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Intermediate I Biology
-

Biotechnological Industries


Revision Notes

Version 2

Feb 2004 revised 2007

Page
1

of
12

Biotechnology


Intermediate 1


Contents


DAIRY INDUSTRIES

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...

2

M
ILK
.

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2

Y
OGHURT
.

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.....................

3

C
HEESE
.

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........................

3

E
NVIRONMENTAL
I
MPACT

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4

YEAST
-
BASED INDUSTRIES

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.......................

4

Y
EAST

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4

B
READ
.

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4

B
EER

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5

F
LAVOURING

AND FOOD COLOURING
.

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.................

6

E
NVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
.

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6

DETERGENT INDUSTRIES

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..........................

6

P
RODUCTI
ON OF BIOLOGICAL WAS
HING POWDERS AND LIQ
UIDS
.

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6

E
NVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
.

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7

PHARMACEUTICAL (MEDI
CINE) INDUSTRIES

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7

A
NTIBIOTICS

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7

A
NTIFUNGALS

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8

M
ODERN PRODUCTION MET
HODS

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8

E
NVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
.

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8

VOCABULARY:

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..........

9

Put a tick in each box when you
can answer each question

................................
................................
.

9

Can you give the meaning of these words?

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..........................

9

WHAT TO LEARN

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....

10

Can you explain about these?

................................
................................
.

Error! Bookmark not defined.



Intermediate I Biology
-

Biotechnological Industries


Revision Notes

Version 2

Feb 2004 revised 2007

Page
2

of
12

Dairy industries

Milk.




Milk is a food containing

o

Sugar

o

Fats

o

Proteins

o

Vitamins

o

Minerals

(such as calcium)



Milk is processed to:

o

Make it last longer

o

Kill

germs that might cause disease



Milk processes are:

o

E
vaporated milk



M
u
c
h of the water in the milk is evaporated out



T
he heat treated milk
is
put in an evaporator, where it is concentrated

o

S
kimmed milk



T
he fat is taken out of the milk

o

S
emi
-
skimmed milk



M
ost

of the fat is taken out of the milk but some is left

o

P
asteurised

milk



the milk is heated to
destroy
most

(
but
not all)
disease
-
causing
microbes.



Heat treated to 72°C for 15 seconds then cooled to around 5°C.



This

milk will keep for 5 days in a fridge.

o

UHT
milk.



This milk is heated to over 135ºC

(higher than boiling)

for 2
-
5 seconds.



This changes the taste of the milk



UHT treatment preserves milk and prolongs shelf life by destroying
all

the microbes which cause milk to sour.



It will keep at room temper
ature in a sealed container for a long time

Intermediate I Biology
-

Biotechnological Industries


Revision Notes

Version 2

Feb 2004 revised 2007

Page
3

of
12



Tests

are carried out on milk
for
bacteria
(germs)
to test

for fitness
to drink
.

o

The

resazurin

test is used to demonstrate the presence

of
bacteria
.

o

Blue resazurin is added to the milk

o

The milk is heated to 40ºC

for 20 minutes

o

If the resazurin turns
from blue to
pink the milk is unfit to drink

Yoghurt.



Bacterial

cultures can be added to pasteurised

milk to make yoghurt.

o

Making yoghurt is a method of preserving

milk.

o

Bacterial cultures are added to the milk.

o

They

convert sugar to an acid which helps clot the protein to thicken the milk

o

The acid and the bacteria help preserve

and thicken

the milk

o

They also give the yoghurt its flavour


Cheese.



To make cheese:

o

The milk must be clotted

o

To do this
rennet

is added




T
he rennet clots the protein in milk to make
curds
,
the liquid left is the

whey



Rennet can be obtained from a variety of
sources: from
calves’

stomachs or from
genetically engineered

yeast

(this is
called
genetic modification

(GM) or
genetic engineering
)
.



Genetic engineering is changing a micro
-
beast so it produces a useful
product.



Type of
R
ennet

Advantage

Disadvantage

Natural

Not a GM food

(genetically modified)

A lot of calves have to be killed
to produce a little rennet.

The cheese is not suitable
for
vegetarians

Bioengineered

(GM)

Can be eaten by
vegetarians

No calves are killed

Some people will not eat GM
foods

Intermediate I Biology
-

Biotechnological Industries


Revision Notes

Version 2

Feb 2004 revised 2007

Page
4

of
12

Bacteria
are also added to the milk.

o

They convert sugar to an acid which helps clot the protein and also affect
s

the
flavour

of the cheese.



