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Project TELL

LIFE SCIENCES/BIOTECHNOLOGY STUDY

IN THE PROVENCE
-
ALPES
-
COTE D’AZUR (PACA) REGION

1


RESEARCH PROJECT TELL


(“TELL
-

Technological Knowledge and Localised Learning:

What Perspectives for a European Policy?”)



DELIVERABLE 2.2.3




LIFE SCIENCES/BIOTECHNOLOGY STUDY

IN THE PROVENCE
-
ALPES
-
COTE D’AZUR (PACA) REGION


FEBRUARY 2003



Contract
n°:

HPSE
-
CT2001
-
00051



Project n°:

SERD
-
2000
-
00115



Title:


Project coordinator:

Prof. Cristiano Antonelli

Laboratorio di Economia dell’Innovazione “Franco Momigliano”

Fondazione Rosselli

Italy



Partners
:

P01
-

Fondazione Rosselli (FR) (I)

P02
-

Institu
t de Droit et d’ Economie de la Firme et de l’Industrie (IDEFI
-
CNRS) (F)

P03
-

University of Edinburgh


Japanese European Technology Studies (UEDIN
-
JETS) (UK)

P04
-

University of Lisbon


Fundaçao Da Universidade de Lisboa (FUL) (P)

P05
-

Université Libre

de Bruxelles (DULBEA) (B)

P06
-

Science and Policy Research Unit (SPRU) (UK)

AC
-

Istituto de Ciencias Sociais (ICS) (P)

AC
-

Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial (INETI) (P)



Reference period
:
from

1 May 2002
to

30 October 2002



Sta
rting date
:

1 November 2001

Duration
: 24 Months


Project TELL

LIFE SCIENCES/BIOTECHNOLOGY STUDY

IN THE PROVENCE
-
ALPES
-
COTE D’AZUR (PACA) REGION

2


Table of Contents



LIFE SCIENCES/BIOTECHNOLOGY STUDY IN THE PROVENCE
-
ALPES
-
COTE
D’AZUR (PACA) REGION


Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Sophia
-
Antipolis, France

(Jessica Michel, Michel Quéré
, Sandrine Selosse)


1.

INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………3

2.

LIFE SCIENCES IN THE PACA REGION………………………………….3

3.

LIFE SCIENCES INDUSTRY: FIRMS FROM PHARMACEUTICALS AND
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING………………………………………..6

4.

PUBLIC RESEARCH…………………………………………………………..9

5.

REGIONAL LAB
S AND THE FIRMS’ LANDSCAPE……………………...14

6.

LOCALIZED KNOWLEDGE IN THE PACA REGION: INSIGHTS FROM THE “ALPES
MARITIMES” CASE STUDY……………………………..…15


Table of illustration for Part Two


Figure 1 Geographic distribution of firms by domains of application……………………
………………………...………4

Figure 2 Geographic distribution of the number of firms by field in cosmetology…………………………………………5

Figure 3 Geographic distribution of the number of firms by field in the domain of “Environment, animal and plant
sciences”………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………..6

Figure 4 Geographic distribution of firms by domain of application……………………………………………………….7

Figure 5 Geographic distribution of firms by activity in pharmaceuticals and biomedical engineering …………………...7

Figure 6 Geographic d
istribution of firms registering patents………………………………………………………………8

Figure 7 Geographic distribution of number of patents which are registered by life sciences firms………………..……...8

Figure 8 Geographic distribution of labs number by research category……………………
……………………………….9

Figure 9 Geographic distribution of researchers working in labs number by research category…………………...………9

Figure 10 Geographic distribution of labs number by organisation ..………………………………………………………10

Figure 11 Geographic distribution of rese
archers number by organisation ..…………………………………………….…10

Figure 12 Geographic distribution of the number of PhD students by category of research organisation ..…………..……11

Figure 13 Geographic distribution of labs registration number…………………………………………………………….
.11

Figure 14 Thematic distribution of labs, researchers and PhD number by category of organisation………………...……..12

Figure 15 Thematic distribution of the number of labs by organisation and life science category……………….………...13

Figure 16 Geographic distri
bution of labs and firms number in PACA region……………………………………………..14

Project TELL

LIFE SCIENCES/BIOTECHNOLOGY STUDY

IN THE PROVENCE
-
ALPES
-
COTE D’AZUR (PACA) REGION

3

LIFE SCIENCES/BIOTECHNOLOGY STUDY IN THE PROVENCE
-
ALPES
-
COTE
D’AZUR (PACA) REGION


Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Sophia
-
Antipolis, France

(Jessica Michel, Michel Quéré, Sa
ndrine Selosse)


1. Introduction


Activities in the life sciences for the region Provence
-
Alpes
-
Côte d’Azur can be decomposed into
several domains of applications with several types of actors, public or private, each developing
various activities, from res
earch to the marketing of products or services. The aim of this case study is
to discuss the extent to which these actors, firms and public research institutions constitute a regional
industrial system in the life sciences.


Research as an upstream activit
y results not only from firms, but also, and essentially in the areas of
the life sciences, from public research institutes, such as the Centre National de Recherche
Scientifique (CNRS), l’Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM)
or
university laboratories. The latter are involved in basic and clinical research, and contribute through
the discovery and diffusion of new scientific knowledge in life sciences to the development of this
area. Creation of new scientific knowledge result
s not only from public organisations, but also from
research efforts undertaken by firms which develop research projects alone or in collaboration with
others firms and/or publics labs. Innovation in life sciences arises from relations between the scientif
ic
world and the industrial sphere which are becoming increasingly numerous and with a position
increasing in significance. Science
-
industry relationships seem to be in that respect quite important as
they generate a restructuration of research activities
in the life sciences.


