Part II of the Final Report

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The Higher Education Research Centre

Jagiellonian University













Part II of the Final Report



Development

of Education and Training Services in
the Malpolska Region


(Third
stage of the project)










The
Development

of
Education and Training Services in the Malopolska Region

is financed as part of the project,

„The Malopolska Partnership of Labour Market, Education and Training Institutions”

Implemented within the framework of
activity

6.1.1 the Operational Program
me

Human Captial.

The financing is composed of the following resources:

European Social Fund (85%) and the national budget (15%).






Carried out by a team under the direction of
Prof. Grażyny Prawelskiej Skrzypek:

D
r
. Roman Batko, D
r
.

Justyna Bugaj,
Dr.Marek Frankowicz,

Zofia Godzwon
, M.A.,

D
r
. Jerzy Lackowski,
Maciej Kocurek,

M.A., D
r
. Maria Próchnicka,

Irmina Wachna

Sosin
, M.A.





Krakow 2010



Krakow 2010

CONTENTS

Contents

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

2

Summary

................................
................................
.................

Error! Bookmark not defined.

The Vision of the Deve
lopment of Education and Training Services in the Malopolska
Region and the Quality Assurance of these Services

.............

Error! Bookmark not defined.

The Potential Re
cipent Interested in the Standards of Education and Training Services

.....

7

Model of Standards for Education and Training Services

................................
.....................

9

The Structure of Education and Training Services Standards in the Malopolska Region

...........

11

The Quality
Assesment Model for Education and Training Services

................................
...

25

Criteria for quality attribution

................................
................................
..........................

26

The Awarding Entity and the Mechanics of its Emergence

................................
.............

26

Quantitative and Qualitative measures of Service Quality

.............

Error! Bookmark not
defined.

Mechanizms for the Periodic Assesment of the Entity’s Work

................................
.......

39

Implementing a System Based on the E
ducation and Training Services

Standard

..............

47

Introductory Remarks

................................
.......................

Error! Bookmark not defined.

Scenario of Implemented Activities

................................
................................
.................

48

Scenario of Actvities Related to the Verification of Compliance with the Standards

.....

50

General Regamrks about Financial
Issues

................................
................................
.......

54

Legal Basises of the Proposed System

................................
................................
.............

55

The Key Role of the Angency in the System

................................
................................
...

58

Conculusion

................................
................................
................................
......................

62

Legal Assesment of Implementing Education and Training Sercices Standards

.................

64

The Place and Function of Education and Training Sercices Standards in the Malopolska
Region

................................
................................
................................
................................
...

69

Monitoring the Quality of Service Offered by Training Providers

................................
......

73

Promotion and Visual Identificat
ion

................................
................................
....................

74

Glossary of Terms

................................
................................
................................
................

80

Bibliography

................................
................................
...........

Error! Bookmark not defined.





Summary


The following report is comprised of regional social innovation project based on the
development of a

model for education and training services standards, a model for the
evaluation of these standards and a proposed method of implementing the resulting system
facilitating a high quality of education and training services in the Malopolska region. The
proj
ect was worked out by a team of researchers and practitioners from the Jagiellonian
University and underwent modification during consultations with representatives of training
organizations, labour market and employment services institutions.


The model of educational and training standards contains 20 standards, organized into
four thematic groups: the educational and training service, competence and development of
the training personnel, infrastructure, organization and client servicing, and m
anagement of
the training institution. Each standard is accompanied by relevant indicators that clarify their
meaning as well as define specific tasks related to the execution of these standards. The
standards are defined on two levels: expected (guarantee
ing high quality) and beyond
-
standard (showing development perspectives). Each standard is also accompanied by merit
-
based argumentation. A glossary of terms supplements their descriptions.

The quality assessment model is comprised of: criteria of quality

attribution,
quantitative and qualitative indicators of service quality measure (in accordance with service
quality
standards), characteristics of organizing attributions of quality and the mechanisms of
its emergence, principles
, procedures and mechanism

of accreditation. Also presented are
mechanisms allowing for up
-
to
-
date monitoring of the quality
of the training services market
as well as a mechanism for the evaluation of the quality of accrediting
a
gencies.


Recommendations regarding the implementat
ion of a system based on educational and
training services standards includes: a
scenario of implemented activities


equally related to
implementing a standard of educational services implementation as to

the verification of
compliance with standards. Fin
ancial as well as legal bases for the undertaking are also
proposed.

Additionally to the project, both a method for promotion and a system of visual
identification for the standard are presented.

The presented concept has a systematic, holistic character
, concentrating on securing
benefits for the individual undergoing training as well as the employer. It does not express a
repressive but motivational character, revealing the benefits for individuals undergoing
training, for those entities delegating empl
oyees for training, for companies providing the
training and for the regional society at large.




The Vision of the Development of Education and Training Services in the
Malopolska Region and the Quality Assurance of these Services


Training services serve

a uniquely important role in a society and in an economy
founded on knowledge. They are key elements of lifelong learning. They allow individuals
from various age groups to acquire, update and develop competences. Thus, they serve a key
role in maintainin
g the professional eligibility, provide retention, counteract exclusion and
likewise strengthen competitive advantage. They allow individuals and organizations of the
labour market to better achieve their goals, for which knowledge, skill and abilities are

key
factors. In the contemporary world of rapid social, technological and economic change, the
replenishment, updating and acquisition of new qualifications has become an everyday reality.
As a result, the requirement for training is increasing as is the
development of the educational
and training services market.

A training service can deliver the desired result only when it is provided on a high
professional level, with a sense of responsibility for the effect that a client can receive by
engaging suc
h services. Among training providers it is generally more difficult to guarantee a
high level of services than in a formal educational system. Many factors determine this
reality, among which is a great diversification of specific needs, offers, the indivi
dualization
of training processes, the typically short periods of the trainings and a frequent lack of
services being continued by the same service provider. Dynamically changing requirements
and the ways of meeting them
,

contribute to the high level of sp
ecialization among many
training providers. Alongside well established providers, each day seems to bring about more
and more new companies, which then just as quickly seem to disappear from the market. A
significant amount of competition also contributes
to the emergence of substandard, yet well
marketed offers (however, not always the most inexpensive) from companies that can be
detrimental to the market and rather quickly disappear from it.

