for Professional GNSS in Latin America

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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C
oncept for
I
onospheric

Scintillation Miti
ga
tion
for Professional GNSS in
L
atin
A
merica


Dr. B. Bougard,
Septentrio

Satellite Navigation NV.

On behalf of the CIGALA consortium




The CIGALA project has received Community research funding under the EU Seventh Framework Program, and is carried out

in the context of the Galileo FP7 R&D program supervised by the GNSS Supervisory Authority
.


A FP7 collaborative project between:

ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

Leading European manufacturer of high
-
end multi
-
frequency GNSS
equipment for precise positioning, time transfer and attitude
determination applications

Key player in GNSS for aviation in Europe with a great knowledge
on managing EC and 7
th

FP International Activities in Latin America

Top ranked UK Center of Excellence in GNSS/Galileo Research and
Application (GRACE)

Most important scientific institution in Italy devoted to studies in
geophysics, seismic and volcanic hazards

One of the most prominent Brazilian groups in Geodesy and GNSS
application areas (GEGE)

Brazilian SME providing services and consultancy in the field of
Geographic Information Systems, Cartography, and Geodesy.

Petrobras, the Brazilian National Oil Company

Funded under:

Supervised by:

Objective : Mitigating IS threat on
professional GNSS in Latin America


When the solar winds come around, you’d better
hang onto your GNSS receiver, not your hat
.



J. Kunches, US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

Outline


The CIGALA project


Objective


Motivation


The CIGALA activities


Scintillation Modelling


Measurement Campaign


Mitigation development


Septentrio Scintillation monitor


First Results


Septentrio Scintillation monitor validation


Scintillation climatology in Sao Paulo State, Brazil



ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

IS directly affects GNSS operations



Precise positioning

Safety
-
critical

applications

Ionosphere

v

GNSS
Receiver

impact

Plasma

perturbations

signal

fluctuations

GNSS Satellite

TEC

Increased reliance on GNSS, especially by
countries with large territorial coverage


Annual global market for GNSS of

300bn
by 2020




high resolution land surveying can be delayed



airborne and marine operations postponed



offshore drilling/production operations cancelled



SBAS impacted for long periods of time


Consequences



User disappointment
and
financial loss



Threat for adoption of Galileo and EGNOS

ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

The CIGALA Project


Objective
:

Understand the cause and implication of IS
disturbances at
low latitudes
, model their effects and
develop
countermeasure

techniques through
:



The focus on
one of the regions most affect by IS (Brazil)


The
research of the underlying causes of IS
and the development
of state
-
of
-
the
-
art models capable of
predicting

signal propagation
and tracking perturbations


Field measurement
via the deployment
in close collaboration with
local academic and industrial partners
of multi
-
frequency multi
-
constellation Galileo
-
capable
measurement station
to collect data in
order to support model development


The design and
implementation of novel IS mitigation techniques

in
state
-
of
-
the
-
art GNSS receivers


Field testing the mitigation techniques
, leveraging the same
partnership as during the measurement campaign.



ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

CIGALA targets one of the most critical
regions


Large countries such as Brazil take full advantage from
GNSS for navigation and high precision DGPS, RTK and
PPP applications (surveying, precision agriculture, …)


Equatorial region one of the most affected


Latin America badly hit in the past



CIGALA fosters strong


local partnership

in


Latin America


In particular in Brazil


Addresses both
commercial

and academic
participation



ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

Credit: NASA

Analytical Models (e.g.
Fremouw

and
Rino
,
Iyer

et al, Aarons)


Climatological

models: WAM (
Wernik



Alfonsi



Materassi
) model



Disadvantages/inadequacy of analytical models

Strongly reliable only over the region of the stations providing the input data


Limitations of
climatological

models (such as WBMOD and GISM)

Strongly reliable on global scale less useful on regional scale


The way forward: synergy between WAM and analytical models



Use of in
-
situ satellite measurements to feed WAM


Use of ground
-
based stations data to feed analytical model


Match both the outputs to have information on IS at global and regional scale

What CIGALA will bring

ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

Model development and model improvement

Scintillation Modeling


To feed the proposed improvements in scintillation
and receiver tracking models, CIGALA will deploy a
data collection system

in Brazil



Six measurement stations will be
deployed




Episodic campaigns to
account

for different applications


Including experiments involving

real off
-
shore operations


in liaison with Petrobras


Stations re
-
occupied for validation

of new algorithms in iterative

process

ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

Measurement campaign

What CIGALA will bring

What CIGALA will bring


Septentrio latest
Ax3 all signals, all
constellations OEM receiver



Best
-
in
-
class phase noise
based on
state
-
of
-
the
-
art OCXO



Up to
100Hz signal phase and intensity
output

for all satellites



Rugged waterproof housing with RS232
,
USB, Ethernet interface and internal
logging



