Wind Turbines have become a great
source of alternative “green” energy
Lake Erie and North West Ohio have the
potential to be a great source of wind
North West Ohio also happens to be one
of the largest migratory bird fly
Before wind turbines can be installed
questions need to be answered about the
effect they will have on the avian
population in the area
“As wind energy facilities becomes substantially more
numerous and as wind development continues to
grow, fatalities and thus the potential for biologically
significant impacts to local populations increases”
National Wind Coordinating Collaborative
The BBCER strives to create a way to identify what
avian species are being impacted by the wind turbines
and to allow for conclusions to be made about what
effect they are having on the species.
Bird/Bat Calls Embedded Recognition System
III Field Recorder
88 Mini Shotgun Microphones
Bird Call Library
Take First 512
Multiply by the
Place First 9
Move to Next
512 Data Points
Once through all 220,500 Data
Send MFCC Bank
to Correlation Algorithm for
“Scale of pitches judged
by listeners to be equal
in distance from one
Converts Hertz scale to
Cepstral: Fourier Transform of the log spectrum. 
Mel Frequency Cepstrum (MFC): Representation of
the short term power spectrum of sound, based on a
linear cosine transform of a log power spectrum on a
nonlinear Mel scale of frequency.
Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC):
Coefficients that collectively make up an MFC
Coefficient for next
Output call with
If all calculated
below threshold then
Measures the correlation between two linear
Signified by r (rho) and can take on values between
to 1. Where
1 signifies perfect negative correlation, 0 is
no correlation, and 1 is perfect positive correlation.
The previous example of American Crow and
American Coot yield an r value of 0.4650
With our system we are able to successfully identify an
‘unknown’ bird call that has been recorded through
shotgun microphones and
interfaced to the PC with the MAYA
44 USB device.
Correlation Coefficient of .6411
Together the AR125 and FR125
III record the ultrasonic
bat calls from the field.
They then work with the SPECT’R, SCAN’R, and
SonoBat software to determine the species of which
the call came from.
The system has been tested and has successfully
identified species of bats in the field.
There are three software programs that we purchased for
bat call analysis
SPECT’R is used to perform spectral analysis, digital
tuning, and hard
disk recording of echolocation calls.
SCAN’R is a snapshot characterization and analysis tool
which is used to distinguish between bat calls and
can be used to analyze and compare high
spectrum sonograms of echolocation calls.
Because of the Microcontroller, that we purchased,
memory limitations , we are unable to successfully
record an audio call with enough data points to be ran
through our algorithm.
In the future we recommend purchasing a
microcontroller with at least 512kB SRAM to get a
correctly sampled call plus room to store the code.
We also recommend making the system wireless so
that the system could be placed in the field and left to
record bird calls overnight or for long durations.