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TI
-
30

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



The original TI
-
30

The
TI
-
30

was a
scientific calculator

manufactured by
Texas Instruments
, the first of which was introduced
in
1976
. While the original TI
-
30 left production in 1983 after several design revisions, TI maintains the
TI
-
30 designation as a branding for its low an
d mid
-
range scientific calculators.

Contents

[
hide
]



1

Price



2

Description



3

Repurposing



4

TI
-
30 models



5

References

[
edit
]

Price

The original TI
-
30 was notable for its very low cost for the time, around US$25. This was much less than
the retail prices of other scientific calculators of the era; for example,
Hewlett
-
Packard
's cheapest scientific
at the time was still well over US$100. The Casio
FX
-
20
, another popular scientific calculator, sold for
roughly
double the price of the TI
-
30. The TI
-
30 sold for less than the cost of a professional grade
slide
rule
, which became rapidly obsolete. The TI
-
30 sold an estimated 15 million manufactured during its
l
ifespan from 1976

1983.
[
citation needed
]

It is rumored that the original TI
-
30 got its name from a planned retail price of
US$
29.95 or US$30. Even if
true, however, the MSRP was $24.95 at introduction, and all current models in the line are less than US$20
as of December 2007.

[
edit
]

Desc
ription

The original TI
-
30, essentially a cheaper version of TI's earlier SR
-
40 unit, had an
LED

display, was
powered by a ubiquitous 9
volt

battery, and con
tained nearly all of its functionality in one chip, where
previous calculators had many discrete parts. The TI
-
30 could do just about all the
log

and
trig

functions of
an
HP
-
35
, its primary competition at the time. Although the
TI SR
-
50

pioneered algebraic notation with
precedence and
parentheses

in 1974, and the TI
-
30 made that available at a cheaper price.

The early LED models of the TI
-
30 (circa 1978) contained a logic error in its calculation of inverse
tangents.
On early models, you could press "0 INV TAN" and the calculator would go into an infinite loop
until it was powered off with the OFF button. The "0" had to be pressed on the keyboard; the calculator
produced a correct answer if the "0" was the result of a
previous calculation. The early TI
-
30 had much
slower trig functions than the SR
-
50 (taking about 3 secs vs. 1 second for the SR
-
50).

In 1980, TI converted the TI
-
30 to use an LCD, releasing the TI
-
30LCD in Europe and the TI
-
30 II a year
later in the U.S.
The calculator itself remained functionally similar over several redesigns in the following
few years, with solar power coming to the line in 1982 in a joint venture with
Toshiba
. The X in all current
TI
-
30 models refers to the addition of a 10+2 display (that is, a 10 digit
mantissa

plus a 2
-
digit
exponent
) in
1993; with th
e addition of a 2
-
line display and a
D
-
pad

in the XIIS/XIIB in 1999, the TI
-
30 line split in 2,
with the TI
-
30Xa becoming TI's overall entry
-
level scientific, and the enhanced XII designs offering more
inp
ut flexibility to the user. The MultiView models, introduced in 2006 and 2007, replace the 2
-
line display
with a
dot matrix

display similar to a
graphing calculator
, and move many of the functions traditionally
placed on or next to individual calculator keys off onto menus very similar to those used on the popular
TI
-
83

calculator line.

A
t one time or another, most models in the line since the introduction of the LCD models have been
available in both solar powered and battery versions; the Xa retains solar power only on models sold in a
few markets in Europe, while the XIIS and XS MultiVi
ew models run off both solar and battery power
depending on available ambient light. The earliest model, however, ran off of a 9 volt battery, and was said
to drain the battery quite quickly, creating a market in aftermarket rechargeable battery upgrades.

