was introduced and coined in a
Rossoms Universal Robots
by Karel Capek of
from the Czech
meaning forced labor,
Meaning evolved into dumb machines that perform
menial repetitive tasks to the highly intelligent robots of
Today robots are used to perform highly specific, highly
precise, and dangerous tasks in industry and research
previously not possible with a human work force.
Robotics, however, has been slow to enter the field of
medicine and surgery.
The first documented use of a robot
assisted surgical procedure
occurred in 1985.
PUMA 560 robotic surgical arm was used successfully in a delicate
neurosurgical biopsy, a non
The robotic system allowed the potential for greater precision
when used in minimally invasive surgeries,
laparoscopies which typically utilize flexible fiber optic cameras.
The 1985 procedure lead to the first laparoscopic procedure
involving a robotic system, a cholecystectomy, in 1987.
The following year the same PUMA system was used to perform
a transurethral resection.
In 1990 the AESOP system produced by Computer Motion
became the first system approved by the Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) for its endoscopic surgical procedure.
Da Vinci Surgical System
First robotic system approved by the FDA
for general laparoscopic
Predecessors relied upon numerous surgical assistants to.
The da Vinci system’s
3D magnification screen
allows the surgeon to
view the operative area with the clarity of high resolution. (Now
diameter surgical arms represent a significant advancement
With such miniaturized operating arms, the da Vinci system has been
able to remove the need to use the sides of the incision walls for
leverage. This advancement allows for less contact between exposed
interior tissue and the surgical device, which greatly
reduces the risk
features of the
operating arms precisely replicate
the skilled movements of the surgeon
at the controls and filter out
any shaking, greatly improving accuracy in small operating spaces
Da Vinci system has been approved by the FDA for use in:
General laparoscopic surgeries
cardiovascular thoracoscopic surgeries
assisted cardiotomy procedures
Play @ 3:12
How it works
There are 3 different types of robotic surgery systems currently in use
The main difference between each system is how involved a human is in
The surgeon inputs data into the robot and the robot does all of the
Cutting and sewing is
performed by a surgeon at a console remote
from the patient
The surgeon can be miles away at another site while performing
this type of surgery
Shared Control Systems
Doctors perform the work with the
of the robots technology, simultaneously
Cost of Technology
Some robotic surgery systems cost more than $1 million to
Possibly $100,000 a year to maintain
ncludes maintenance and updates to keep the robots and
equipment current and working properly
Major improvements cost much more
a major system overhaul is implemented it could
cost a lot to replace obsolete parts and software
While hospitals can save on costs by decreasing the
length of a patient's stay due to a shorter recovery
period, they might not save enough to justify the
expense of the system.
Depends on the scale of the firm
Doctors are able to perform more
complex tasks (
, less awkward
positioning for the surgeon.
reduce the risk
death, complications, and hospital
Key Benefits for the patient:
reduced trauma to the body,
less risk of infection, along with
more expensive than
Removal of physical contact
with surgery surface.
The procedure can
twice as long
, depending on how
well the surgeon knows the
The size of the actual equipment
take up a lot of space
the operating room
All operating instruments are
with the technology
required for Robotic Surgery
Long term cost savings over human:
Current operating rooms require numerous surgeons, nurses,
and even an anesthesiologist
With the automation the robotic surgery brings about, many of
these people can be eliminated from the operating room
This plays a vital role in lowering the cost of healthcare
Will greatly increase precision and even reduce trauma
throughout the surgery process allowing quicker recovery and
patient care quality.
Robotic systems are able to filter out any shaky movements
preventing errors and keeping good quality of service.
How used in Society?
According to the Florida Hospital Association (FHA), the average
cost for one inpatient day in a Florida hospital is approximately
Using FHA’s estimate, the robotics
program reduced costs by approximately $4,500 per hysterectomy
patient and approximately $1,500 per prostatectomy patient.
The total estimated cost savings was $267,000 for just these two
Surgical System is used in procedures that treat a
range of conditions:
Coronary Artery Disease
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Uses? Who Uses? Where? What purpose?
Can be used in numerous different hospitals for patients requiring any type of
A surgeon works either side by side with a robot device, or the surgeon can
control the robot to do everything on its own
Currently there are
not many hospitals
that implement the
use of robotic
A robotic surgery has numerous different purposes
It can replace the crowd in an operating room to just the robot and a
Another example is if there is a very experienced and specific type of
surgeon in New York and his specific experience is needed in an operation
in California, the surgeon can use a tele
surgical systems robot to perform
the surgery by controlling a robot in California while being in New York
It can also increase the efficiency of surgery operations while also
decreasing surgery error
Future of...(20+ Years)
allows surgeons at remote sites to connect to an
operating room and share video and audio, to use a
“telestrator” to highlight anatomy, and to control the AESOP
expanding the use of preoperative (computed tomography or
magnetic resonance) and intraoperative video image fusion
to better guide the surgeon in dissection and identifying
less than 1000 nanometers)
are in development in
the medical field to be inserted into our bodies and perform
surgeries on a molecular level within our bodies and repair us as a
mechanic would a vehicle. (VIDEOS)
reference to possibilities.
Future of Robotics in Medicine
Play @ 0:08
"Benefits of Robotic Surgery."
Robotic Urological Surgery
. Web. 21 Nov. 2011.
B. J. Moran, et al. "Robotic Colorectal Surgery: Hype Or New Hope? A Systematic Review
Of Robotics In Colorectal Surgery."
12.11 (2010): 1084
Academic Search Premier
. Web. 24 Nov. 2011.
Bonsor, Kevin, and Jonathan Strickland. "HowStuffWorks "How Robotic Surgery Will
Discover. Web. 21 Nov. 2011.
Central Florida Medicine. "Robotic Surgery Shows Positive Benefits For Patients,
Reduced Costs | Space Coast Medicine and Central Florida Medicine."
Coast Medicine and Healthy Living
. 2 June 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011.
Vinci ... Changing The Experience of Surgery."
Da Vinci Surgery
Surgery with the Da Vinci Surgical System
. Da Vinci Surgery. Web. 21
. 2011. <http://www.davincisurgery.com
"Disadvantages to Robotic Surgery."
. Web. 21 Nov. 2011.
Lanfranco, Anthony R., Andres E. Castellanos, Jaydev P. Desai, and William C. Meyers.
Robotic Surgery A Current Perspective
. Annals of Surgery,
Medicine, 2011. Web. 21 Nov 2011. <http://www.roboticoncology.com/history/>.
Roe, Lila. "What Are the Benefits of Robotic Surgery? | EHow.com."
EHow | How to
Videos, Articles & More
Discover the Expert in You. | EHow.com
. Web. 21
Samadi M.D., David B.. "DaVinci robotic surgery
first FDA approved system."
History of Robotic Surgery
. Mount Sinai School of
2004. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1356187/>.
PUMA 560 was the
robot to be used in
surgery in which year?
The ADVANTAGES to robotic surgery include all
of the following
Surgical instruments are minimally invasive.
Surgeons are able to talk to the robot.
Recovery time is significantly reduced.
The surgeon may more easily reach difficult
areas of the body.
Nanorobots will be used in the following ways:
A. Inserted into bodies to repair from the inside.
B. To conduct surgical prep work.
C. To carry alcohol through our bodies.
D. Found in mouthwash to care for a mouth from
F. A,B, and C
G. A,B, and D