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forestsaintregisΠετρελαϊκά και Εξόρυξη

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

80 εμφανίσεις

Vagabonds tramping through Geology


Africa

The Country of South Africa

Session 6

The Orange and Vaal Rivers

Focus on the Destruction of Gondwana

Egypt and South Africa: why so different?

Geology in the News

More on the Bakkan Oil Shale


from the Wall Street Journal, Feb. 26. 1010

Bakkan oil more difficult of extract


than gas from the Barnett Shale

Bakkan estimated reserves 4.5


rather than 20 + billion barrels

Bakkan economics requires $50.00/bbl


rather then $16.00/bbl

Now to the huge oil discovery


in the deep Atlantic of Brazil

Email commentary:

“Obama under writes offshore oil drilling in Brazil”

signed an executive order to loan $2 billion of our taxpayers dollars


The oil that comes from this operation is for the sole purpose and use of China


and NOT THE USA!


We have absolutely no gain from this transaction whatsoever!


the largest individual stockholder of this Brazilian Oil Company and who
would benefit most from this? It is American BILLIONAIRE, George Soros,
who was one of President Obama's most generous financial supporter
during his campaign.


Massive deep
-
water oil find in Brazil challenges technology

http://www.rbpierce.com/index.php?option=com_content&
view=article&id=78:us
-
promotes
-
offshore
-
drilling
-
in
-
brazil&catid=35:uncategorized&Itemid=54







Pundits recently criticized the Obama
administration for a $2 billion deal with Petrobras,
the oil giant owned by the Brazilian
government.

The money will help finance oil
exploration... off the coast of Brazil.

You think the
real truth about the deal couldn't be stranger than
the truth we see on the face of it?

Think again.

The deal is part of a financing package arranged
by the Export
-
Import Bank of the United States
,
an arm of the federal government.

it's not a gift
as has been erroneously reported and
repeated.

It is financing provided to purchase
equipment and services from American
companies that will help Brazil find oil off their
coast

Back to southern Africa and


the country of South Africa

Today, three questions:

1.
Did the red, iron color of the




sand dunes of Namibia come



from the Orange River drainage system?

2.


Why did South Africa fail to develop an early



civilization like its mirror image, Egypt?

South Africa is in the Temperate climate zone

It has a significant river drainage all in the Temperate Zone

It is about the same distance as Egypt from the Cradle of


the advent of humans

It has copper and tin which Egypt does not have

It has iron and coal while Egypt has only iron

3.
Can South Africa become a world “power” since it



seems to have all the required natural resources?

Egypt and South Africa

Nile

River

Orange

River

Two Lands

Two Rivers

Two Oceans

Tropics

What’s different between the Nile


and the Orange rivers?

What’s different between the Nile


and the Orange rivers?

Low land with

flood plain

High land with


no flood plain

Gateway to


the whole


world!

End of the


world!

A melting pot of peoples

Isolated hill country people

Natural Resources

Flood plain

Iron

Copper & Tin

Iron & Coal

Many other metals

Are the resources of South Africa


sufficient to build a major player


on the world stage?

Critical Natural Resources


Southern Africa

The Central

Rift Fault Area

Study Area #1


Central Rift Fault Area; Study Area 1


Summary


1. Pre
-
Cambrian: grazing


2. Centered in Tanzania


3. Cu and Sn ores


4. headwaters of Nile, Congo,


and Zambezi rivers


5. no major flood plains

Conclusions:


Area unfavorable for early



major civilizations


No obvious modern expectations

Next: Study Area # 2

Focus: South Africa

The Highlands of Southern Africa

South Africa

Tropics

Study Area #2

The regional geological location


of the country of South Africa

Topography


of Southern

Africa

Zaire

Basin

Study Area #2

South Africa


The Regional Setting of


the Country of South Africa

A basin much


older than others


in study area #2

Karoo Basin

The Karoo Basin: the drainage area


of the Orange and Vaal rivers

Rivers of Africa

Niger

River

Nile

River

Congo

River

Zambezi

River

Limpopo

River

Orange
-
Vaal

rivers


Drainage Area: Orange & Vaal Rivers

http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1997/ofr
-
97
-
470/OF97
-
470A/AFRICA.pdf

Pre
-
Cambrian

Younger

Rocks


Drainage Area: Orange & Vaal Rivers

Tanzania

Botswana

Karoo

Basin

Zambezi River

Limpopo River

Orange River

The Rivers of Area #2

Next: South Africa: Its Rivers, Geology, & Resources

Vaal River

Karoo

Basin

Rivers of South Africa

River drainage areas


are outlined in white

Limpopo

River

Karoo Basin

Do any of these rivers provide


favorable areas for farming?