The object of this study is two
-
fold. First, this study aims to identify the potential in life sciences for
the PACA region, and secondly, to bring to the fore the local importance and evolution as well of the
science
-
industry relati
onships present in the life sciences, i.e., to discuss the specific conditions for
localised knowledge to occur in those industrial activities.


2. Life sciences in the PACA region.


Activities linked to life sciences in the PACA region are concentrated ar
ound two major poles:


1.

Marseille and the
genopole project in the department of “Bouches du Rhône” (13);

2.

Nice and Sophia Antipolis in the department of “Alpes Maritimes” (06).


As regards the Marseille
-
Genopole project, the PACA region benefits from its si
gnificant potential
and an institutional structure completely dedicated to research in genomics. This structure gathers
together the different life science actors who interact within this system. Life science activities in the
PACA region, in particular th
e research potential in this domain, are indeed mainly concentrated
within the genopole of Marseille. Additionally, we can say that the Marseille
-
Genopole groups the
main research laboratories of the city of Marseille which are working on the key subject a
reas of:
genomics research, bio
-
informatics, large
-
scale expression measurements, sequencing (in a relatively
modest scale, different from that of Genoscope), animal models, large
-
scale study of proteins, and
applications of genomics to cancer research, hu
man genetics, infectious and parasitic diseases, etc.


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The Marseille
-
Genopole project belongs to the national network of genopoles, which was established
in 1999 and organised around Evry and the national centres of sequencing and genotyping
1
. The
Marseill
e
-
Genopole project coordinates several types of actors, and especially public research
institutions, like CNRS and INSERM, the University of Aix
-
Marseille 2, hospitals located in the
Marseille area, and firms related to life sciences activities. The purpos
e of this project is to favour
relations between these different actors in order to promote science
-
industry relationships in the areas
of the life sciences.


Beyond this genopole project, another pole has spread out in the PACA region. Indeed, appearing
a
round Nice is a relative concentration of scientific and economic resources in the field of life
sciences. This life sciences’ pole located in the “Alpes Maritimes” also presents diverse resources,
various life sciences activities which contribute to the r
egional life sciences potential. As in the
“Marseilles” area, the presence of public research institutes, one university, several hospitals and
firms aids in the development of that potential.

At the regional level, life science firms exhibit relative dive
rsity regarding their activities


from R&D
to marketing


but, this is a point we will return to later. The region benefits from the existence of
traditional firms already established for a long time in such areas as cosmetology, fine chemistry, or
perfum
es, even if those firms were traditionally not connected with local academic resources.
Moreover, as regards the regional pole in life sciences, it seems to be relatively important in size (with
more than 300 firms present) and it seems very significant th
at two
-
thirds of that set of firms are
located in the “Alpes Maritimes”. However, the latter are characterised by quite a large diversity,
according to the domain of activities. Four domains could be distinguished and this allows for the
division of the se
t of firms into a traditional pole and a more modern one:




Pharmaceutical industry and biomedical engineering;



Environment, animal and plant sciences;



Cosmetology;



Other biotechnology
2
.


Figure 1

: Geographic distribution of firms by domain of application.


06
13
06
13
Nb
%
Pharmaceutical industry and biomedical engineering
70
27
29,9
32,1
97
30,5
Environment-animal and plant sciences
13
3
5,6
3,6
16
5,0
Other Biotechnology
3
0
1,3
0,0
3
0,9
Cosmetology
148
54
63,2
64,3
202
63,5
TOTAL
234
84
100,0
100,0
318
100,0
Domains of application
Firms
%
TOTAL
Sou
rce

: table elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study.


First of all, we have to note that firms are obviously more numerous in the “Alpes Maritimes”.
Indeed, 318 firms have been registered in th
e regional life sciences field, and 234 are located in the
“Alpes Maritimes”, representing next to 75 %. Second, we can note that, for both departments, the
“Alpes Maritimes” and the “Bouches du Rhône”, cosmetology appears as a domain concentrating a
large

number of industrial activities. Indeed, at the regional level as well as for each of both
departments, more than 60 % of firms belong to this area. Another domain involves quite a large



1

The genomics program favours research development concerning genomes with particular attention on the human
genome and the plant genome, all the way from l
arge
-
scale sequencing to functional genomics, including bio
-
informatics.

2

Remark

: three firms belong to the “other biotechnology” category. They are more precisely, two firms in bio
-
informatics
working close to life sciences firms and one firm which deve
lops specific equipment for high level athletes.

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number of firms: the pharmaceutical industry and biomedical engineer
ing, with about 30% in each
department. This domain is followed by “Environment and animal and plant sciences” which
represents just next to 5 % of regional activities.


Firms in life sciences are mainly located in “Alpes Maritimes”, but we can note that
some other types
of activities are found in similar proportions in both departments; this fact does not permit us to
predict a particular specialisation of a certain activity to one of two departments. As regards these
domains of activities more precisely,

they can be decomposed into various fields.

With regard to cosmetology, we can distinguish four sub
-
domains: perfumery; cosmetics;
parapharmaceuticals and aroma.


Figure 2

: Geographic distribution of the number of firms by field in cosmetology.


06
13
06
13
Nb
%
Aroma
15
3
10,1
5,6
18
8,9
Cosmetic
57
40
38,5
74,1
97
48,0
Parapharmacy
22
4
14,9
7,4
26
12,9
Perfumery
54
7
36,5
13,0
61
30,2
Cosmetology
148
54
100
100
202
100
Fields
Firms
%
TOTAL

Source

: table elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study


At the regional level, fields which together exhibit the most important numbers of firms are cosmetics
with 48 %, followed by perfumes with 30 %. T
o a lower extent, but nevertheless far from being
insignificant, we find Parapharmaceuticals and Aroma, with respectively 13 and 9 % of firms. At the
level of each department, firms’ distribution is not similar, as was the case for domains of application.
Indeed, in “Bouches du Rhône”, the main field appears to be cosmetics with nearly three
-
quarters of
the overall firms. On the other hand, in “Alpes Maritimes”, a large number of firms are distributed
into two fields: cosmetics ( 38.5 %) and perfumes (36.5
%).