Equally for the service provider, the employer investing the de
velopment of its
employees as for the individuals interested on professional development, having credible
information about the standards of quality that should characterize training service as well as
the quality of services provided by specific companies

is of crucial importance. This goal can
be met once a clear model of standards and a system of quality assessment for training
services has been implemented.



A majority of training services is provided by training organizations located in regions
where a

need for such training exists. They thus have the ability to reach the client and to
react quickly to the changing needs presented by the client. For this reason care concerning
the quality of training services provided in a given region is of crucial imp
ortance.

The Malopolska region has for years maintained the leading position in formal
education in the country and is the most important region for higher education and training
outside of capital region (Masovia). In building the region’s competitive ad
vantage, it is
important to form a high quality of service offers beyond that of the formal education to
facilitate the persistence development of human capital. The following project on education
and training service standards in the Malopolska region has

been created with this goal in
mind.

Potential


The education and training market in the Malopolska region utilizes the intellectual
potential of experts employed at numerous universities, allowing for a broad transfer of
academic experiments to a non
-
for
mal educational setting. The reason for this is, among other
things, a reduction in the number of students related to a general demographic decline. The
implementation of National Qualification Framework will result in a stronger connection
between educati
onal offers and the needs of the labour market and will initiate the
development of various forms of education in tandem with employers on their request, etc.


applying equally to formal and non
-
formal education. The system of formal education is
evidentl
y evolving toward a greater emphasis on the development of key competencies, in
effect understood as a specialised knowledge, skill and personal and social competences. An
ever increasing amount of publications describe both Polish and foreign examples of
proper
education and training service quality confirmation practices and the acknowledgement of
qualifications. Selected publications are listed in the bibliography.

Demand


On the part of employers and employees, there has been an increase of interest in the
development of competencies, facilitated by the ability of funds made available by the EU. It
should be expected that this tendency of interest in developing such compete
ncies will
increase equally in employers as in adults. Important changes in the paths of development are
underway, which will in time change from the vertically defined axis to a horizontal one
along with the increased drive towards attaining education on
a gradually higher level. In this
horizontal development, emphasis is placed on expanding and updating competencies,
acquiring ever more refined qualifications, aiming at becoming a high quality specialist. As in


many other European countries, education ou
tside of the formal context, understood as a
natural element in career paths, is increasing. More and more companies are strengthening
their competitiveness through the implementation of organizational innovation, which relates
to an increasing need for ad
visory educational services from highly qualified providers. In the
coming years, at all levels of beyond elementary education including those of higher
education, forms of confirming and certifying qualifications acquired outside of the formal
system will

emerge. The currently visible and highly likely continued changes on the part of
demand for training services, entirely justify the introduction of a system of verifying the
quality of education and training services on a regional level.

Supply


The inte
rest in non
-
formal education among the recipients of educational services
translates to a serious consideration of the concept of lifelong learning. Individuals and
institutions concentrated on promoting this concept concentrate on creating a motivating
en
vironment for the development of competencies. A special role here is performed in the
Malopolska region by the Regional Labour Office, which undertakes numerous initiatives
(also noticeable in the institutional forum of the European Union) for a systemati
c support of
lifelong learning in the region. There has been an increase in the number of education and
training service offers as well as their diversification. Various forms and methods of
supporting the development of adults have become available. A bro
ader scale of education
advisory services is emerging together with related professional functions: trainer, coach,
consultant
-
advisor, competencies assessor. On the part of the consumer, a clear understanding
of these services and has emerged alongside an

ability to differentiate them. Likewise the
consumer has become confident in knowing what to expect from different types of services,
how they should be applied and their compatibility in supporting development.

Quality


The growing concentration of n
on
-
formal education has produced a threat to the
quality of such services. In order to maintain quality, the local government of the region has
activated a network of supervisory bodies to monitor regional developments. This network
should be complemented
by organizational entities that would also consider the quality of the
services. The task of such entities should therefore be the evaluation of service quality of
training, the attribution of quality to those institutions maintaining the appropriate stan
dards,
the collection of information about the types of education and training services alongside
studying the market for such services. This type of system should be voluntarily and
universally available over the Internet. It is highly probable that after

a few years, such a


system will be regarded as highly favourable for employers and individuals seeking quality
educational offers. Such a system would serve as an open, interactive forum for the promotion
and exchange of information on available education

and training services in the Malopolska
region as well as a source of recommendation for high quality service providers in the absence
of administrative restrictions and top
-
down attempts to regulate the market.

The Potential Recipient Interested in the S
tandards of Education and
Training Services


There are several groups of recipients interested in the height quality of education and
training services. They are equally individuals seeking the possibility to develop as companies
wanting to invest in the
development of human captial, education system institutions, training
companies and regional local governments directing a region’s development and creating the
conditions for the growth in human resource quality, undoubtedly the most important
potential f
or development in an economy based on knowledge.

It is worth mentioning that the creation of standards for education and training services
in the Malopolska region („educational standards”) was one of the recommendations for the
development of lifelong
learning in the region formulated by Prof. Jarosław Górniak’s team in
the framework of their project, „The Malopolska Partnership for the Promotion and
Development of Lifelong Learning and Guidance


a model for the
exchange of information,
tools, studies
and good practices in the labour market, education and training
”.
1

This

was a
project co
-
financed by the European Social Fund and the national budget. The need for
formulating standards emerged on behalf of education and training companies participating in

this project that were interested in their clarity and transparency as well as in the verification
of accreditation processes. However, in the matter of accreditation on the part of company
representatives encompassed by this project emerged the desire to

create a system of
evaluating the training market environment


thus emerging from the bottom up. For this
reason too, in the case when accreditation is proposed by an independent Agency (Institution),
expectations which will be assumed of its work on the

accreditation process should be clearly
presented; likewise serious debated should take place on this subject with representatives of
companies, not excluding the possibilities for modifying existing concepts if other interesting
solutions emerge from oth
er parties.