[
edit
]



The
Speak & Spell

line is a series of
electronic

h
andheld
[1]
[2]
[3]

educational toys

created by
Texas
Instrum
ents

that consist of a
speech synthesizer
, a keyboard, and a receptor slot to receive one of a
collection of
ROM

game
[4]

library modules (collectively covered under patent
US 3934233

). The first
Speak & Spell was introduce
d at the summer
Consumer Electronics Show

in June 1978,
[5]

making it one of
the earlie
st handheld
[2]

electronic
[5]

devices with a visual display
[6]

to use interchangeable game
cartridges.
[7]

Contents

[
hide
]



1 Background



2 The Speak & Spell console


o

2.1 The original Spe
ak & Spell

o

2.2 Later Speak & Spell models



3 Electronics



4 Cartridges



5 Home computer adaptions


o

5.1 Emulation



6 Legacy


o

6.1

In commercial music

o

6.2 Circuit bending

o

6.3 Notable
appearances in other media



7 Variants


o

7.1 Speak & Read line

o

7.2 Speak & Math line

The Speak & Spell used the first single
-
chip voice synthesizer, the TMC0280, later called the TI
TMS5100
,
which utilized a 10th
-
order
linear predictive coding

(LPC) model by using pipelined electronic
DSP

logic.
[32]

A variant of this chip with a very similar voice would eventually be utilized in certain
Chrysler

vehicles in the 1980s as the
Electronic Voice Alert
.

Speech synthesis data (
phoneme data
) for the spoken words were stored on a pair of

128 Kbit metal gate
PMOS ROMs. 128 Kbit was, at the time the largest capacity ROM in the late 1970s. Additional memory
module cartridges could be interchangeably plugged into a slot in the battery compartment and selected via
a button on the keyboard. The

technique used to create the words was to have a professional speaker speak
the words. The utterances were captured and processed using a mini
-
computer. Finally the data were hand
edited to fix any voicing errors while reducing the data rate to an optimal

level. The stored data were for the
specific words and phrases used in the Speak & Spell. The data rate was about 1,000 bits per second.

The video
-
display employed in the Speak & Spell was a
vacuum fluorescent display

(VFD). The later
Super Speak & Spell model, had a much slimmer case and an
LCD

screen rathe
r than a VFD screen.

The unit could use either 4 "C" batteries or 6 volt
DC

power adapter with positive tip polarity.

[
edit
]


Atari 400


Atari 8
-
bit Operating Systems ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Version
3.3, 6/27/1999.

NOTES: The 400/800 O.S's consist of three ROMs
(two 4kB and one 2kB).
The 1200XL contains two ROMs for the OS (8k each), XL/XE's use a single
16k ROM and the 16k XEGS OS is stored in a 32k ROM (together with 8k
BASIC and 8k for Missile Command).


hat kinds of RAMdisks can be set up on the Atari? This
section by
Andreas Magenheimer. 8.10 Atari Ramdisks
-

An (incomplete) Overview:
[This is version 2.10 from October 2003] Right from the start of the
Atari 8
-
bit computer era in the late 70`s, Atari users wanted to have
as much RAM as possibl
e (or as their purse could afford). Having a
16k machine with a tape device was nice and cheap, but having full
48k or 64k and a floppy drive was much nicer (and very expensive).
Thus many Atari users began to create selfmade RAM extensions and
enha
ncements, just to save some money. Also a lot of firms provided
extra RAM, RAM enhancements, RAM extensions and Ramdisks. Besides
Atari there were (and still are) quite a lot of producers,
manufacturers, distributors and authors of such RAM enhancements
...
This "short" and incomplete overview does not provide any docs or
manuals, but gives some info about the various Ramdisks on the
market. Since these notes are written by me, they will merely contain
the information I have. And as you all can s
ee
-

it is still
incomplete. So any help and extra info, as well as corrections, are
very welcome. It would be nice to see this text & info growing. For
now let us start here, the info
-
section is divided into 8 groups:
1) Name (Name of the RD, e.g.

Megaram 2 or Rambo XL or MIO, etc.); 2)
Vendor/Author (or distributor, manufacturer, producer, etc.); 3) Size
(size of the Ramdisk only; NOT the full computer memory); 4)
[Bankswitching] Area (for XL/XE computers usually 4000
-
7FFF); 5) Banks
(hexadeci
mal input count, as in MyDOS or RAMDTEST.BIN); 6) Control
Bits (which bits are used to control the Rambanks); 7) Port (control
Port
-

usually Port B for XL/XE machines); 8) Notes (any extra info,
comments, miscelleanous things, etc.); If you wish to
add any other
type of info, let me know. The above information should be enough for
most programmers to support a RD in their programs (especially to
support more than just one type of RD). Hopefully future programs will
take care about this info or jus
t use a small setup program to setup
any kind of RD. Now let me begin:
----------------------------------
-----------------------------------------