So, it appears that what distinguishes both departments is mainly the firms active in perfumes; which
represent a much more important part in “Alpes Maritimes”. This difference obviously results from
the inheritance of perfume activities located aroun
d the Grasse area. Indeed, as proportions among
different activities are similar, but as the distribution between different fields of each domain is quite
different between both poles, such as the case of cosmetology, we have to insist on the importance of

local historical inheritance. More precisely, as far as basic research is concerned, it seems that no
significant distinction among Marseille and Nice is noticed. However, as regards industrial activities,
historical patterns largely contribute to disting
uish the two areas, Marseille being more specialised in
cosmetics and the pole located around Grasse in perfumes, even if cosmetics is also quite important in
the “Alpes Maritimes”. Therefore, regional inheritance prevails on the importance of basic resear
ch
infrastructure which seems to have developed quite independently from the local industrial tradition.


As regards “Environment”, four domains of activities can be distinguished: agro
-
foods; environment;
plant sciences and veterinary sciences.


Figure 3

: Geographic distribution of the number of firms by field in the domain of
“Environment, animal and plant sciences”.


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06
13
06
13
Nb
%
Agro-foods
4
3
30,8
100
7
43,8
Environment
3
0
23,1
0
3
18,8
Plant Sciences
3
0
23,1
0
3
18,8
Veterinary Sciences
3
0
23,1
0
4
25,0
Environment-animal and plant sciences
13
3
100
100
16
100
Fields
Firms
%
TOTAL

Source

: table elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study


First of all, we can n
ote that these different types of activities are concentrated essentially in the
department of “Alpes Maritimes” with 13 firms against 3 in “Bouches du Rhône”; even if, by
comparison with others domains such as cosmetology or pharmaceuticals, these various

activities
have a weak importance in the overall set of life sciences activities.


But we have to point out the fact that, as far as agro
-
foods is concerned, Marseille and Nice
-
Sophia
Antipolis are not the central areas where this industry develops at the

regional level. At least, we
should have considered in more detail firms located in the department of “Vaucluse”, and more
precisely, around the city of Avignon, where a specific science park dedicated to agriculture and agro
-
foods has been established th
ere. Taking this Agroparc project into better account should enhance the
importance of agro
-
food activities in the PACA region; however, as we decided to keep it out of the
scope of this study, numbers exhibited around those activities are not fully consis
tent.


As regards life sciences in PACA region, a similar dynamic seems to have developed in both of the
poles. Nevertheless, differences can be noticed, notably with regard to the numbers of firms located at
each site and the distribution of activities.

We will now concentrate on the PACA region potential in pharmaceuticals and biomedical
engineering, as well as on the regional distribution of these activities. Having established the
importance of science
-
industry relationships for the production of scien
tific knowledge in these areas,
we will not be interested only in firms, but also in research activities developed by public labs. So we
must firstly identify the regional research panorama


public and private


in life sciences, but also
with regards to
the different types of relationships undertaken between different actors.


3. Life sciences industry: firms from pharmaceuticals and biomedical engineering.


Pharmaceutical industry and biomedical engineering represent 30 % of the life sciences activity in

the
PACA region. In each department, i.e., “Alpes Maritimes” and “Bouches du Rhône”, we identify
respectively 70 and 27 firms. We also note a significant difference between both departments as
regards the number of firms present.






Figure 4

: Geographi
c distribution of firms by domain of application.


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06
13
06
13
Nb
%
Pharmaceutical industry and biomedical engineering
70
27
29,9
32,1
97
30,5
Environment-animal and plant sciences
13
3
5,6
3,6
16
5,0
Other Biotechnology
3
0
1,3
0,0
3
0,9
Cosmetology
148
54
63,2
64,3
202
63,5
TOTAL
234
84
100,0
100,0
318
100,0
Domains of application
Firms
%
TOTAL
Sou
rce

: table elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study.


This domain can also be broken down into various fields (we identifies five): clinical st
udies; medical;
pharmacy; research and services.


The distribution of firms is quite different, not only according to these different fields, but also to the
firms’ location.


Figure 5

: Geographic distribution of firms by activity in

pharmaceuticals and
biomedical engineering.


Firms
Activities
Strength
%
Strength
%
Strength
%
Strength
%
Clinical studies
9
12,9
0
0
0
0
9
9,0
Medical
24
34,3
1
3,7
0
0
25
25,0
Biologic and medical engineering
9
12,9
0
0
0
0
9
9,0
Medical sciences
15
21,4
1
3,7
0
0
16
16,0
Pharmacy
8
11,4
5
18,5
0
0
13
13,0
Research
13
18,6
12
44,4
3
100
28
28,0
Services
16
22,9
9
33,3
0
0
25
25,0
Analysis
2
2,9
0
0
0
0
2
2,0
Studies
5
7,1
2
7,4
0
0
7
7,0
Logistics
7
10,0
2
7,4
0
0
9
9,0
Services
2
2,9
5
18,5
0
0
7
7,0
TOTAL
70
100,0
27
100
3
100
100
100
Alpes Maritimes
Bouches du Rhône
Var
TOTAL
Sour
ce

: table elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study
.