It is, however, important to remember that in such cases the powerful status of a
company on the market does not always translate to a height quality of its services. The



1

Kształcenie przez całe życie: perspektywa Małopolski

(red. J. Górniak, B. Worek), Kraków 2008



introduction of standards is a natural path in overcoming such situatio
ns. Hence, at the initial
stage of implementing the system it should be taken into account that there may exist a lack of
acceptance for a system based on standards by certain companies that may consider such
standards as a threat to their position in the
market. Simultaneously, presenting benefits for
entrepreneurs who value precise, market driven quality will carry significant importance in
various promotional activities. Additionally, the promotion of standards should be directed at
potential clients of
training companies. This can be accomplished by lending the promotional
activity a broad and universal character. It is exactly in convincing prospective clients to a
system of quality based on standards that the selected training company will fulfil the c
lient’s
desired goals for the training, and which can most efficiently organize the education and
training services market.


The benefits of implementing a Standard for the Malopolska Region and its role in
relation to various groups of potential recipient
s are presented in the following table.

Recipient groups

Benefits

-

Education and training
service providers

-

Perfecting activities

-

Increased clients’ trust, prestige

J

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獥牶楣e猠浡牫rt

J

Increasing trainers’ motivation to improve qualifications

J

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J

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††††
Educational role


Informational role


Motivation and mobilization


E
ffective tools and refining factors

-

Trainers

-

Perfecting their skills

-

Increasing trainers’ motivation to improve qualifications

J

Increased clients’ trust, prestige

J

Bene晩瑳⁦f潭⁴桥W

††††
Informational role


Effective tools and refining factors

-

Employees

-

Information about the possibilities to assess training services
(eventually also the trainer)

-

Increased trust in education and training companies

-

Knowing what to expect in terms of service q
uality

-

Taking advantage of a high level of education and training
services

-

Receiving a secure confirmation about completion of a forma
of training issued by a verified education and training company
and accredited by the employer

-

Benefits from the:


Informational role


Shaping civic culture



-

Employer / company
contracting the training

-

Increased trust in education and training companies

-

Knowing what to expect in terms of service quality

-

Benefits from the:


Education
al role



Informational role


Shaping civic culture

Source: authors

Model of Standards for Education and Training Services


The model of standards for education and training services in the Malopolska region
comprises of 20
standards, ordered into four thematic groups, with five standards in each
group. The thematic groups are as follows:


-

The education and training service


-

Competencies and development of training personnel



-

Infrastructure, organization and client se
rvice


-

Management of the training institution


Each of the standards is accompanied by relevant indicators that detail their meaning
and outline the specific task related with the implementation of the standard. The standards
are defined with indicators
on two levels:

-

Expected


defined by the boundary conditions for implementing each standards on a
guaranteed high level of quality

-

beyond
-
standard


defined by the perspective of development for training institutions,
which implement expected level o
f standards.


In the case of certain standards, it is possible that the indicators will define them only
at the expected or only at the beyond
-
standard level.

Each standard is also accompanied by its merit
-
based justification, referring to
arguments for
their inclusion in the model and to the pertinent literature.


Attached with the standards is

a glossary of terms, which has

been used to define the
model and which in turn is intended to lead to a consistent understanding of the model’s
content.







Source: authors


-

adjustment to needs

-

concentration on the effects of education

-

reliable content and an dynamic form

-

support in implementation

-

systematic assesment of results


-

permanent training
staff

-

theoretical and
practical knowledge

-

socially and
methodologically
competent

-

constant
developlment

-

exchange of
knowledge and good
practices



-

defined strategy

-

reliable information about the services

-

systematic solutions and procedures

-

promoting good practices

-

adherance to legal regulations








-

reliable servie
and organization

-

comforatble
work
enivronment

-

diverse
materials and
aides

-

reaction to
difficulties and
concerns




EDUCATION

AND


TRAINING

SERVICES

STANDARDS

IN

THE

MALOPOLSKA

REGION


SERVICE

STAFF

ORGANIZATION

MANAGEMENT
tTT





12

Centrum Badań nad Szkolnictwem Wyższym Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego

31
-
007 Kraków, ul.
Gołębia 24

The Structure of Education and Training Services
Standards in the Malopolska Region


Table of Education and Training Services Standards in the Malopolska Region

Standard

Indicators for meeting the standard

E



indicator for the expected level, providind high quality services

B



indicator of the
beyond
-
standard level

Jusitifcation for the standard

I.

Standards concerning education and training services


1.

Goals and scope of
the training are
tailored to the
participants’ needs




E

1.1.

An instiution plans an open training offer using knowledge about the labour
market’s needs and expectations and about groups of potential recipents garnered
from, for example, the instiution’s own research, published raports and other
sources.

1.2.

The instit
ution leads an annual verification of goal and program concordence with
the needs and expectations of recipients.

1.3.

The impleme
ntation of all closed trainings is prefaced by a study of needs, the
results of which are described in the form of a document conta
ining at least the
following information:



The method used to collect information about needs



The declared expectations of the client



Conculsions regarding the initial levels of knowledge and skills of the
participents in relation to expected results



Conculsions regarding changes in the levels of knowledge and skills essential to
achieving the expected results



Suggested goals of the training reflected the desired changes in the levels
knowledge and skills of the particpants

1.4.

The instiution contacts a
portion (min. 30%) of the particpants before beginning the
training and collects additional information regarding their needs

1.5.

In open trainings lasting 60 or more hours, the institution contractually agrees on
the scope of the service and mutual obligation
s with each participant or entity
ordering the training

This standard is based on recommendations regarding
participation in lifelong learning among residents of the
Malopolska region
(Fazlagić, 2009),

which suggest
monitoring the training needs of these
residents with the
help of sociological research.

Implementing them will lead to
the fullfillment of expectations described in the above
publication, namely, that „education and training services be
accessible in such a time and form that all citizens wil
l feels
encouraged to continue to develop their skills and
competencies through their lives, and also that these
services be strongly connected to the changing situation on
the labour market” (p. 18).