A) Atari 400/800
Ramdisks: Name Vendor Size Area
Banks

Bits Port Notes
-

Axlon
Axlon/Atari 64k 4000
-
7FFF 0 thru 3 0,1
(CFFF) plug
-
in
-
board Note: total memory = 96kbytes (32k RAM +
64k RD);
-

Axlon Axlon/Atari 128k

4000
-
7FFF
0 thru 7 0,1,2 (CFFF) plug
-
in
-
board Note:
total memory = 160kbytes (32k RAM + 128k RD);
-

288k800 D.Byrd
and others 256k 4000
-
7FFF 0 thru 15 0,1,2,3
(CFFF) selfmade
-
board N
ote: total memory = 288kbytes, Axlon
compatible;
-

544k800 various authors 512k 4000
-
7FFF
0 thru 31 0,1,2,3,4 (CFFF) selfmade
-
board Note:
total memory = 544kbytes, Axlon compatible;
-

1056k800 various
authors

1024k 4000
-
7FFF 0 thru 63 0,1,2,3,4,5
(CFFF) selfmade
-
board Note: total memory = 1056kbytes, Axlon
compatible;
-

2080k800 various authors 2048k 4000
-
7FFF
0 thru 127 0,1,2,3,4,5,6 (CFFF) selfmade
-
board Note:
total memory = 2080kbytes, Axlon compatible;
-

4128k800 various
authors 4096k 4000
-
7FFF 0 thru 255 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7
(CFFF) selfmade
-
board Note: total memory = 4128kbytes, Axlon
compatible; => Note that all
so
-
called Axlon "compatible" (256k
-
4096k) Ramdisks normally do not homebank when RESET is pressed (a
fix should be available somewhere), whereas original Axlon Ramdisks
do homebank properly !! (Special thanks to Lee Barnes for this
note !!)

-

Mosaic RAMpower by Mosaic Electronics is actually a
Ramboard, that enhances the memory of your Atari 800; avaiable in 3
sizes: 16k, 32k and 64k (where max. 52k can be utilized from 64k).
Looks like these are no Ramdisks, just (normal/main) R
AM
enhancements. But maybe the 64k Ramboard can be patched in some way
to gain a small 16k or 32k Ramdisk (48k RAM + 16k RD or 32k RAM +
32k RD) ?!?
-

...




IBM PC XT 286 (5162)

The IBM PC/XT 286, Model 5162, was an 6MHz 286 AT
-
class PC made by

IBM from late 1986 to early
1987. It was basically an AT redesigned to fit inside an XT
-
class chassis, and it was made to compete whith
the low
-
budget AT
-
clones which were increasing in popularity at the time. Some sources claims that it was
made with the

sole purpose of emptying the stock of XT chassises to prepare for the production for the
PS/2. Due to the short production span, the PC/XT 286 is by many considered to be the rarest of the IBM
PC desktops. The number of produced units is estimated to be s
omewhere between 20 000 and 50 000
units, and working systems in good condition often sells for more than $100 USD on common webmarkets.
Despite it's name, it has very little in common with the actual
IBM PC/XT
.

20meg of harddrive



It shares most of the features of the
IBM PC/AT

with a few differences:



The motherboard is smaller (to fit in an XT chassis), and has a different
layout.



The CMOS battery is a CR
-
P2 battery in a proper battery holder, which can be
operated from the outside of the chassis.



It uses Zero
-
waitstate DRAM for at least the onboard
128KB of RAM, making
it typically run on par with the 8MHz PC/AT.



The later 512KB of RAM is placed on SIMM memory modules rather than on
expansion cards.



It don't got any tuning capacitor for the CGA adapter's composite out colour
-
burst signal.



The BIOS

is different, but it uses much code taken directly from the second
6MHz PC/AT BIOS from 06/10/85.



It got three 8
-
bit
-
only slots instead of just two.



No sockets are present for additional BIOS ROM chips. Instead; The main
BIOS is mirrored in the E000 seg
ment (where the additional BIOS ROM chips
should have been mapped).



The ISA Bus is terminated.