We identify 100 firms in the PACA region, with 70 % located in “Alpes Maritimes”. Only one quarter
of these firms ar
e established in “Bouches du Rhône”. As we have seen, a certain number of activities
can be distinguished for life sciences firms. These activities vary, but all participate in the
development of the life sciences sector. This case study brings to light 5
greater activities, as we can
see in the table above.


At the regional level, research, medical and services activities represent each one a little more than 25
%. The last quarter of activities gathers together clinical studies and pharmacy. The distribut
ion of
activities is quite different according to location of the firms. Thus, it appears that activities located in
“Alpes Maritimes” are much more diversified than those of “Bouches du Rhône”. Firms specialised in
fundamental research are equally establi
shed in both departments. More precisely, 13 research firms
are identified in “Alpes Maritimes”, and 12 in “Bouches du Rhône”. On the other hand, there is a
disproportional effect as fundamental research firms represent less than 20 % of the activities in
“Alpes Maritimes” compared to approximately 45% in “Bouches du Rhône”. Services represent 33 %
in the latter department, against 23 % in “Alpes Maritimes”. But, in terms of the number of firms, 16
have been identified in “Alpes Maritimes” compared to 9 in
“Bouches du Rhône”. Pharmacy
represents at the regional level 13 % of life sciences activities. Eight firms have been identified in
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“Alpes Maritimes” against 5 in “Bouches du Rhône” (12 % of activities in “Alpes Maritimes” with a
little less than 19 % in “
Bouches du Rhône”). Thus, the difference between the two is not as important
as it is for other activities, such as research or medical activities.

In “Bouches du Rhône”, no firm centrally engaged in clinical studies has been identified, so this
activity s
eems to be marginal in this area; to the contrary, this activity seems significantly important in
the “Alpes Maritimes” as it represents 13 % of local life sciences activities.


In “Alpes Maritimes”, another peculiarity appears which is the presence of fir
ms concentrating on
medical activities, i.e., on medical sciences or biological and medical engineering. More precisely,
medical activities correspond to pure R&D activities, surgical or para
-
surgical materials
manufacturing (for instance, products for med
ical use such as implants and prosthesis,
ophthalmological products, etc.). Medical activities are quite important for “Alpes Maritimes”,
engaging approximately 35 % of firms (i.e.,24 firms), against one firm in “Bouches du Rhône” (3 %
of firms).


With reg
ard to the distribution of life sciences activities in the PACA region, disparities are
significant, be it in absolute or relative terms. In “Alpes Maritimes”, fundamental research does not
seem to represent a significant potential, as regards the number o
f firms, and some life sciences
activities are more representative of the industrial potential, such as clinical studies or also (and
particularly) medical activities. It is not the same in the department of “Bouches du Rhône” where life
sciences firms are

less numerous and represent a less diversified set of activities, that is activities
which are especially concentrating on fundamental research. At least, services’ activities represent for
both an important potential. Finally, we must note that in the “V
ar” department, only three firms
related to life sciences areas have been identified.


The dualistic pattern which appears among both departments is still noticed when looking to patents
registered by this set of firms (international


USPTO patents). Inde
ed, we counted 11 firms which
register patents in “Alpes Maritimes” against 3 in “Bouches du Rhône” (and 2 in “Var”). But, on the
one hand, in proportional terms, differences are not significant (a little more than 15% of firms
located in “Alpes Maritimes”

have registered patents against about 12 % in “Bouches du Rhône”) ; on
the other hand, this quantity of patents can be considered for now significant.


Figure 6

: Geographic distribution of firms registering patents.


Strength
%
Strength
%
Strength
%
Strength
%
Clinical studies
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Medical
7
64
0
0
0
0
7
43,75
Pharmacy
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Research
4
36
3
100
2
100
9
56,25
Services
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TOTAL
11
100
3
100
2
100
16
100
TOTAL
Activities
Alpes Maritimes
Bouches du Rhône
Var

Source

: t
able elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study.


Even though in “Bouches du Rhône” only firms developing research activities register patents, we can
note that, in “Alpes Maritimes”, registration results especially from firms
involved in medical
activities. Indeed, only one third of patenting firms are research firms.


At the regional level, proportions are more or less equal between the registration of patents from
medical firms and from research firms. However, if we consider

the number of registered patents, the
situation is reversed for “Alpes Maritimes”, as we can see with the following table.

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Figure 7

: Geographic distribution of number of patents which are registered

by life sciences firms.


Strength
%
Strength
%
Strength
%
Strength
%
Clinical studies
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Medical
18
12,77
0
0
0
0
18
11,25
Pharmacy
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Research
123
87,23
17
100
2
100
142
88,75
Services
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TOTAL
141
100
17
100
2
100
160
100
TOTAL
Activities
Alpes Maritimes
Bouches du Rhône
Var

S
ource

: table elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study.


Even if there are fewer research firms registering patents, nevertheless, it appears that they account for
more registrations. Indeed, 7 identified medical firms have r
egistered 18 patents whereas 4 research
firms have registered 123 patents. Consequently, over three quarters of patents are registered by firms
involved in fundamental research activities.

Industrial activity in life sciences appears to be very diversifie
d not only with regard to geographic
distribution, but also according to different application domains. In seeing the regional industrial
panorama in life sciences, it appears that other activities related to research activities were essential to
this sect
or’s development. We now have to concentrate on the characteristics of public research labs.


4. Public research.


Regional public research in life sciences results from 138 laboratories which are especially
concentrated in “Alpes Maritimes” (55) and “Bouc
hes du Rhône” (83), and more precisely in the
cities of Nice and Marseille.

This research activity can be decomposed into two categories: basic research and clinical research,
even if some research labs are doing both.













Figure 8

: Geographic dis
tribution of labs number by research category
.


