of taken bore cores of the
site in September 2008 by TU Vienna.

Finalization of all tests by end of 2009

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Group 1
: function =
s
tress
a
bsorbing
m
embrane
i
nterlayer
(SAMI)







Group 2
: function =
Asphalt Reinforcement






2 Years Research Project
-

TU
-
Vienna

43

|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Group 3
: function =

Geocomposite





SAMI + Asphalt Reinforcement


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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Wedge

Splitting Test [Tschegg 1986]


Fracture mechanic properties obtained


Cubes



from Drilling cores


Interface

(Geosynthetics) in the
middle

of the specimen


Splitting energy
in the specimen,
Starter notch



crack
control


F
H

=
F
M

/(2tg(
α
/2))


α
=angle of wedge


F
V

small compared to
F
H



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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


WST


Evaluation of results



y
b
H
NTS
W
M
A
F


max






0
1
ds
F
A
G
H
F
σ
NTS


....

notch

tensile

strength

[MPa]

F
H

max

...

max
.

splitting

force

[N]

A

.........

ligament

area

[mm²]

M
b

......
.

bending

moment

[Nmm]

W
y


...

axial

section

modulus

[mm³]

G
F

....

spec
.

fracture

energy

[J/m²]

A


...

ligament

area

[m²]

F
H


.

horizontal

force

[N]

s

.......

CMOD

[m]

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Fracture crack growth behavior



Reference
:

low energy


晡f琠
捲慣欠杲潷瑨


Non performing Interlayer
:



汯w
resistance against crack growth


Well performing Interlayer
:



湯n
捲慣欠杲潷瑨


Geosynthetics takes

over the
force even

the
CMOD

is
more
than

2mm







fracture
at

-
10
°
C, 0
°
C, +10
°
C

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Large scale test pit


䥮獴慬污瑩潮

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Large scale test pit


印散業敮


Drilling core


+ interlayer













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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Methods for the evaluation of the crack growth


1.
Electrical Device

2.
Optical Device

3.
Acoustical crack evaluation

Screenshoot Webcam

2 Years Research Project
-

TU
-
Vienna

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Test Equipment with Cooling box

(Test Temperatures at
-
20
°
C, 0
°
C, +20
°
C)

Cooling Equipment with in

Integrated testing machine

2 Years Research Project
-

TU
-
Vienna

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


WST

-

Mechanical & Fracture mechanical results:

Result Group 1 = SAMI



Crack growth resistance

at
-
10
°
C = 6 times higher

than reference sample


at 0
°

= 2 times higher

than the reference sample


at +10
°
C = similar to reference values


decisive temperature

for damage in asphalt is
below +10
°
C


SAMI retard reflective cracking

efficient

Crack growth resistance

Tensile strength

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Result Group 2 = Reinforcement



Grid

Interlayer:
adhesive tensile strength

and
crack growth resistance

are
lower

compared to the
reference
sample


at
-
10
°
C

the
strength is reduced

up to
50% of the reference


No mechanical and fracture mechanical (
no crack growth resistance
)
benefit could be found


only
grid “C” is more ductile

than the reference but the
bond strength

is
also
not satisfying


Crack growth resistance

Tensile strength

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Result Group 3 = SAMI + Reinforcement



Crack growth resistance

at
-
10
°
C = 4 to 5 times higher

than the
reference


at
0
°
C = 2 times higher = double fracture energy


SAMI + Asphalt Reinforcement retard

reflective cracking efficient


Geocomposites provide Stress relief and Asphalt Reinforcement

at
-
10
°
C, 0
°
C


Asphalt
(at
-
10
°
C, 0
°
C brittle) tend to
reflective cracking

due to heavy traffic loads


Asphalt is
ductile at +10
°
C



deformation, rutting

occurs

Crack growth resistance

Tensile strength

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Test Project Report “Yambol
-
Bolyarsko


2007


before installation

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Test Project Report “Yambol
-
Bolyarsko


2007


installation of crack reinforcement

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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


2007


installation of crack reinforcement

Test Project Report “Yambol
-
Bolyarsko


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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


2007


installation of crack reinforcement

Test Project Report “Yambol
-
Bolyarsko


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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


200
9



investigation of the results

Without PGM
-
G crack reinforcement

With PGM
-
G crack reinforcement

With PGM
-
G crack reinforcement

With PGM
-
G crack reinforcement

Test Project Report “Yambol
-
Bolyarsko


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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


With PGM
-
G crack reinforcement

200
9



investigation of the results

Test Project Report “Yambol
-
Bolyarsko


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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


200
9



investigation of the results

Without PGM
-
G crack reinforcement

Test Project Report “Yambol
-
Bolyarsko


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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics





Before repairs



in

2007


After repairs



in
200
9

200
9



investigation of the results

Test Project Report “Yambol
-
Bolyarsko


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|Road Maintenance with TC
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Geosynthetics


Thanks' for your questions ?


TenCate Geosynthetics Europe

Schachermayrstr.18

A
-

4021 Linz/Austria

www.tencate.com