Individual training institution can undertake their ow
n
market research or take advantage
of openly accessible
analyses regarding the labour market situation and the
needs for various types of training services. The annual
assessment of the concordence of programs with the needs
of its recipents is intended to help in updating programs if
requi
red. Fazlagić (2009) emphasizes that the course and
quality of the recruitment process of participants for a
training program also has a great influence on the course and
results of the actual training. Utlizing additional knoweledge
about the expectations

and interests of the training



B

1.6.

The training institution applies methods to diagnose the needs
of the
particpents that go beyond interviews and surveys

1.7.

The training institution qualifies participants to participate in the trainng,
considering the results of the assesments about their initial
skill level


1.8.

The training institution’s analysis of the
needs for all participants in a
closed training offer encompasses the collection of information coming
from from at least three different perspectives selected from the following:



The participants’ direct superiors



Coworkers or the particpant’s subordinate
s



Employees responsible for handeling develpment and training contracts




Board members or upper
-
tier managment



Internal and external clients



Other stakeholders interested in the effects of the training on its participants


participants, greatly influences the quality of the training
services.

The organization of closed trainings requires that equally the
participant’s
needs
and the
needs of the
entity ordering the
training be accounted for
.

In

the process of diagnosis then, additional persons, who
represent various expectations and perspectives, should be
included (Rae, 1999). The methods of collecting information
may be severly limited by opinion
-
based research (interview
or survey); afterall,

a high quality service favors an attempt
at objectivizing the diagonosis by means of applying methods
such as the analysis of documents, observations in the
workplace and knowledge test.

2.

Training programs
are
described in a
language reflective of
the effects from the
training

E

2.1.

The institution describes the effects of an offered t
raining in such a way
that they fullfull the following criteria:



A presentation of results for the participant, not only activities
which
serve to achieve them



The measurability of the training results

Introducing this standard, which outlines the need for
describing the program offered by a training institution in a
language reflective of the effects from the training, results
from a

need to harmonize training activities with the
European Qualification
s

Framework for lifelong learning

(
eventually with a National Qualification
s

Framework
(NQF)). From the moment such a framework is in place, this
standard should be modified with direct reference to the
NQF.

„In the European Qualifications Framework, the effect of
learning is defined by describing that which the learner
knows, un
derstands and will be capable of accomplishing
after completing a learning process. [...] The effects of
learning are specified in three categories


as knowledge,
skills and competencies. It is evident that qualifications


in
divers combinations


encomp
ass a broad range of effects
from learning, including theoretical knowledge, practical and
technical skills as well as social competencies [...]” (European
Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning, 2008).

B

2.2.

The insitution confers upon all the particpants a certification verifying their
participation in
the training in a form that is adapted to the requirements
set by the Ministry of National Education (Ministerstwo Edukacji
Narodowej)

2.3.

The institution allows the participants of selected trainings to confirm the
effects of the training in a procedure that
is in accordance with the
requirements set by the Ministry of National Education (Ministerstwo
Edukacji Narodowej)




Describing what a program has to offer in the

categories of
the effects from training is, on the one hand,
a condition for
the transparent activity of an institution and the
comparability of training results; on the other, it creates
possbilities for particpants to accumilate and transfer the
effects

of trainings attained in various forms, which favors
individual development and presents encouragement for
lifelong learning.
The necessity for developing such
foundations among the residents of the Malopolska region is
accent in J. Fazlagić (2009), who
underlines the importance
of a language of effects from training as a tool in
communicating with current and potential training
participants (p
. 19, 32).

3.

Training programs
are based on sound
and current
knowledge and
implemented to its
goals in an adequate
form


E

3.1.

Training particpants
recieve materials consisting of a summary of the
training’s content, references to sources of informationa upon which the
content was based and a list of recommended literature

3.2.

The training institution respects copyright laws and can document the
origin of

the sources in the training

3.3.

The training utlizies diverse and engaging educational methods which are
adapted to the specificity of adult learning

3.4.

The methods applied are adequate to the declared results, content and
group specificity

A sound theoretical
foundation for the content of the
training is one of the key charateristics determining equally
its merit
-
based value and the attitude of the learners.

This
foundation guarantees the objectivity of the knowledge that
is conveyed, the veritability of method
s and the certainty of
results. Appropriately justifying the content which is
conveyed influences its value in the eyes of the particpants,
supporting motivation for learning and applying the acquired
competencies in practice.


Many authors (e.g. Rae, 1
999; Donavant, 2009) underline the
importance of the independent learni
ng process of
participants in a
training along side the general value of
learning (Boydell, Leary, 2001). Guaranteeing support in the
form of source texts and literature for independen
t study
can significantly increase the effectivness of the trainings.

Due to a significant diversity of topics and forms of learning,
it is impossible to identify a catalogue of methods conducive
to training quality.
This standard suggests but the use of
methods requiring the active engagement of a training’s
participants. An active part in the training allows for the
extraction of significantly greater benefits than in the case of
passive participation (Baruk, 2003)
and supports the transfer
B




of knowledge
to situtations outside of the training.



4.

The training
institution provides
activities through
which the effects of
learning are solidified


E

4.1.

The institutions gives recommendations regarding development activites
after the completion of the training to the participants or the organization
delegating them to the training

The goal of most educational and development activities is
the introduction

of changes in the participants’ behavior in
their everyday environment, and thus a transfer of the
training’s results to situtations external to the training.

Differentiating between the results from learning during the
training (level 2) and thus applied

in real
-
life and professional
situations (level 3) is part of a particularily popular model of
evaluating effects from the training
(Kirkpatrick, 2001).

In
this sense, it can be proposed that, regarding the quality of
education and training services, resu
lts from level 3 play the
most important role; thus, post
-
training activities (coaching,
advising, e
-
learning, implementation sessions etc.) are a
desired part of the high quality services.

Most researchers and practicioners on the training market
(see
CE
DEFOP, 2003; Phillips, Stone i Phillips, 2003;
Wojtaszc
zyk, 2001) draw attention to the fact that, besides
improved knowledge, skills and foundational changes,
trainings should bring about
calculable results for the
organization delegating its employees to

the training.
The
ability of the training institution to support this type of
activity is evidence of significant merit
-
based and
organizational potential, and hence represents one of the
indicators of a high quality service.