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Activities
Location
Laboratories
%
Alpes Maritimes
22
22,92
Bouches du Rhône
74
77,08
Total
96
100
Alpes Maritimes
31
81,58
Bouches du Rhône
7
18,42
Total
38
100
Alpes Maritimes
2
50,00
Bouches du Rhône
2
50,00
Total
4
100
Alpes Maritimes
55
39,86
Bouches du Rhône
83
60,14
Total
138
100
Basic research
Clinical
research
Basic and
clinical
research
TOTAL

Source

: table elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study.


The distribution of these activities is quite unequal and basic research activities largely
predominate in
“Bouches du Rhône”. However, clinical research activities are more significantly present in “Alpes
Maritimes”.


In the number of researchers, the context is similar. Indeed, basic research fellows represent around
1000 individuals, with more

than 85 % located in the department of “Bouches du Rhône”. So, basic
research activity is distributed geographically and thematically in a more or less similar manner.


Figure 9

: Geographic distribution of researchers working in labs number

by research
category
.


Activities
Location
Researchers
%
Alpes Maritimes
149
14,55
Bouches du Rhône
875
85,45
Total
1024
100,00
Alpes Maritimes
149
71,98
Bouches du Rhône
58
28,02
Total
207
100,00
Alpes Maritimes
8
47,06
Bouches du Rhône
9
52,94
Total
17
100,00
Alpes Maritimes
306
24,52
Bouches du Rhône
942
75,48
Total
1248
100,00
Basic research
Clinical
research
Basic and
clinical
research
TOTAL

Source

: table elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study.


Research, depending on whether it’s basic, clinical or both, is carried out by various public
institutions. Principally, CNRS, IN
SERM units and university units (from the University of Aix
-
Marseille 2 (l’Université de la Méditerranée) and the University of Nice
-
Sophia Antipolis) form the
major regional resources.


The relative importance of those institutions not only varies from Ma
rseille to Nice, but it appears that
the respective weight of these different institutions in life sciences research defers depending on
whether we consider the number of labs or the number of researchers who work in these labs.


Figure 10

: Geographic dis
tribution of labs number by organisation.


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strength
%
Strength
%
Strength
%
06
06
13
13
Total
Total
CNRS
5
9,1
28
33,7
33
23,9
INSERM
12
21,8
25
30,1
37
26,8
UAM 2
0
0,0
28
33,7
28
20,3
UNSA
38
69,1
0
0,0
38
27,5
INRETS
0
0,0
1
1,2
1
0,7
INSERM/CNRS
0
0,0
1
1,2
1
0,7
Total
55
100,0
83
100,0
138
100,0
Organisation

Source

: table elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study.



Figure 11

: Geographic distribution of researchers number by organisation.


Organisation
Researchers
%
Researchers
%
Total
06
06
13
13
CNRS
131
42,81
458
48,6
589
47,2
INSERM
10
3,27
245
26,0
255
20,4
UAM 2
0
0
184
19,5
184
14,7
UNSA
165
53,92
0
0
165
13,2
INRETS
0
0
6
0,6
6
0,5
INSERM/CNRS
0
0
49
5,2
49
3,9
Total
306
100
942
100
1248
100
Total
%

Source

: table elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study.


For instance, a more important influence of CNRS in “Bouches du Rhône” than in “Alpes Maritimes”
is noticeable. However, the relative importance of CNRS is incr
easing in both departments if we
consider the number of researchers rather than the number of labs. Indeed, CNRS represents more
than 40 % of public research in “Alpes Maritimes”, even if, by the number of labs, it represents only
9.1 %. In “Bouches du Rhô
ne”, such difference is less significant as it rises from 33.7 % to 48.6 %
when the number of researchers is considered. We can also note that the CNRS importance in both
departments decreases when the number of researchers is considered.


The INSERM conte
xt is totally different from the CNRS one. This difference indicates that each
scientific institution implements a specific mode of organisation. Thus, CNRS units represent a more
important share of public research activity with regard to the number of pub
lic researchers present
(whatever department may be considered), even if INSERM appears more significant when we
consider the number of labs. Actually in “Alpes Maritimes”, INSERM units represent only 3.27 % of
public researchers in life sciences, even tho
ugh they comprise more than 20 % of the labs. In
“Bouches du Rhône”, INSERM represents respectively 26 and 30.1 %. Therefore, the distance
between INSERM’s importance in terms of number of researchers and of labs is less important in
“Bouches du Rhône”. Fo
llowing these comments, we can say that INSERM labs are different from
those of CNRS. These comments show how these research institutions are quite particular in their
organisation. In relative terms, research units from universities also represent a weak
infrastructure, if
we consider the number of researchers for each university unit. Finally, at the regional level, it
appears that public research institutions and CNRS notably, are quite significant, in terms of number
of researchers. In a complementary p
erspective, public research institutions and research academic
units share research activities between them in a more or less equilibrated manner.


A significant differentiation also appears when looking at PhD students in each of both departments:
“Bouche
s du Rhône” is largely ahead of “Alpes Maritimes” and CNRS still appears as the most
important actor in life sciences.

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Figure 12

: Geographic distribution of the number of PhD students

by category of research organisation.


Organisation
PhD
%
PhD
%
Total
06
06
13
13
CNRS
59
26,2
234
48,95
293
41,68
INSERM
53
23,6
122
25,52
175
24,89
UAM 2
0
0,0
77
16,11
77
10,95
UNSA
113
50,2
0
0,00
113
16,07
INRETS
0
0,0
11
2,30
11
1,56
INSERM/CNRS
0
0,0
34
7,11
34
4,84
Total
225
100,0
478
100,00
703
100,00
Total
%

So
urce

: table elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study.