Orange River drainage area

Let’s look at the geology of the rocks

of the Karoo Basin & see what type of


soils are being produced by weathering

Geologic Map of South Africa

Geologic Map close
-
up


South Africa:

Geologic Map & Two Major Rivers

Devonian

Sil
-
Ord

Folded Mountains

Pre
-
Cambrian Time

3.4 Billion years

Geologic

Time

Diagram

“Post”
-

Cambrian

Rocks

In the

Folded

mountains

Rocks

In the

Karoo

Basin

Time of the break
-
up of Pangea

Geologic Rock Types in


the Karoo Basin


Now the subdivisions of the


rocks comprising the Karoo Basin

Volcanic


lavas

Now a North


South Cross Section


across the Karoo Basin

River

Debris

Lavas

Lavas


Names of


Karoo Basin Rocks

Jurassic lavas


200 mm years old

15,000 feet

Deformation here

and lava flows here

document continental break
-
up in


Triassic and Jurassic time


Another view of the deformation


of the south side of the Karoo Basin

D LCole
-

Inversion Tectonics of the Cape Fold Belt, Karoo and …, 1992
-

books.google.com

Inversion Tectonics of the Cape Fold Belt,

Stormberg Group

(including basalts
)

Beaufort Gp = terrestrial

Ecca Gp =

Dwyka Gp = glacial marine

Cape Super Gp = late Ord to Carb

Karoo Basin

Basin rocks are


folded and crushed


on south side

When and how was this deformation done?

Karoo Basin Topography

Karoo Basin

Orange River

Karoo Basin:


250 mm year old sedimentary rocks


remnants of old geosyncline


river fill from ancestral Limpopo River?


old geosyncline crushed & folded


Orange
-
Vaal rivers formed


basin uplifted by “rift” action?


Orange river entrenched

Karoo Basin

The Continental Drift History


of the Karoo Basin

The continental drift history


of the Karoo Basin

http://www.scotese.com

A closer look


The continental drift history

of the Karoo Basin: 306 MYC

http://www.scotese.com

Africa

Shallow water ocean

Next: 50 million years later


South

America

Southern Africa about to collide with southern South America

The continental drift history


of the Karoo Basin

http://www.scotese.com

Africa now all land area

And 25 million years later

Africa now part of super continent Pangea

The Continental Drift History


of the Karoo Basin

Africa

Remember the Karoo Basin?

After http://www.scotese.com

A closer look

Karoo Basin

Early Triassic Time: 237 mm years ago

Africa

http://www.scotese.com

A closer look

Africa

The Continental Drift History

of the Karoo Basin: 237 MYC

Karoo

Basin

And 40 million years later

Drakensberg lavas

After http://www.scotese.com

The Continental Drift History


of the Karoo Basin

A closer look

Drakensberg lavas

After http://www.scotese.com

The Continental drift history

of the Karoo Basin: 195 MYC

Africa beginning to break apart from South America


and Antarctica

Karoo Basin deformed

40 million years later

http://www.scotese.com

The continental drift history


of the Karoo Basin

The African break apart from South America


and Antarctica continues and Africa rotates toward


the equator where is lies today

60 million years later

http://www.scotese.com

The Continental Drift History


of the Karoo Basin

The breakup and the beginning of the Atlantic Ocean

And 45 million years later

http://www.scotese.com

The Continental Rift History


of the Karoo Basin

Central Africa on the equator

And 35 million years later

http://www.scotese.com

The Continental Drift History


of the Karoo Basin

Central Africa on the equator

Uplift of Rift Area and Namibia

Last, the recent ice age

http://www.scotese.com

The continental drift history


of the Karoo Basin

The beginning of written human history

Back to the Karoo Basin, the Orange River,


and the country of South Africa

Orange

River

Vaal

River

The Natural Resources of


South Africa

Focus on the river resources

Temperate Zone

Orange River

South Africa: Orange/Vaal River


Flood Plain Farming

Flood Plain

Farming area

Flood Plain Farming up close


Vaal River:

Flood Plain Farming

Mouth of the Orange River

Flood Plain at Mouth of Orange River


No farming

Farming East of Cape Town

Farming East of Cape Town

Temperate Zone

Junction of the Vaal and Orange Rivers

Source of the iron in the sand


dunes of Namibia?