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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Chapter 05

Natural Resources

and Environmental

Sustainability


McGraw
-
Hill/Irwin


Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw
-
Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

5
-
2

Geography

Elements of geography
managers to consider:


Location


Topography


Climate


Natural Resources



Physical elements
of location are
Uncontrollable

LO1

The details
are on
pages 80


86 in the
text.

5
-
3

Competitive Advantage:

Porter’s Diamond

LO1

The details
are on
pages 80 &
81 in the
text.

5
-
4

Location:


Builds

Political

and

Trade

Relationships



Topography:

Creates
differences in

economies

cultures

politics

social structures



LO1

5
-
5

Greater population
density means

lower marketing &
distribution costs,
better
communication,
and more
employees.



Bodies

of

Water



attract

people

and

facilitate
transportation



Inland
waterways give
access to
interior regions

LO1

The details
are on
pages 87


89 in the
text.

5
-
6

Climate


Meteorological
conditions


including:


Temperature


Precipitation


Wind



Climatic conditions
explain differences
in human and
economic
development

“Underdevelopment in tropical nations
is because of the tropical climate.”

-

The World Bank

LO1

The details
are on
pages 89 &
90 in the
text.

5
-
7

Natural Resources


Anything supplied
by nature on which
people depend


Nonrenewable Energy:


Petroleum


Nuclear Power


Coal


Natural Gas


Renewable Energy:


Hydroelectric


Solar


Wind


Geothermal


Waves


Tides


Biomass

LO2

The details
are on
pages 90


97 in the
text.

5
-
8

Petroleum

Estimates of petroleum reserves change for a number of
reasons:


New discoveries in proven fields with improved prospecting
equipment



Governments open their countries to exploration and production



Improved techniques in steam and hot water injection enable
producers to obtain greater output from operating wells and open
new areas



Automated equipment lowers offshore drilling costs. Company
can profitably work smaller
-
sized discoveries

LO2

5
-
9

Nuclear

Power
Benefits:

Low pollution

Low carbon emission

Growth in
devel

nations


Problems:

Radiation

Spent fuel storage

Coal

49% increase
through 2030


Problems:

Pollution

Global warming

Kyoto Protocol:

UN Framework
Convention on Climate
Change calling on
nations to reduce global
warming by reducing
emissions

LO2

5
-
10

Natural Gas


Cleanest burning fossil fuel


Low greenhouse gas emissions


Burns efficiently


Lower contributions to acid rain, solid
waste, and water pollution


As oil price rises, gas consumption will
rise


47% increase through 2030

LO2

5
-
11

Renewable

Energy

Sources:

1) Hydroelectric

2) Solar

3) Wind

4) Geothermal

5) Waves

6) Tides

7) Biomass (ethanol)

8) Ocean thermal
energy conversion

Photosynthesis is
the Biomass energy
source

LO2

5
-
12

Environmental

Sustainability

A systems concept of
maintaining something
(environment, society,
the economy, people)
within the economy or
the organization.


Is both local
and

global.

Stakeholder Model
to Sustainability

LO3

LO5

The details
are on
pages 98 &
99 in the
text.

5
-
13

Characteristics of

Environmentally Sustainable Business


Limits


Environmental resources are exhaustible


Interdependence


Actions in one ecological, social, and
economic system affects the others


Equity in Distribution


For interdependence to work, there cannot
be vast differences in gains

LO4

5
-
14

Stakeholder Theory


Operations take into
account all
identifiable interest
holders


Addresses
Underlying Values
and Principles:


Type of relations with
stakeholders


Tension between
stakeholders can be
balanced


Profits are a
result

not a driver
of value
creation

LO5

5
-
15