B

4.2.

The institution provides all training participants with individual feedback
about their progress in the training process

4.3.

The institution offers its participants at least two different forms of support
in implementing their acquired skills and knowledge, i
ncluding among
others:



Additional tasks and exercises to complete after the training



Post
-
training sessions and meetings



Individual or long distance consulations with the training staff



Internet discussion forums moderated by the training staff



Additional

e
-
learning lessons




Access to knowledge databases (articles, exercies, audiovisual
materials) supporting further individual learning


4.4.

The institution implements annually at least one training project for
organizations which includes the development of act
ivities in support of
solidifying changes resulting from the training after the training has been
completed

5.

The training
institution
systematically studies
the results from the
trainings


E

5.1.

The institution applies a procedure of assessing the results of
all trainings,
considering at least the study of the participants’ opinions after completing
the training

5.2.

The institution makes public general summarising information regarding
the results of evaluation activities

In the Standards and indicators
concerning the guarantee of
training quality in the European Area of higher education
(2005), it has been underlined that „institutional self
-
knowledge represents a point of departure for a thorough
guarantee of quality”

(p. 17). For

this reason a standard

was
formed that contains the necessity for training insitutions to
possess tools for the evaluation of their own activities by the
participants and the entities ordering the training.

Reliablly informing current and potential recipents of the
services’ re
sults helps in undertaking indepented decisions

B

5.3.

The institution applies diverse tools for the evaluation of trainings,
extending beyond studies of participants’ opinions, on the level of the


training’s effects

5.4.

The institutions leads and
publishes annual results from long term studies
of the results from the training, comprising of an analysis of changes in the
participant’s situation and behaviour after at least 3 months from the
completetion of a selected training


concerning the choice of training provider. In view of
limitations regarding studies of the direct reactions from
participants (see Kirkpatrick, 2003), studies should be, if
possible, suplemented with other,
more objective methods
applied after training periods.

II.

Standards concerning competencies and the development of training staff

6.

The training
institution has a staff
responsible for the
merit
-
based quality
of services


E

6.1.

The institution hires on the ba
sis of a work contract or permanently
cooperates with a
person fullfilling the role of a merit
-
based
director/administrator who is responsible for supervising merit
-
based
issues of the training staff

6.2.

The person filling the merit
-
based director/administrator

role in training
institution meets the following condi
tions:



Possesses at least 5 years professional experience in a specific training
field (including experiences in teaching or advisory)



Has realized at least 500 hours of trainings



Has an education (e.g. a specialized course or post
-
graduate studies,
higher education relevant to the training requirements) relevant to the
activities of the training institution

The systematic improvement of services as well as the
increase of compete
ncies of the training staff required the
existence of personnel which will be the subject of this type
of activity. Finding solutions to problems related to creating
and leading trainings is a condition in which
the quality of
the results achieved is condu
cive to group work, under the
condition that this work is guaranteed the necessary
motivation and coordination (see Brown, 2006).

The employment of a permanent, composed of at least
several persons, training staff allows for the exchange of
perspectives, s
uggesting additions to the training’s content

and mutual learning. The role of the merit
-
based
director/administrator encompasses then not only selected
managerial functions, but also the supervision over the
cohesion and reliability of content presented b
y training
leaders of diversive educationa backgrounds and
competencies.

Expectations regarding the hiring of a merit
-
based director
appear regularly in the guidlines concerning training projects
financed by the European Social Fund; thus, it can be
accep
ted that a significant amount of training institutions are
ready to supplement this role in their structure. Applying this
standard does not mean a resignation from cooperation with
independent experts nor from the need to utilize on
ly the
permanent training staff. However, it is not a standard
fullfilled by institutions acting solely as training brokers, i.e.,
intermediaries between the recipent and an administrative
B

6.3.

At least 5 people
are employed at the training institution on a work
contract basis or on a declared permanent cooperation and realises at least
60 hours of training at the employing institution annually




group lacking merit
-
based training leaders.

7.

Theoretical and
practical knowledge
of the training staff is
relevant
to the scope
of the training and to
its educational goals




E

7.1.

All members of the training staff possess professional experience and/or
educational backgrouds relevant to the thematic
scope of the training

7.2.

Staff members with educational backgrounds or professional experience
releveant to the thematic scope are selected for the implementation of all
trainings offered by a training institution

Merit
-
based competencies of the training
staff are a key
element conditioning the quality of the training services
(CEDEFOP, 2009). Depending on the topic of the training and
on the level of the recepients’ competencies, a guarantee of
quality can be good, based on practical experience, a
familia
rity with the topics presented, or


it can be
significantly higher, expert level of competencies. Indi
cators
of reaching this level are

not only experience, but skills,
orginial solutions and creative imput realized and
exemplified by, among other things,

publications
(Fazlagić,
2009).

The

training staff, among whom is a significant portion of
expeperts, has a high potential for creating new solutions as
well as a skill for the criticial evaluation of the content
conveyed. This facilitaties the provision of high quality
training services.

B

7.3.

Over half the training staff possesses education and experience at an
expert level, meaning the in the particular field of the service the following
criteria are meet:



A minimum 5 year professional experience (including teaching or
advisory experience)



Has realized at least 500 hours of trainings



A documented, advanced education (e.g. a specialized course or post
-
graduate studies, academic title relevant to the training requirements)



A record of producing original
training
solutions and contents

or leading
merit
-
based work (e.g. publications, studies, original stratigic
documents, advisory for organizations, merit
-
based project leadership)


8.

The training staff has
social and merit
-
based competencies
relevant to adult
education

E


8.1.

At least 90% of the training staff has completed a basic course in preparing
them to educate adults, meaning a course lasting at least 60 training hours
and serving to develope the following competencies:



Understanding the situation of adult learning and
the role of person
supporting the education



Defining goals of the education



Creating an educational program




Clarifying the knowledge that is presented




Applying engaging methods of teaching

Or, they possess certification granted by another institution
confirming the
their acquisition of competencies similar to those named above.