Specific GUI and logging tool for TEC and
scintillation indices monitoring






ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

The measurement stations

What CIGALA will bring


Moderate levels of scintillation
introduce errors in
GNSS positioning


These can be dealt with by suitable
error modelling
algorithms



Severe scintillation
however may lead to LoL


RAIM techniques to exclude affected SV from
solution


Advanced tracking techniques to minimize LoL
probability





ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

Understand of
Impact on receiver

and
Development of Mitigation

First Results: CIGALA monitor validation

ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

5.085
5.09
5.095
5.1
5.105
5.11
5.115
5.12
x 10
5
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
5.085
5.09
5.095
5.1
5.105
5.11
5.115
5.12
x 10
5
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
PolaRxS

GSV

PxS

vs. GSV (phi60)

PxS

vs. GSV (S4)

LockTime

LockTime

Spirent


no scintillation

Spirent


synthetic scintillation
(Cornell model)

First Results: Scintillation climatology at PP


22.12ºS, 51.41ºW


SCINTMON receiver (L1)


Jan 1
st
, 2009 to Oct 31
st
, 2009



0900

2100 UT (LT=UT
-
3)


ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

Thr=0.1

Thr=0.25

First Results: Scintillation climatology at PP


22.12ºS, 51.41ºW


SCINTMON receiver (L1)


Jan 1
st
, 2009 to Oct 31
st
, 2009



0900

2100 UT (LT=UT
-
3)


ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

Thr=0.1

Thr=0.25

Conclusion


The CIGALA project aims at mitigating the
fundamental threat that IS constitutes for
professional GNSS applications in Latin
American market.


L.A. market comes in
6
th

position in total
GNSS revenue
with a potential for 25bEUR
from 2015 on.


L. A. ranks as
5
th

largest addressable
market for hydrographic and land
surveying applications
with a share
comparable to North America


L.A. belongs to the
top
-
3 in amount of
offshore rig
, an important consumer of GNSS
solutions.


Knowledge and IP that the project will
generate, will provide Europe with a strong
competitive advantage in that market
.


Septentrio is expecting to leverage
CIGALA technical results in its products

ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

Thank you!


Project contact: bruno.bougard@septentrio.com

(c) CIGALA Consortium

ESA EESW 2010

Backup

ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

CIGALA is timely


IS effects exacerbate at
high solar activity


Galileo Full Operational Capability (
FOC
) planned for
same period of time


Galileo

in principle
vulnerable to IS
(same frequency
band as GPS), but
receivers not yet tested


If Galileo signal proven superior, it would be a great
asset for usage in Latin America.


No robust receiver yet in the market


Efforts to make Galileo and EGNOS accepted/adopted
in Latin America at initial stage






ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

Model development and model improvement


State of the art

for GNSS relies
mainly on GPS L1, L2(P) signals
and receivers


What about L2C, L5?



How Galileo signals are affected
by IS?



Modeling IS essential to
develop counter
-
measures

GPS scintillation event associated with
sudden TEC changes (Brazilian receiver)


Kintner and Ledvina, ASR (35)2005, 788
-
811

What CIGALA will bring

ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium


Presidente Prudente


Macae (Petrobras)


Porto Alegre


San Jose dos Campos


Palmas


Manaus



The aim is to ensure a significant
sampling of data representing the real
conditions of the ionosphere and
scintillation occurrence

Experimental data will be complemented by simulated data from a state
-
of
-
the
-
art

Spirent signal simulator and field data from the past solar maximum

ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

Measurement sites

What CIGALA will bring

CIGALA monitor is based on
Septentrio

latest
multi
-
frequency OEM receiver (AsteRx3)


Multi
-
frequency


L1, L2, L5, E5a/b/AltBoc



Multi
-
constellation


GPS, GLO, GAL (all signals)


SBAS


136 Channels


Up to 100Hz meas.



Robust, highly customizable
tracking (Lock+)


APME for multi
-
path mitigation


Raw data output (code and phase,
signal intensity
)



10MHz ref in/out, xPPS

(c) CIGALA Consortium

ESA EESW 2010


Easy to integrate


Multiple interfaces (RS232, USB,
Ethernet)


Compact form factor


2.8W Power Consumption


Compact and detailed Septentrio
Binary Format output (SBF)



One record per minute and per satellite


Includes TEC, S4, CCD, Phixx, scintillation
indices and spectral slope


Includes
GLONASS and Galileo


Includes
L2 and L5
frequency bands


Backward compatible ISMR file format

ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

1462,540300, 11,00000074, 27,15,48.2, 0.029, 0.000, 0.017, 0.023, 0.028, 0.028, 0.028, 2.397, 0.071, 18.811, 0.042, 18.830,
0.0
44, 18.782, 0.055, 19.934, 0.033, 3581,0, 3578,37.5, 0.8

1462,540300, 10,00000074,232,29,48.2, 0.049, 0.030, 0.026, 0.032, 0.036, 0.036, 0.036,
-
3.606, 0.066, 13.851,
-
0.031, 14.099,
-
0.0
26, 14.384,
-
0.021, 14.061,
-
0.032, 4210,0, 4202,37.6, 1.5

1462,540300, 23,00000074,232,68,48.2, 0.039, 0.007, 0.023, 0.029, 0.033, 0.033, 0.034,
-
5.799, 0.073, 7.283, 0.004, 5.559,
-
0.0
03, 7.273, 0.013, 5.864,
-
0.006,11894,0,11888,37.6, 1.3