Like firms, public research labs also exhibit some registration of patents, mainly belonging to CNRS
and INSERM.


Remark: No patent could be identified as having been r
egistered by academic research units, neither
in “Bouches du Rhône” nor in “Alpes Maritimes”. However, we have to insist on the fact that
numerous research units are joint units, that is to say linked with public research institutions (as
CNRS or INSERM) a
nd with a university. Thus, a patent registered by CNRS for instance may also
be used by other academic institutions.


Figure 13

: Geographic distribution of labs registration number.


Laboratories
Department
Patents
%
Alpes Maritimes
7
33,3
Bouches du Rhône
7
33,3
Alpes Maritimes
0
0,0
Bouches du Rhône
5
23,8
Alpes Maritimes
8
38,1
Bouches du Rhône
13
61,9
TOTAL
-
21
100
CNRS
INSERM
TOTAL

Source

: table elaborated from data collecte
d from various sources for this case study.


“Bouches du Rhône” exhibits more registrations of patents than “Alpes Maritimes”, with 13 patents
registered by public research organisations against 8. However, these numbers are insignificant in
quantity. Neve
rtheless, we must also consider that CNRS appears as the organisation registering the
most, with 14 patents against 5 for INSERM. Both departemental units of CNRS record the same
results with 7 patents each.


Public research in life sciences can be decompo
sed into various application domains. For example, in
“Bouches du Rhône”, labs focus their research on 7 major topics:



Genetics
-
immunology
-
cancer research;



Environment;



Microbiology
-
transmissible pathologies

;



Mechanics

;



Neurosciences

;



Nutrition
-
metaboli
sm

;



Substance structure.


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Figure 14

: Thematic distribution of labs, researchers and PhD number

by category of organisation.


Genetics-
immunology-
cancer-research
Environ-
ment
Microbiology-
transmissible
pathologies
Mechanics
Neuro-
sciences
Nutrition-
metabo-lism
Substance
structure
Total
Laboratories
2
0
8
0
17
1
0
28
Researchers
23
0
141
0
249
7
0
420
PhD
14
0
81
0
181
5
0
281
Laboratories
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Researchers
49
0
0
0
0
0
0
49
PhD
34
0
0
0
0
0
0
34
Laboratories
7
0
3
0
6
9
0
25
Researchers
79
0
17
0
81
68
0
245
PhD
49
0
12
0
29
32
0
122
Laboratories
7
4
7
1
6
2
1
28
Researchers
18
31
48
9
42
21
15
184
PhD
9
14
24
4
14
6
6
77
Laboratories
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
INRETS
Researchers
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
6
PhD
0
0
0
11
0
0
0
11
Laboratories
17
4
18
2
29
12
1
83
Researchers
169
31
206
15
372
96
15
904
PhD
106
14
117
15
224
43
6
525
UAM 2
TOTAL
Organisation
CNRS
CNRS/
INSERM
INSERM
Source

:
table elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study
.


Three topics
have major importance, whether in terms of labs, or in number of researchers and PhD
students; these topics are:




Neuroscience with 29 labs and 372 researchers;



Microbiology and transmissible pathologies with 18 labs and 206 researchers;



Genetics, immunol
ogy and cancer research with 17 labs and 169 researchers.


In “Alpes Maritimes”, public research can also be decomposed into seven main research topics, even
if one lab is involved in several different research topics.

Therefore, as regards Figure 14, in
the line “CNRS” for instance, the number 6 does not express the
number of CNRS labs, but the total of activities implemented by CNRS research units on that topic,
for example, considering that one lab can implement activities in the domain of “cellular bio
logy” and
at the same time, in the domains of “intracellular signalling” and of “immunology”.




Figure 15

: Thematic distribution of the number of labs

by organisation and life science category.


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Organisation
Cellular biology-
intracellular
signalling
Biology of
development
Endocrinology
Genetics-
Immunology
Neurobiology
Pharmacology
Animal
physiology
CNRS
6
3
2
4
1
1
3
INSERM
16
2
4
7
0
1
1
UNSA
1
0
1
1
1
1
3
TOTAL
23
5
7
12
2
3
7
%
39,0
8,5
11,9
20,3
3,4
5,1
11,9
Source

: table elaborated from d
ata collected from various sources for this case study.


With regard to this table, we note that some themes weigh more in importance than others. This is the
case of “cellular biology and intracellular signalling”. Indeed, 23 research labs, most notably
i
ncluding INSERM (16), engage in activities in this domain. This research theme is the most exploited
by diverse research labs. “Genetics and immunology” also constitute a quite recurrent theme within
sundry labs. With a more or less equivalent weight, “end
ocrinology” and “biology of development”
follow, with respectively 7 and 5 labs which pursue some research in these domains; followed lastly
by “pharmacology” and “neurobiology”. According to departments, labs seem to have implemented
different development

logics. Indeed, they don’t exactly explore and develop the same themes.
Nevertheless, all the themes seem to be complementary.

We have to note that “Bouches du Rhône” and therefore Marseille, seem to develop research activities
structuration with a rathe
r disciplinary type, even though “Alpes Maritimes”, and thus Nice, also
present a more thematic type of structuration.


To conclude, we can note that labs located in “Bouches du Rhône” apply more effort in basic
research, so this department seems to recor
d a certain deficiency in clinical research. The opposite
situation can be observed in “Alpes Maritimes”. In PACA region, research activity is distributed in an
unequal manner. On the one hand, labs are concentrated around two poles, Marseille and Nice
-
Sop
hia
Antipolis, and on the other hand, the location of research activities differs depending on whether it
concerns basic or clinical research.