8.2.

All members of the training staff have at least 80 hours of experience in
The emphasis on social and methodological compe
tencies


not necessarily related to the theme of the training


result
from observed the evolution of the
role of the training staff
from

the expert/authority to the training process facilitator
(CEDEFOP, 2009). The scope of the competencies mentioned
in
points 9.1. and 9.3 were selected from the identified
competencies applied by institutions recommending trainers
(por. Grupa Gumułka, 2009, Wszechnica UJ, 2008) as well as
in the literature regarding the methodology of leading
trainings
(
see Klatt, 1999; K
ossowska and

Sołtysińska, 2004).

The criterium for the division among expected and beyond
standard levels was established on the basis of knowledge
about the differences in understanding the role of the
training staff, resulting in diverse expectations in
light of the


leading trainings or in co
-
leading
them as a co
-
trainer

staff’s competencies. The competencies name in point 9.1
related to the „trainer
-
expert” (a person possessing enough
social and methodological competencies to effectively
convey specialist knowledge); however, the competencies
named in point 9
.3 regard the „trainer
-
consultant”, skilled at
accompanying participants thoroughout the entire training
process, above all in the independent diagnosis of needs and
in the fundamental formation of bespoke training
programmes (Kossowska i Sołtysińska, 2004
). The above
mentioned competencies are often acquired non
-
formally,
and the completion of a relevant course does not guarantee
their mastery. In principle, the indicator for meeting the
standard should be
that the training staff completes the
process of t
rainer competencies certification. Due to the
relativley small popularity of certification programs, this
requirement would be difficult to meet for the majority of
training institutions; thus, it has been „lightened”.

Although, in principle, all training
leaders should possess the
appropriate preparation for teaching adults, in indicator 3.1
this requiremnet has been reduced to 90%. This indicator
allows for the unique use of services from individuals who
have not completed the appropriate course, but poss
ess
supperior specialist competencies are are for other reasons
key for the training project.

The minimal duration of preparation courses for the teaching
of adults has been indicated as lower than that which is
required by institutions certifying
trainers (see Grupa
GUMUŁKA, 2009)

and that required by the PARP (Polish
Agency for Enterprise Development) for financial trainers’
courses in the framework of sub
-
activity 2.2.2. Human
Capital Operational Programme. As a result, the majority of
training l
eaders, who have participated in some form of
systematic preparation course in the past few years, have
met the criteria for the here formulated standard.


A high quality of training services is preferable to entrust
only to people who already have certain experiences in
B

8.3.

Over half of the training staff has completed an advanced course or a
course in the preparation of adults for teaching adults, such as: courses
lasting collectively a minimum of 150 education hours and serving the
development of the competencies mentioned
in point 9.1 and below:



A diagnosis of the training requirements



An Evaluation of the training effects



An understanding of the cognative, motivational and emotional
conditions for effective adult education



An understanding of and interaction in the dynamic fucntioning of small
social groups



Advising individuals in difficult training situations

Or, they possess a certificate confirming the possession of these
competencies issues by another institution.

8.4.

Over

half of the training staff possess certificates confirming the possession
of competencies in the field of adult teaching, attained in the process
fullfilling the following criteria:



A clearly defined set of diagnosed competencies, related to the
competen
cies mentioned in points 8.1 and 8.3



Diverse methods of evaluation, allowing for a multi
-
perspective
diagnosis of competencies



Independence of the certificate issuing institution from the institution
employing the certified person



leading trainings (in accordance to the content of indicators
9.2


80 hours, meaning 10 days of full training).
This
indicator does not exc
lude the employment of beginer
trainers or experts not possessing training experince;
however, this requires that the persons not be
initially
included in the formal training staff, leading trainings in the
role of a controler, under the direction of exper
ineced
training leaders.

9.

The tra
ining staff
actively participates

in development
activit
i
es and updates
its own competencies


E

9.1.

Each member of the training staff participates in at least one annual
educational program geared to the development and updating of
competencies related to the profession
and lasting at least 16 hours (e.g.
training, conferences, post
-
graduate studies).


Many authors (cf. e.g. Chmielecka, 2008) demonstrate the
need for continuous updating of professional skills related to,
among other things: with an increased pace of
technological
development. This need applies equally to training staff, and
other persons engaged in highly specialized, knowledge
-
based occupations. Moreover, even if a specific area of
specialization or training method is not subject to sudden
changes, r
egular participation in various forms of education
seems to be useful for the training staff as it helps shape the
attitude of openness and the ability to adopt the perspective
of a participant.

The responsibility for personal professional development is
h
eld mainly by individual members of the training staff
-

especially in a market situation in which many of them are
working simultaneously with many training institutions.
Institutions which maintain internal system activities related
to improving the comp
etencies of trainers, however, gain the
possibility of attaining knowledge among its individual
members and shaping for them a relevant approach and
methodology to their. This is regarded as a valuable factor in
delivering high quality services.

B

9.2.

The
training institution has implemented solutions to improve the
competence of their staff (e.g., individual development and training plans,
cycles of internal training programs, mentoring, supervision).


10.

The training staff
contributes to the
E


According to experts (see CEDEFOP, 2010), one of the
important trends in the development of modern education is
B

10.1.

More than half of the training staff must organize the promotion of the


dissemination
of
knowledge and the
exchange of good
practices in the field
of lifelong learning


idea of lifelong learning, dissemination of knowledge or the
quality of
services and the exchange of good practices.

10.2.

Members of the teaching staff participated in at least three event together
in the past 12 months (e.g. conferences, workshops, seminars, study visits)
to achieve the objectives set out in point 10.1.

10.3.

Members of the training staff have prepared over the past 12 months, at
least one publication or a conference speech for the objectives set out in
point 10.1.


the growing role of networking and project cooperation
bey
ond the rigid institutional framework. Present at the
outset of this kind of cooperation in the context of the
Malopolska region training services market is primarily the
promotion of the idea of lifelong learning and knowledge
sharing between training ins
titutions (Fazlagić, 2009). Such
activities promote the quality of direct (exchange of good
practices) and indirect (education of potential recipients,
who will become more aware, valuing quality of service,
clients). They also prove to be positive about t
he
competencies of the training staff as people who are capable
of make a unique contribution to training project.

