PP Oil - ch. 19

forestsaintregisΠετρελαϊκά και Εξόρυξη

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

69 εμφανίσεις

Energy Concepts



Energy


“The ability to do ___________”.



Energy Laws


neither created or destroyed


High quality to low quality
-

heat






Energy Resources


Renewable Energy




Hydroelectric


Wind


Solar


Biofuels


Hydrogen cell


Geothermal


Nonrenewable Energy



Oil


Coal


Natural gas

Worldwide Energy Sources


Using prior knowledge or educated
guesses, divide a circle (pie) into sections
that best represent the percentage that
each of the following energy sources
contributes to the world’s supply.


Fossil fuel power, nuclear power,
hydroelectric power, wind power and solar
power


Worldwide energy sources
84%
7%
7%
2%
fossil fuel
nuclear power
hydroelectric
power
wind and solar
power
Oil



Oil Trivia Facts


Crude Oil

=
oil pumped from the
ground.


Petroleum means “oil that comes
from rock”



History


347 800ft. wells drilled in China


Discovered in 1859 in Titusville,
Pennsylvania!


Used for medicine $40/barrel




Known reserves expected to last
less than 50 years!


Current price per barrel: $86


What is oil?


Petroleum (crude oil)


complex liquid mixture of
hydrocarbons, with small
amounts of S, O, N
impurities



Most valuable natural
resource (?)



Gasoline, heating oil, jet fuel,
grease, wax, asphalt,
plastics…

Formation of Oil

Oil Formation


Decomposition

of ancient sea plants &
animals


Quick burial


Partial decayed (some carbon remains)



Intense
heat

&
pressure



Time



millions of years to form

Oil Extraction



Primary Oil Recovery


Drill well


Pump out oil that flows by
gravity into well



Secondary Oil Recovery


Inject water into nearby
water to force oil into well.


http://www.absorblearning.com/media/item.action?quick=11h


Enhanced (Tertiary) Oil
Recovery

Recovery & Net Energy


In any oil field, only 1/3 of the heavy oil
can actually be recovered by 1
st

or 2
nd


ary methods


Tertiary recovery uses the energy of 1/3
of a barrel of oil for each barrel it
produces



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QVMRu7GjR7o&feature=related

(<4min)


Fractional
Distillation


From extraction, oil
travels via pipeline to
a refinery


Impurities are
removed


Oil is heated, which
separates the
various liquids by
various boiling points

http://www.absorblearning.com/media/item.action?quick=11k

http://www.absorblearning.com/media/item.action?quick=11o




What is petroleum used for?


Fuel



transportation
(65%), generating
electricity



Making products

-

plastic, fleece, ink, floor
wax, soap, carpet, nail
polish, aspirin, etc. (over
6,000 products)


Where are Gas & Oil found?

Oil Reserves in…



United States



Middle East



Venezuela



North Sea



Siberia



Nigeria

Seal Rock/Cap

Reservoir Rock

Source Rock

http://www.absorblearning.com/media/item.action?quick=11h

OPEC


O
rganization of
P
etroleum
E
xporting
C
ountries


Set up in 1960 so developing countries would get
a fair price for the resource.



Control
67%

of world’s oil



Saudi Arabia (#1), Iraq (#2), Iran, Kuwait, UAE,
Algeria, Libya, Nigeria, Ecuador, Gabon,
Indonesia, Qatar, and Venezuela


Oil in U.S.


2.3%

of world
reserves


uses nearly
30%

of world
reserves;


65% for
transportation;


increasing
dependence
on imports
.

www.bio.miami.edu/beck/esc101/Chapter14&15.pp
t

Oil Reserves


Estimated reserves:
educated guesses
about the location and size of oil or natural
gas deposits



Proven reserves
: how much oil can be
economically obtained from the oil field

Future of Reserves


Economically depleted


When 80% of a resource has been used


Cost to extract remaining supply is more
expensive than its sale price.



At current usage


33 years to economic depletion!


How much is undiscovered?


Should we conserve?



Why change when you’ve found
a good thing?


Low oil prices = stimulated economic growth


In turn...


discourages improvements in energy efficiency
and alternative technologies

Environmental Concerns


Pollution

-

many
pollutants created when
burned which leads to
smog and acid rain



Global Warming

-

releases CO2 when
burned



Oil Spills

-

damage to
plants and animals


ANWR and offshore drilling


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DjfssrKGsBU



Jay
Leno



http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=6351721n



Obama offshore drilling



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QP2GejkLdwA



ANWR and
offshore


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bO_3eiOPuqE

(1:30)


http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0605/sights_
n_sounds/


http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0605/feature1/index.
html

-

drilling in Alaska article



Crude Oil Alternatives

Greener oil options?

Oil Shale
(kerogen) &

Tar Sand
(bitumen)



Different forms of rock/sand that can be
transformed (crushed/heated or
pressurized) to be use like crude oil.





Global supplies of shale oil
may be 200x’s larger than
global Conventional

Oil supplies

Oil Shales Pros/Cons


Pros


US availability


World supplies


Cons


Processing


Uses ½ barrel of oil to
process (heat)


Uses large amounts of
water (in desert areas!)


Surface mining


Groundwater
contamination (salts,
carcinogens, & toxic
metals)

Should we use oil?

PROS


High net energy
yield



Low cost (with
subsidies)



Easily transported


CONS


Low reserves



Artificially low price causes
waste and discourages
alternatives



Air pollution (smog, acid rain)



Global warming



Oil spills and water pollution