5. Regional labs and the firms’ landscape.


As regards the industrial and scientific panorama of life sciences
activities in PACA region, namely
implemented by the activities of public and private actors, the first fact that we can establish is the
existing paradox concerning the location of these activities within both departments. This paradox not
only concerns t
he distribution of the actors themselves within PACA region, but also, the regional
distribution of these activities that can evolve from these different actors. So, we can note a certain
imbalance with the number of firms, but also with the number of labs

(even if, this is at a lesser level)
than we can register in both departments where life sciences activity is concentrated.




Figure 16

: Geographic distribution of labs and firms number in PACA region.


Actors
Departments
Strength
%
Alpes Maritimes
55
39,9
Bouches du Rhône
83
60,1
Total
138
100
Alpes Maritimes
70
72,2
Bouches du Rhône
27
27,8
Total
97
100
Laboratories
Firms



Source

: table elaborated from data collected from various sources for this case study.

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Indeed, near to 60 % of labs are concentrated in the department of “Bouches du Rhône”, even though
concurrently, this department only gathers together less than 30 %
of life sciences firms. Even though
scientific potential, at least quantitatively, is located around the pole of Marseille, industrial potential
is concentrated around Nice
-
Sophia Antipolis. For all that, we have to note that this latter pole also
has some

scientific resources at its disposal, even if these resources essentially concern clinical
research. Another regional duality between both departments justly results from the fact that labs
located in “Bouches du Rhône” essentially implement basic researc
h activities, to the detriment of
clinical research, while in “Alpes Maritimes”, the situation is reversed. In the end, at the regional
level, it appears that basic research is distinctly more developed, seeing that for all disconcerted
departments, it rep
resents nearly 70 % of basic research undertaken by public labs’ research activities.


The firms’ activities also show regional differences. Indeed, as we have seen, both poles do not
present the same characteristics as with their local industrial tissue.
So the question which can be put
forth is how to know what explains these differences.


In the next part of the regional study, we will focus on the Alpes Maritimes area in order to
investigate in more detail the perception of local firms, as regards the e
xistence of localised
knowledge. We are conducting a series of interviews with the most significant research
-
based SMEs
in order to identify the importance of local ties for the working of their activities.


6. Localized Knowledge in the PACA region

: In
sights from the “Alpes Maritimes” case study



We tested some of the hypotheses expressed in the previous part by developing a set of interviews
with a sample of firms located in the surroundings of the Nice Area. Those firms have been
investigated in the
aim of highlighting some major trends that were established from the quantitative
analysis of the PACA resources in life sciences.


Mostly, we wanted to consider the dualistic patterns by understanding the relative importance of
applied (or clinical) resea
rch in the Nice area as well as the reasons for a concentration of industrial
firms related to life sciences in that geographical area (in contrast to Marseille).


Actually, the set of interviews allows us to suggest a few crucial patterns, as regards the
importance of
localised knowledge and collective learning based on geographical proximity effects. At least, the
discussion is synthesised by addressing eight crucial patterns:


1. Industrial concentration in the Nice area is mainly due to a positive image

effect

Most of the firms related to those sectors are located in the surroundings of Nice because of the
positive image effect of the French Riviera. The latter is quite systematically indicated in order to
justify for the location, essentially because
it allows for improving relationships with main customers.
The attractiveness of the French Riviera (the importance of the Nice airport, the quality of
accommodation, the leisure dimension of the area, the climate influence as well as the multi
-
cultural
as
pect of the Riviera) is a major explanatory variable in order to understand this industrial
concentration. At least, for certain segments of activities like cosmetic for instance, only two
economic poles can be considered for locating in France (Paris or t
he Côte d’Azur).


2. Industrial concentration is mainly focussing on activities at the periphery of life sciences

Many of the firms we met are developing market niches that are very specific. Most of them are
concentrating activities in areas such as para
pharmaceuticals, cosmetic or even dermatology in such a
way that they are not directly involved in the traditional conception of life sciences applications. The
industrial concentration in the Alpes Maritimes area is essentially due to the development of s
uch
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“peripheral” activities as regards the usual way by which life sciences activities are defined. However,
these research
-
based SMEs are confronting international competition in those market niches. Many of
them have no local competitors but act on marke
ts where competitive pressure is mainly due to US
firms. They also act world
-
wide, including US and Asian customers.


3.
Local attractiveness is more due to the location of potential customers than to the scientific
potential

Interestingly, the SMEs in the

sample express the feeling of having a geographical advantage which is
the location in the Monaco area of a few large multinational corporations (Biotherm, Lancaster,
Arkopharma, etc.). If the latter could be thought of as targeted customers for SMEs (whi
ch they are
not), the advantage lies in indirect effects from the location of these large corporations. Actually,
purchasing firms of those large firms are visiting the area quite frequently and this is a source of
potential advantage for SMEs in the envir
onment. When a purchasing firm visits these large
corporations, it is quite easy to expand their contact lists to some of these SMEs. This appears as one
indirect advantage, beyond the image effect of the French Riviera. There are some secondary effects,
a
s regards the working of the local labour market. The location and concentration of those large
corporations can be thought of as an opportunity as it also represents a reservoir of human resources
that can be helpful in the working and growth of surroundi
ng SMEs. To the contrary, relationships
between SMEs and local public research infrastructure seem to be very weak. This is due to two
converging factors. On the one hand, SMEs are exploiting market niches and related products. As
such, they do not need hi
gh levels of R&D and R&D activity is mainly the result of in
-
house
capabilities. On the other hand, those market niches do not involve high requirements in terms of
analytical understanding of the products’ effects. Therefore, it is obvious that there is n
o need to
connect importantly with the state
-
of
-
the
-
art as regards progress of science. However, this is changing
quite importantly under consumers’ pressure. There is a growing concern about quality and the
expected effect of products that oblige SMEs to
be more aware of their products’ effects (primary and
secondary as well).