III.

Standards regarding infrastructure, organization and client service

11.

Training institutions
guarantee their
participants reliable
service and efficient
organization of
training





E

11.1.

The institution applies the procedure of realizing training services,
understood as a list of activities to which roles are assigned regarding their
execution. The p
rocedure is defined by at least the following roles:



A merit
-
based supervision responsible for the supervision over the
content and results of training



An organizational coordiantor responsible for the management of
information and contact with the client

Each training service can be considered as a project meeting
certain development goals set for the participants. The
procedure describing the steps in the implementation of the
services, and responsibilities of the people involved in the
project, is part o
f widely recognized research and practical
approaches (Rae, 1999, 2006). According to this approach,
the formulation of a clear procedure for the project ensures
the repeatability of results, as well as a reference point for
activities related to monitorin
g and improving quality of
services (Zeithaml, Parasuraman, Berry, 1990). The Standard
does not prefer any specific methodology of project
management.

B


12.

The institution
organizes trainings in
conditions of comfort
and mental health for
the particpants


E

12.1.

The trainings offered by an institution take place in sites that meet the
following requirements:



A surface area approriate to the numer of particpants (at least 2m
squared per participants, not less that 15m squared)



Access to daily and artificial light



Air temperature in the range of 18
-
26 °C



Noise under 40 decibles

Standard 17 was adopted following the indications of the
Central Institute for Labour Protection
-

National Research
Institute (CIOP
-
PIB). According to their content, lighting,
room layout, temperature, noise, ventilation and physical
activity are key fact
ors influencing the effectiveness of the
work done in a sitting position. Due to the strong influence of
the type of lighting on fatigue in work which requires
extenuating eyesight, it seems particularly important to




Maintaining cleanliness



Access t
o sanitary facilities



Furnishings (chairs, possibly tables) allowing for a spatial arragement
appropriate to the specificity of the training

Within the standard, the realization of trainings that do not meet the above
mentioned conditions is possible
when justified by a unique way of working,
resulting from the objectives and learning methods (e.g. field exercise).


adapt lighting to the work being done (
see also the Minister
of Labour and Social Policy
-

Coll. 1997), including access to
natural light whenever possible.

Notations relating to the training room space based on the
guidelines of the CIOP
-
PIB, according to which for each of the
employees while
employed at the premises of a stable job
(i.e. those in which workers are present for more than 4
hours) should be at least 2m square of free floor space (not
occupied by machinery and other equipment).

In the literature on occupational safety and health,
much
more detailed regulations and expectations can be found. It
should be noted, however, that the training site is often the
place of business of ordering organization or facilities rented
for one time use (Fazlagić, 2009). A training institution
therefo
re has a limited impact on the particular
characteristics of the place where the classes take place.
Moreover, the nature of the training services can largely
determine the needs for facilities and the organization of the
training. Expectations included in

standard 17 are thus the
most basic conditions affecting comfort and efficiency.

The requirement to adapt training to the needs of physically
disabled persons is favorable to the rights of these persons
to have access to education is in accordance with th
eir
interests and needs, as noted in the Charter of the Rights of
Persons with Disabilities.

B

12.2.

The offered training takes place in buildings tailored to the needs of the
physically disabled (ramps, elevators, restrooms, training room).

12.3.

The offered trainings are organized in places guaranteeing the particpants:



Snacks and beverages during breaks



A rest area outside of the classroom for breaks



Internet access and office supplies (e.g. xerox, fax, printer)


13.

The institution
prepares comfortable
conditions and
mental health for the
participants during
the training

E

13.1.

The timetables of trainings meet the following conditions:



The duration of one moduel/meeting does not last more than 5
consecutive days



The
duration of classes together with breaks does not exceed 8 hours
per day



During the classes, breaks are planned for at least 15 minutes every 2
hours



During classes lasting more than 6 hours, one dinner break is planned
Lack of physical activity can result in fatigue, reduced
physical
and mental capacity (see guidelines CIOP
-
PIB).
Notations relating to the timetable of trainings are designed
to provide participants with an appropriate length of breaks,
resulting in the optimal effectiveness of the learning.

The principle of separating l
onger courses for up to 5
-
day
blocks, results from both a desire to provide participants
with the right balance between personal and professional


lasting 45 minutes

Within the stan
dard, the realization of trainings that do not meet the above
mentioned conditions is possible when justified by a unique way of working,
resulting from the objectives and learning methods.

life, as well as concerns about the effectiveness of the
training, which is higher in a situation of "distribu
ted" rather
than "massive" presentation of the material (cf. Czerniawska
and Ledzińska, 2009).

The existence of training services, in which unique, highly
specific forms of learning require a waiver from the
fulfillment of the requirements listed in point
18.1 were
taken into account. Such a situation is acceptable within the
standard, unless it is treated as an exception justified by
merit
-
based aspects.

B


14.

The training
insti
t
ution has
diverse technical and
material resources
supporting learning














E

14.1.

The offered trainings take place in spaces guaranteeing access to various
didactic resouces and materials, including:



Marker or flipchart boards



Screen projector and a multimedia projector



Paper and writing utensiles for the participants



Other specialist didactic aides for the realization of the training


Within the standard, the realization of trainings that do not meet the above
mentioned conditions is possible when justified by a unique way of working,
resulting from the objectives and

learning methods.

In the Ministry for National Education regulations on
accreditation and continuing education centers (JOURNAL,
2003), one of the essential criteria for accreditation is to
evaluate the infrastructure and teaching resources available
(e.g
. number of teaching areas, the availability of tables and
charts to write on, multimedia projectors, overhead
projectors slides, video cameras, the Internet, photocopiers,
printers, and social facilities. An important criterion is also
providing participa
nts with literature, materials, including
multimedia, periodicals and other publications within the
scope of the training.

