Presented By: Sarah Beltrame Rebecca Cronin Brian Mulder Adam Statham Louis Vargas Steve Zimmerman

flybittencobwebΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

117 εμφανίσεις

Presented By:


Sarah Beltrame

Rebecca Cronin

Brian Mulder

Adam Statham


Louis Vargas


Steve Zimmerman


M
EANING

OF

R
OBOT


The term
robots

was introduced and coined in a
1921
play

Rossoms Universal Robots
by Karel Capek of
Czech.
1,2]



from the Czech

”robota”
meaning forced labor,



Meaning evolved into dumb machines that perform
menial repetitive tasks to the highly intelligent robots of
popular culture.



Today robots are used to perform highly specific, highly
precise, and dangerous tasks in industry and research
previously not possible with a human work force.
Robotics, however, has been slow to enter the field of
medicine and surgery.

History of...


The first documented use of a robot
-
assisted surgical procedure
occurred in 1985.


PUMA 560 robotic surgical arm was used successfully in a delicate
neurosurgical biopsy, a non
-
laparoscopic surgery.


o
The robotic system allowed the potential for greater precision
when used in minimally invasive surgeries,

such as
laparoscopies which typically utilize flexible fiber optic cameras.


o
The 1985 procedure lead to the first laparoscopic procedure
involving a robotic system, a cholecystectomy, in 1987.


o
The following year the same PUMA system was used to perform
a transurethral resection.


o
In 1990 the AESOP system produced by Computer Motion
became the first system approved by the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) for its endoscopic surgical procedure.


Recently…
In 2000


Da Vinci Surgical System


First robotic system approved by the FDA

for general laparoscopic
surgery.


Predecessors relied upon numerous surgical assistants to.


The da Vinci system’s
3D magnification screen

allows the surgeon to
view the operative area with the clarity of high resolution. (Now
High
-
Definition
)


The
1cm

diameter surgical arms represent a significant advancement


With such miniaturized operating arms, the da Vinci system has been
able to remove the need to use the sides of the incision walls for
leverage. This advancement allows for less contact between exposed
interior tissue and the surgical device, which greatly
reduces the risk
of infection
.


The
“Endo
-
wrist”

features of the
operating arms precisely replicate
the skilled movements of the surgeon
at the controls and filter out
any shaking, greatly improving accuracy in small operating spaces


Da Vinci system has been approved by the FDA for use in:


Urological surgeries


General laparoscopic surgeries


General non
-
cardiovascular thoracoscopic surgeries


Thoracoscopically
-
assisted cardiotomy procedures

(da Vinci)

Da Vinci


http://www.viddler.com/
intusurg/videos/120/

Play @ 3:12
-
4:01

How it works


There are 3 different types of robotic surgery systems currently in use


The main difference between each system is how involved a human is in
the process

o

Supervisory
-
Controlled Systems



The surgeon inputs data into the robot and the robot does all of the
following surgery

o
Tele
-
surgical Systems



Cutting and sewing is

performed by a surgeon at a console remote
from the patient


The surgeon can be miles away at another site while performing
this type of surgery

o

Shared Control Systems


Doctors perform the work with the

assistance

of the robots technology, simultaneously


Cost of Technology


Some robotic surgery systems cost more than $1 million to
purchase

o

Possibly $100,000 a year to maintain


I
ncludes maintenance and updates to keep the robots and
equipment current and working properly


Major improvements cost much more


E.g.
-

a major system overhaul is implemented it could
cost a lot to replace obsolete parts and software



While hospitals can save on costs by decreasing the
length of a patient's stay due to a shorter recovery
period, they might not save enough to justify the
expense of the system.


Depends on the scale of the firm



Robots
Vs. Humans
?

Benefits


Doctors are able to perform more
complex tasks (
increases
precision
)


Physically easier
, less awkward
positioning for the surgeon.


Procedures
reduce the risk
of
death, complications, and hospital
stay.


Enhanced
3
-
D High
-
definition
visualization


Key Benefits for the patient:
reduced trauma to the body,
less risk of infection, along with
faster recoveries

Disadvantages


Cost

-

more expensive than
traditional surgery.


Removal of physical contact

with surgery surface.


The procedure can
take nearly
twice as long
, depending on how
well the surgeon knows the
equipment.


The size of the actual equipment
can
take up a lot of space

inside
the operating room


All operating instruments are
NOT
compatible

with the technology
required for Robotic Surgery


Long term cost savings over human:


Current operating rooms require numerous surgeons, nurses,
and even an anesthesiologist


With the automation the robotic surgery brings about, many of
these people can be eliminated from the operating room


This plays a vital role in lowering the cost of healthcare


Will greatly increase precision and even reduce trauma
throughout the surgery process allowing quicker recovery and
patient care quality.


Robotic systems are able to filter out any shaky movements
preventing errors and keeping good quality of service.

How used in Society?



According to the Florida Hospital Association (FHA), the average
cost for one inpatient day in a Florida hospital is approximately
$1,800.


Using FHA’s estimate, the robotics
-
assisted surgery
program reduced costs by approximately $4,500 per hysterectomy
patient and approximately $1,500 per prostatectomy patient.

o
The total estimated cost savings was $267,000 for just these two
procedures alone.


