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forestsaintregisΠετρελαϊκά και Εξόρυξη

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

92 εμφανίσεις

Energy’s Grand Challenges








Why there isn’t an easy solution









Source:
US Energy Information Administration

Today’s Energy


85.5 % = fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal)


14.5 % = nuclear and all other
sources


By 2025


87 % = fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal)


13 %= nuclear and all other
sources

1788

3534

4908

3107

4029

5109

1235

2407

3670

186

728

901

148

261

414

748

1186

1662

12

66

350

0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
1980
2000
2006
2015
2030
Other renewables
Biomass and waste**
Hydro
Nuclear
Gas
Oil
Coal
World demand for energy

expands 45% by 2030

Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2008

Mtoe

Challenge: bridge supply limitations with

24
-
hour demand for electricity worldwide

Image Credit: NASA

1970s: Photo from space
-

glow from electric lights at night.

Challenge: bridge supply limitations with

24
-
hour demand for electricity worldwide


Streamline electricity grid for efficiency


Develop wind and solar storage systems for peak use.


Continue “clean coal” technology advancements


Increase use of natural gas

Image Credit: NASA

2005: Photo from space
-

glow from electric lights at night.

Challenge: Develop new technologies

and cultural habits.



Modernize electricity grid


Develop and use more efficient
transportation energy (i.e. hybrids,
electric cars, hydrogen, natural
gas, algae
-
based fuels)



Redesign homes and buildings


Use less!


Challenge: Develop new technologies

and cultural habits

Engineers use complex computer

simulation models for design


U.S.
consumes

19.5 million
barrels of oil per day



U.S.
produces
8.5 million barrels


of oil per day



How important is oil?

Artificial Hearts

Aspirin

Balloons

Bandages

Blenders

Cameras

Candles

CD Players

Clothing

CDs/DVDs

Computers

Containers

Crayons

Credit Cards

Dentures



Deodorant

Digital Clocks

Dyes

Fertilizers

Food Preservatives

Footballs

Furniture

Garbage Bags

Glasses

Glue

Golf Balls

Hair Dryers

Hang Gliders

House Paint

Ink



Insecticides

Life Jackets

Lipstick

Luggage

Medical Equipment

Medicines

MP3 Players

Pantyhose

Patio Screens

Perfumes

Photographic Film

Photographs

Piano Keys

Roller Blades

Roofing




You can kiss lipstick good
-
bye.

Shampoo

Shaving Cream

Soft Contact Lenses

Surfboards

Telephones

Tents

Toothpaste

Toys

Umbrellas

How valuable is petroleum?


Enough energy to heat
80 million

homes


382 million gallons of gasoline
to service
stations, enabling
200 million drivers

to get
to work, take their kids to school, and take
vacations
--

traveling
7.5 billion road miles

every day


67 million gallons

to airport terminals,
enabling
30,000 flights

to travel around the
world

Source: API Energytomorrow.org

In
one day
, the oil and gas industry delivers

Exploration


Appraisal



Production




Refining and Marketing

The search for oil and gas

Where we find oil: porous rock

Hydrocarbon Traps

Images courtesy of http://www.planete
-
energies.com

Challenge: getting the oil out

Today, we can access hydrocarbons trapped in rocks with
smaller, complex pores using horizontal drilling

Challenge: large oilfields increasingly
difficult to find.


Seismic technology advances


Breakthroughs in computer processing
power and data management needed


Offshore deepwater exploration

Seismic Reflections

Challenge: getting the oil out


Deepwater Drilling


The Deepwater Pathfinder drillship
(shown) can drill in water depths
up to 10,000 feet



Dynamic
-
Positioning
-

Small
thrusters and global positioning
keep it stable, shifting less than 50
feet in any direction.

Offshore Rig

A deepwater project will:


Take many years to complete


Cost almost $1 billion USD


Employ 2000 people


Bring 50,000 barrels of oil per
day to market

Production Systems

Safety and Environmental Protection are Critical!

Deepwater Horizon

There has not been an offshore accident of this
magnitude in the US since the late 1960s.

2009 Analysis of U.S. Oil Spillage
-

API

Challenge: Recruiting the next
generation of engineers and scientists

Engineering


Petroleum, Chemical,
Mechanical, Others

Geoscience


Geology, Geophysics

Sciences


All basic sciences
-

research

Business


Finance, HR,
Management

Energy’s Grand Challenges









Your Questions









FAQs on the Gulf oil spill


What caused the Macondo Well blowout and oil
spill in the Gulf of Mexico?


How safe is offshore drilling?


Why is it taking so long to stop the well?


Why wasn’t the oil industry better prepared to
handle a blowout in the deepwater?


Why is deepwater offshore drilling necessary?


What changes are needed to keep this from
happening again?