The longer the cheese is left to mature the stronger the taste becomes

o

The liquid left is called
whey

Environmental Impact



Cheese making can affect the environment



Waste whey used to be dumped into rivers
.

o

Bacteria
increase

in numbers and
use up

all the
oxygen

in the water


o

which kills plants and fish



Whey is a waste product which can be upgraded.

o

Whey can be used as
a food source for growing yeast
in fermenters to produce
a creamy alcoholic drink.

o

Whey can also be used to feed animals.

Ye
ast
-
based industries

Yeast



Yeast

is a simple
fungus

o

It is very tiny and oval shaped under a
microscope

o

Yeast eats sugar and makes alcohol and
carbon dioxide

(CO
2
)

o

This is called
fermentation

o

Sugar


alcohol‫ CO
2

Bread.



Yeast

is used
in
bread dough.

o

The yeast makes bubbles of carbon dioxide in
the dough

o

This causes the bread to rise

o

The bread becomes light and fluffy

Intermediate I Biology
-

Biotechnological Industries


Revision Notes

Version 2

Feb 2004 revised 2007

Page
5

of
12

Beer
.



In beer making yeast converts sugar into
alcohol and carbon dioxide.


o

The type of yeast, the temperature
and the

fermentation time affect the
alcohol content of

the beer
produced.



Cask conditioned

beer (real ale)

o

t
he yeast is not removed at the end of fermentation

o

As

a result fermentation and carbon dioxide production continue in the cask

which slowly improves the f
lavour
.

o

The “fizz” in the beer is entirely natural



Brewery conditioned

beer

(keg beer)
.

o

Yeast is removed

by filtering

at the end of fermentation
.

o

This kills all microorganisms so the flavour does not change.

o

Additional

carbon dioxide is added

to make it fizzy
.


Fermented milk drinks.



An enzyme can be added to milk to convert some sugar
to
lactic acid
.

o

Lactic acid is sour flavoured and helps thicken
the milk



Yeast is also added and converts some sugar to alcohol
and carbon dioxide.

o

The product is a fermented milk drink.

o

Both the yeast and the enzyme can be
immobilised

so that they can be separated from
the end
-
product and can be used again.



In immobilisation the yeast and enzyme
are caught in
jelly beads



The milk is passed slowly over the beads
to let the yeast and enzymes work.



Kumis

is a fermented drink traditionally made
from the milk of horses in Mongolia.




Milk drink out

Jelly beads
with yeast

Fermenter

Milk goes
in


Intermediate I Biology
-

Biotechnological Industries


Revision Notes

Version 2

Feb 2004 revised 2007

Page
6

of
12

Flavouring and food colouring.



Flavourings and food colourings can be produced from yeast.

o

Crisps can be flavoured



Salt is added to the yeast and it is then heated to make the

flavour



the flavours are the meaty flavours such as
barbeque beef

and so on.

o

Salmon

flesh is
coloured

red using
pink

yeast products

Environmental impact.



Waste from yeast
-
based industry can have the same effect on rivers as whey
:


o

Bacteria
increase

in numbers and
use up

all the
oxygen

in the water

o

which kills plants and fish



Yeast
-
based industries upgrade their waste by
:

o

Producing

animal feeds such as cattle cake.



Yeast is involved in the upgrading of waste whey

to make animal feed
.


Detergent
industries

Production of biological washing powders and liquids.



Biological

washing powders and liquids use
enzymes

to help cleaning

o

Enzymes

are chemicals that reduce the temperature at which cleaning can be
done.

o

The enzyme
digests

the stains
:



Most stains

are biological like sweat and food



The enzyme
s break

the stain down (
digest
) into chemicals that dissolve
easily



It is claimed that this saves energy and results in less damage to delicate fabrics.



Washing at lower temperatures reduces fuel consumption
:

o

T
his reduces the pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels in power
stations.



Enzymes are produced in large quantities by bacteria cultured in industrial fermenters.

o

Enzymes are covered in a

harmless coating

to prevent allergic reactions which
can cau
se skin rashes and eczema.

Intermediate I Biology
-

Biotechnological Industries


Revision Notes

Version 2

Feb 2004 revised 2007

Page
7

of
12

Environmental impact.



Detergents in waste water can be toxic to wildlife.



Detergents contain other chemicals which can increase the growth of algae (minute
plants) in lakes and rivers



When algae die this can have the same effect

as whey released into rivers.



To prevent this:

o

Manufactures try to reduce the chemicals in detergents,

o

sewage works remove

these chemicals before releasing water into the
environment.

Pharmaceutical
(medicine)
industries



pharmaceuticals

are medicines



diseases are caused by germs
:

o

bacteria

o

viruses

o

funguses and yeasts

Antibiotics



Antibiotics

are
chemicals that are
produced naturally by fungi
found in

soil by Alexander
Fleming.

o

The antibiotic he discovered is
Penicillin

which is still in use
today



Antibiotics destroy and prevent the
further growth of bacteria.

o

Antibiotics
only

act on
bacteria

and not on viruses

o

So they will not work on the
common col
d or other virus diseases



Different antibiotics are effective against different bacteria.

o

We need a range of antibiotics to treat all the bacterial diseases



Antibiotics are produced commercially in
large

industrial fermenters.