1462,540300, 17,00000074,152,15,48.2, 0.039, 0.006, 0.020, 0.026, 0.030, 0.030, 0.031,
-
1.774, 0.056, 18.259, 0.010, 19.839, 0.0
14, 19.230, 0.006, 19.458, 0.006,22381,0,22376,37.7, 1.1

1462,540300, 1,00000074,344,23,48.2, 0.030, 0.000, 0.018, 0.024, 0.029, 0.029, 0.029,
-
2.851, 0.061, 16.669,
-
0.041, 17.002,
-
0.0
32, 16.412,
-
0.035, 17.973,
-
0.036, 3761,0, 3752,37.5, 0.9

1462,540300, 2,00000074, 17,45,48.2, 0.041, 0.012, 0.019, 0.025, 0.030, 0.030, 0.030,
-
1.537, 0.168, 10.215,
-
0.019, 10.976,
-
0.0
24, 10.329,
-
0.014, 10.548,
-
0.021, 2981,0, 2977,37.6, 1.1

1462,540300, 15,00000074, 85,37,48.2, 0.029, 0.000, 0.017, 0.023, 0.028, 0.029, 0.029,
-
4.356, 0.062, 9.643, 0.008, 10.691, 0.0
02, 10.748,
-
0.002, 11.128, 0.007,29080,0,29072,37.7, 0.9

1462,540300, 24,00000074,170,47,48.2, 0.029, 0.000, 0.016, 0.022, 0.028, 0.028, 0.028,
-
5.024, 0.053, 8.872, 0.012, 8.882, 0.0
23, 9.082, 0.023, 9.253, 0.024,17000,0,16994,37.7, 0.8

1462,540300, 8,00000074,308,16,48.2, 0.031, 0.000, 0.017, 0.023, 0.029, 0.029, 0.029,
-
1.904, 0.054, 17.773,
-
0.001, 19.134,
-
0.0
02, 17.611, 0.006, 18.916, 0.002,10137,0,10130,37.6, 0.9

1462,540360, 11,00000074, 27,15,48.0, 0.028, 0.000, 0.016, 0.022, 0.028, 0.029, 0.030, 2.446, 0.048, 18.906, 0.060, 18.744,
0.0
38, 19.020, 0.052, 18.954, 0.049, 3641,0, 3638,37.6, 0.8

1462,540360, 10,00000074,232,30,48.0, 0.045, 0.022, 0.019, 0.024, 0.030, 0.031, 0.031,
-
3.654, 0.047, 14.184,
-
0.022, 13.899,
-
0.0
27, 13.575,
-
0.021, 14.460,
-
0.017, 4270,0, 4262,37.6, 1.4

1462,540360, 23,00000074,231,68,48.0, 0.039, 0.000, 0.018, 0.023, 0.029, 0.031, 0.031,
-
5.799, 0.074, 6.616, 0.005, 7.006, 0.0
03, 6.473, 0.005, 8.339, 0.010,11954,0,11948,37.7, 1.2

1462,540360, 17,00000074,152,15,48.0, 0.037, 0.000, 0.017, 0.022, 0.028, 0.030, 0.030,
-
1.734, 0.073, 17.887, 0.019, 19.591, 0.0
08, 19.468, 0.007, 18.697, 0.012,22441,0,22436,37.7, 1.0

1462,540360, 1,00000074,344,23,48.0, 0.030, 0.000, 0.017, 0.022, 0.029, 0.030, 0.030,
-
2.863, 0.055, 15.289,
-
0.029, 15.365,
-
0.0
43, 15.641,
-
0.035, 15.774,
-
0.034, 3821,0, 3812,37.6, 0.8

1462,540360, 2,00000074, 17,45,48.0, 0.042, 0.014, 0.019, 0.024, 0.030, 0.032, 0.032,
-
1.521, 0.059, 9.843,
-
0.012, 8.758,
-
0.0
18, 9.605,
-
0.017, 9.615,
-
0.015, 3041,0, 3037,37.6, 1.2

1462,540360, 15,00000074, 85,37,48.0, 0.029, 0.000, 0.016, 0.022, 0.028, 0.029, 0.030,
-
4.354, 0.052, 11.167, 0.007, 11.852,
-
0.0
00, 12.414, 0.010, 10.929, 0.006,29140,0,29132,37.7, 0.8

1462,540360, 24,00000074,170,46,48.0, 0.030, 0.000, 0.017, 0.022, 0.028, 0.029, 0.030,
-
5.017, 0.062, 10.205, 0.017, 9.482, 0.0
25, 8.596, 0.017, 9.205, 0.026,17060,0,17054,37.7, 0.9

1462,540360, 8,00000074,309,16,48.0, 0.032, 0.000, 0.018, 0.022, 0.028, 0.030, 0.030,
-
1.926, 0.069, 17.764, 0.004, 18.354, 0.0
01, 17.802, 0.002, 19.268, 0.002,10197,0,10190,37.6, 0.9

ESA EESW 2010

(c) CIGALA Consortium

What CIGALA will bring

The data repository