4. Localised Knowledge, interactive learning and regulatory constraints

We get the feeling that regulatory constraints can directly play a positive role in the working of
localised
knowledge. More precisely, we want to emphasise the reverse assumption, that most of the
SMEs we met are avoiding the traditional regulatory regimes in pharmaceutical activities which are
the products’ approvals. By developing cosmetological and para
-
pharm
aceutical products, most of
those SMEs are facing weaker legal obligations, and they can work in a much more isolated way, each
from the other. Not only contact with the scientific expertise is lower, but the commonality of facing
the same legal constraint
s (products’ approval procedures) limits the interactions among them. To the
contrary, the way they can exploit market niches independently one from the other is enhanced by this
higher liberty, as regards the regulatory regime.


5. Localised knowledge, in
teractive learning and cost constraints

The major mark of localised knowledge from the set of SMEs investigated lies in reasons of costs.
There is a current and general tendency to increase outsourcing (be it the research, manufacturing,
and/or distributio
n phase of the production process). In order to face that tendency, there is an obvious
trend which is to favour local partnerships as far as cost concerns being more or less comparable.
Coordination and transaction costs with regard to the outsourcing pro
cess, are thought to be decreased
in the case of local cooperation, as it is much more easier to control for quality issues as well as for
adjusting product specifications. There is an insistence on the distinction between sub
-
contracting and
outsourcing,

as regards the quality of the relation among the partners. The latter should imply trust but
also management and continuous interaction for which local proximity is thought of as an advantage.
Indeed, localised knowledge effects for those activities are c
entrally to be found around the set of
interactions among various activities that are not solely belonging to life sciences’ activities.
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Manufacturing, instrumentation, design, packaging, IPRs’ consultancy activities are all part of a
network gravitating a
round those para
-
pharmaceutical and cosmetological firms. Therefore, localised
knowledge for this productive system is much less concerned with science
-
indsutry relationships than
with integrating all facilities that can reduced the cost function as well a
s increase firms’ reactivity.


6. The weak influence of science resources on localised knowledge effects

Local science
-
industry relationships are weak, as we already pinpointed. However, scientific
resources are marginally activated under two main types

of connections. The one is punctual
expertise, the other is the labour market effect. Punctual expertise exists; but those SMEs are
connected to individual scientists more than to scientific institutions. In other words, relations to
science are bi
-
latera
l and incorporated in formal contracts that protect SMEs quite effectively. The
latter are considering science institutions as potential dangers as they vehicle and disseminate too
much information (partly voluntary, but essentially non
-
voluntary). Consequ
ently, contacts (or
contracts) with scientific institutions are considered a risky business and most SMEs are limiting their
local contacts to minor connections. The other connection to local public scientific institutions is
essentially the labour market
effect. SMEs are facing an increasing need to understand analytically all
the effects of their products. As such, doctoral and post
-
doctoral students from the local scientific
infrastructure create a good opportunity for finding appropriate human resources

and this
phenomenon has quite a clear cut regional aspect. Many of the scientists working in those SMEs are
originating either from the Marseille or Nice universities. However, this does not seem to be
associated, at least for the moment, in increasing re
lationships between the science infrastructure and
those local SMEs.


7.
Local science and research
-
based SMES are nevertheless networking world
-
wide

An interesting characteristic from the sample of local SMEs lies in the internationalisation of their
ac
tivities. When they required specific capabilities, most of them are able to identify partners and to
connect on a world
-
wide scene. In that respect, local scientific infrastructure is not necessarily an
advantage as they are mainly networking with scienti
fic resources at an international level. Moreover,
those disciplines do not actually require high equipment or logistical infrastructures for which local
scientific infrastructure would be an attractive provider. To the contrary, we already insist on the f
act
that local SMEs are reluctant to interface with local scientific resources, either because of a traditional
gap between scientists’ habits and business requirements (time and cost problems in reacting to firms’
wants), or because local scientists are a
lso world
-
wide connected and this is perceived as a risk to
losing control of innovation processes (secrecy problems). However, local science is also developing
industrial contacts and contracts which are world
-
wide. There is here a sort of paradox as rega
rds the
localised knowledge problems. Both research
-
based SMEs and public research labs are quite
impressively connected with the rest of the world. However, local ties among them seem very weak
and we get the feeling of two quite effective but importantly

divided networks.


8.
Local Policy
-
making

The lack of local ties among research
-
based SMEs and public research labs is a good opportunity to
address policy issues, and especially localised knowledge policies. This case study offers a potent
example of mis
match, as regards localised knowledge. Industrial opportunities stemming from the
working of life sciences in this Alpes Maritimes study appeared very weak, despite the statistical
identification of quite a real pole of activities in those domains. To some

extent, this Alpes Maritimes
study offers an interesting example of coordination failures, as regards the promotion of localised
knowledge. Many factors have to be investigated further. For certain, initial conditions matter as an
explanatory variable (th
e lack of industrial tradition). But the weak ability of local policy
-
makers to
solve for the previous mismatch between research
-
based SMEs and local public research must also be
pointed out. This is something which will be under deeper discussion within
the workpackage four of
the research programme. At least, the conditions for localised knowledge to occur in the case of life
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sciences activities are quite interesting to be discussed as we already pinpoint the internationalised
character of those activiti
es and their geographical concentration into some specific areas (as in the
United States). Certainty, the situation is quite different in Europe and the PACA case study offers in
that respect an interesting illustration of what should be under discussion
in order to anticipate
localised knowledge effects at a regional level in the European context.