Petri Dish

Penicillin
Fungus

Bacteria

Intermediate I Biology
-

Biotechnological Industries


Revision Notes

Version 2

Feb 2004 revised 2007

Page
8

of
12

Antifungals
.



Antifungals

are chemicals which

act on
fungus infections
only and

limit fungal growth.

o

They are used to treat fungal infections such as athletes


foot and thrush.

Modern production methods



Huge

fermenters

are used to produce
medicines

o

In the fermenters
germs

have been
genetically engineered

(genetically
modified
to

produce a useful
substance
:




e.g. enzymes for washing
powders
.

o

Genetic engineering

means
changing a
germ

to produce
something useful
.

o

It is often called GM nowadays for
Genetically Modified.

o

This
means it is easier to manufacture and purify the final product.



Computer
-
control technology
is used to
:

o

monitor

growing

conditions with
sensors


o

adjust

growing conditions
to be best for the germs:



temperature



pH

(how acid or alkali it is)



oxygen levels



nutrients


(food for the microbes)
.

Environmental impact.



Using antibiotics too often

can lead to bacteria developing

resistance

to the antibiotics.

o

This means there are some diseases that are very difficult to cure
:

o

MRSA in hospitals is an example of
this
:



Up to 100,000 patients fall victim to some form of infection in hospital
every year, in some cases leading to amputation and death

(2003)



It is estimated that MRSA contributed to the deaths of over 800 people
in the UK
in 2003



Treatment costs drain up to £1 billion from the NHS every year. (from
the Guardian Monday August
2, 2004

http://www.guardian.co.uk/theissues/article/0,6512,401817,00.html

)

Intermediate I Biology
-

Biotechnological Industries


Revision Notes

Version 2

Feb 2004 revised 2007

Page
9

of
12


Vocabulary:

Put a tick in each box when you can answer each question

Can you give the meaning of these words?



e
vaporated milk


s
kimmed milk


s
emi
-
skimmed milk


Pasteurised milk


UHT milk.


bacteria


resazurin


r
ennet


c
urds


w
hey


y
east


fermentation


c
ask conditioned

(real ale)


b
rewery conditioned

(keg conditioned)


Lactic acid.


immobilised


e
nzymes


digests


pharmaceuticals


a
ntibiotics


p
enicillin


a
ntifungals


a
thlete’s foot


t
h牵獨


g
敮整楣e敮e楮敥物rg
/g敮整i挠
moT楦i捡瑩on

Intermediate I Biology
-

Biotechnological Industries


Revision Notes

Version 2

Feb 2004 revised 2007

Page
10

of
12


What
you need
to
know


The five things in milk


Two reasons why milk is treated


How milk is tested using
resazurin


How yoghurt is made


How cheese is made


One advantage and one disadvantage of using genetically engineered rennet


One advantage and one disadvantage of using natural rennet


Why bacteria are needed to make cheese


The effect of whey on rivers


How whey can be upgraded


How bread is made


How beer is made


The difference between cask and brewery conditioning


How fermented milk drinks are made


How to immobilise yeast


The advantages of immobilising yeast


How yeast can be used as colouring


How yeast can be used as a flavouring


The effects of dumping yeast in rivers


How waste yeast can be upgraded


How do biological washing powders work


How do biological powders
benefit

the household


How do biological powders
benefit

the environment


How can washing powders
harm

the environment


How is damage to the environment kept as small as possible

Intermediate I Biology
-

Biotechnological Industries


Revision Notes

Version 2

Feb 2004 revised 2007

Page
11

of
12


What
do antibiotics do?


Who discovered antibiotics


How do you decide which antibiotic to use


What does an antifungal do


Name two fungal diseases


What is meant be genetic modification (GM)


How does a fermenter work


How is a fermenter controlled


What problem has arisen with the
over
use of antibiotics




Intermediate I Biology
-

Biotechnological Industries


Revision Notes

Version 2

Feb 2004 revised 2007

Page
12

of
12

Acknowledgements


All pictures in this document are copyright of the author


Ray Husthwaite


except for these copyright
waived images from Wikipedia:

Yeast photomicrograph

by
Masur




Brewery photograph
-

Original uploader was
Kafziel

at
en.wikipedia

Both images are released as follows:

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify
this document

under the terms of the
GNU Free
Documentation License
, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the
Free Software Foundation
; wit
h
no Invariant Sections, no Front
-
Cover Texts, and no Back
-
Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in
the section entitled "
GNU Free Documentation License
".