The
da Vinci

Surgical System is used in procedures that treat a
range of conditions:

Bladder Cancer


Obesity

Colorectal Cancer


Prostate Cancer

Coronary Artery Disease


Throat Cancer

Endometriosis


Uterine Fibroids

Gynecologic Cancer


Uterine Prolapse

Kidney Cancer


Mitral Valve Prolapse


.



Uses? Who Uses? Where? What purpose?


Can be used in numerous different hospitals for patients requiring any type of
surgery


A surgeon works either side by side with a robot device, or the surgeon can
control the robot to do everything on its own


Currently there are
not many hospitals

that implement the
use of robotic
surgery


A robotic surgery has numerous different purposes

o
It can replace the crowd in an operating room to just the robot and a
surgeon

o
Another example is if there is a very experienced and specific type of
surgeon in New York and his specific experience is needed in an operation
in California, the surgeon can use a tele
-
surgical systems robot to perform
the surgery by controlling a robot in California while being in New York

o
It can also increase the efficiency of surgery operations while also
decreasing surgery error

Future of...(20+ Years)


Socrates
-

allows surgeons at remote sites to connect to an
operating room and share video and audio, to use a
“telestrator” to highlight anatomy, and to control the AESOP
endoscopic camera.



expanding the use of preoperative (computed tomography or
magnetic resonance) and intraoperative video image fusion
to better guide the surgeon in dissection and identifying
pathology


NANOROBOTS
(
less than 1000 nanometers)

are in development in
the medical field to be inserted into our bodies and perform
surgeries on a molecular level within our bodies and repair us as a
mechanic would a vehicle. (VIDEOS)

reference to possibilities.

Future of Robotics in Medicine


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P7zw9fvfB
ZI&feature=related

Play @ 0:08


0:29

Works Cited

"Benefits of Robotic Surgery."
Robotic Urological Surgery
. Web. 21 Nov. 2011.


<http://www.roboticsurgery.co.uk/benefits.htm>.


B. J. Moran, et al. "Robotic Colorectal Surgery: Hype Or New Hope? A Systematic Review


Of Robotics In Colorectal Surgery."
Colorectal Disease

12.11 (2010): 1084
-
1093.

Academic Search Premier
. Web. 24 Nov. 2011.


Bonsor, Kevin, and Jonathan Strickland. "HowStuffWorks "How Robotic Surgery Will


Work""
HowStuffWorks "Science"

Discover. Web. 21 Nov. 2011.

<http://science.howstuffworks.com/robotic
-
surgery.htm>.


Central Florida Medicine. "Robotic Surgery Shows Positive Benefits For Patients,


Reduced Costs | Space Coast Medicine and Central Florida Medicine."
Space

Coast Medicine and Healthy Living
. 2 June 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011.

<http://www.spacecoastmedicine.com/2011/06/robotic
-
surgery
-
shows
-
positive
-

benefits
-
for
-
patients
-
reduced
-
costs.html>.


“da
Vinci ... Changing The Experience of Surgery."
Da Vinci Surgery
-

Minimally Invasive


Robotic
Surgery with the Da Vinci Surgical System
. Da Vinci Surgery. Web. 21

Nov
. 2011. <http://www.davincisurgery.com
/>.

Works Cited

"Disadvantages to Robotic Surgery."
Bimoned.brow.edu
. Web. 21 Nov. 2011.


<http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/BI108_2004_Groups/Group02/Group%

2002%20Website/robodisadvan.htm>.


Lanfranco, Anthony R., Andres E. Castellanos, Jaydev P. Desai, and William C. Meyers.

"Robotic Surgery."
Robotic Surgery A Current Perspective
. Annals of Surgery,

Jan.


Medicine, 2011. Web. 21 Nov 2011. <http://www.roboticoncology.com/history/>.


Roe, Lila. "What Are the Benefits of Robotic Surgery? | EHow.com."
EHow | How to


Videos, Articles & More
-

Discover the Expert in You. | EHow.com
. Web. 21

Nov.2011.<http://www.ehow.com/facts_5953761_benefits
-
robotic
-

surgery_.html>.


Samadi M.D., David B.. "DaVinci robotic surgery
-

first FDA approved system."


Robotic Oncology
-

History of Robotic Surgery
. Mount Sinai School of


2004. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1356187/>.


Question #1

PUMA 560 was the
first

robot to be used in
surgery in which year?


A.
1955

B.
1962

C.
1985

D.
1992

Question #2


The ADVANTAGES to robotic surgery include all
of the following
EXCEPT:


A.
Surgical instruments are minimally invasive.

B.
Surgeons are able to talk to the robot.

C.
Recovery time is significantly reduced.

D.
The surgeon may more easily reach difficult
areas of the body.

Question #3


Nanorobots will be used in the following ways:


A. Inserted into bodies to repair from the inside.

B. To conduct surgical prep work.

C. To carry alcohol through our bodies.

D. Found in mouthwash to care for a mouth from

within.

F. A,B, and C

G. A,B, and D