Listed in the cited regulation, the criteria seem to be overly
complex in the context of the specificity of the work in some
training

institutions that provide services at the
headquarters of the organization ordering the service or
renting training centers (cf. Fazlagić, 2009). Included in the
standard, they have been modified for only the primary
means of the training (of course, supp
lemented with aides
for the specificity of the programme). For the same reasons,
access to a library of educational materials has been
recognized as beneficial to the quality of services, but at a
level exceeding the standard.

B

14.2.

At the site of the training, access is provided to a
library

of publications and
educational materials related to the teaching field.





15.

The training
institution is
prepared to react to
unexpected
situations and client
complaints


E

15.1.

The institution
applies complaint procedure regarding situations in which
the training did not meet the expectations its clients. The procedure is
announced to the participants and describes how complaints and possible
forms of compensation are dealt with.

15.2.

The institution

conducts relevant procedures in the event of unforeseen
difficulties
-

particularly the absence of the person conducting the training
or unavailability of the site for its implementation
.

The complexity of the training situation, the multiplicity of
fact
ors influencing its results (cf. Fazlagić, 2009) and a
significant impact on participants on their learning
outcomes, together, form the conditions in which to
guarantee the total satisfaction of clients of all trainings.
Indicators of high quality trainin
g cannot, therefore, be a lack
of objections on the part of the clients, but rather how to
react in situations when concerns do arise.

Formulating the rules governing complaints handling to the
public is beneficial for clients (who may receive various type
s
of guarantees and direct themselves by them in their
selection of services), as well as for training institutions that
protect themselves against claims. It also encourages the
formulation of realistic descriptions of the results of the
training.

B


IV.

Standards related to managing the quality of training services

16.

The training
institution has a
strategy describing its
way of operating and
the directions of its
development

E

16.1.

The training institution publishes a document in which it sets out, in
particular, their pursued goals, recognized value, audience, subject areas of
the training, applied forms of learning, and also the paths of improvement
and development.

Fazlagić J. (2009, p. 28 et seq) has proposed a revised set of
evaluation questions pr
oposed by the Malcolm Baldridge
Award Committee for the education sector. The contents of
this standard result from groups of questions relating to the
interior of a training institution and its relationship with the
environment.

B


17.

The training
institution publishes
reliable information
about its offered
services

E

17.1.

The training institution publishes an up
-
to
-
date catalogue of its training
offers, containing information about its teaching programs, including:



The events of the training



Initial requirement about the participant’s level of ability



Duration of the training and its form

The requirement to publish accurate and current information
about the didactic offer (the programs and their effects) is
regarded as one of the basic quality requirements for
educational services. It was formulated as a standard for
quality assurance in hi
gher education institutions by the
European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher




The teaching programme, including the names of subject along with
their timefames and the presented concepts and issues



A list of the literature or source
materials used

17.2.

The institution publishes current information about training staff delegated
to carry out specific activities and in particular its skilled, professional
experience and major training projects completed to date.

17.3.

In the case of training cours
es designed at clients’ request information
listed in points 17.1. and 17.2. will be forwarded to the client before the
start of training.

Education. (2005, p. 18).

Guidelines from the description of the training offer are
contained in § 5, paragraph 1)
-
8) of the Ministry of
Education and Science of 3 Feb
ruary 2006 on the acquisition
and supplementation of general knowledge, professional
skills and qualifications in any forms. Information on the
training offer may be published in various forms (printed and
/ or electronic form).

B


18.

The training
institution applies
systems solutions
supporting a high
quality of its services













E

18.1.

The institution has criteria regarding the recruitment and evaluation of its
training staff. These criteria are
in accordance to the requirements listed in
the

standards from 6 to 8.

18.2.

The training institution implements an internal system for the guarantee of
quality, taking into account, especially, the use of finding from training
evaluations.

18.3.

The training institution provides documentation about the course of
the
training, registering at the following information:



The training programme (including the amount of hours and the subject
of individual classes)



Attendence lists



Exam protocal (if applicable)



Certificates issued to the participants

The existence of
clearly described procedures and practices
governing the development, testing and improving the
quality of training programs favours quality because it
guarantees a systematic reflection on areas that otherwise
might be ignored. This concerns in particular

the constructive
use of information derived from the evaluation of training
programs, which often requires the collection, storage and
synthesis of larger amounts of data from a large group of
trainees. Content of the indicators listed in the steps for
cr
eating a curriculum have been composed in accordance
with the recommendations of researchers (cf. Fazlagic, 2009,
Phillips, Stone and Phillips 2003; Rae, 1999, 2006;)

The storage and maintenance of documents describing the
training course, serves the
participants by allowing them to
confirm participation in training and to confirm qualifications
also in the case of lost certificates, etc. It also allows training
institutions an analysis of historical data relating to its
operation, thereby facilitating

monitoring and improving
quality. Guidelines for the stored documents come from the
Ministry of National Education regulation of 3 February 2006
on the acquisition and completion of general knowledge,
professional skills and qualifications in non
-
formal f
orms.








19.

The training
institution
disseminated
knowledge about
good practices in
guaranteeing high
quality trainings

E

19.1.

The institution publically announces the solutions and good practices that it
implements in aiming to guarantee quality in its
training programmes.

Notations of the standard allow participants to gain
additional information that may be important in selecting
suppliers of training services as well as in promoting good
practices and promoting knowledge exchange between
training inst
itutions.

B

19.2.

The training institution acts for the promotion of the idea of lifelong
learning, the popularization of knowledge or the improvement of service
quality regarding good practices within the field.

20.

The training
institution offers
services in
accordance with the
applicable legal
standards and with
the teaching
r
equirements from
external regu
l
a
tions


E

20.1.

In the thematic areas of training and learning activities in which it is
required, training institution creates curricula in line with current
curriculum and educational standards laid down by the relevant
ministeries.

20.2.

In these thematic areas of training and learing activites, in which it is
required, the training institution possesses up
-
to
-
date accrediation,
licensing or certification.

In asse
ssing the compliance of the training institution with
the applicable regulations, special attention should be paid
to the regulations specific to a particular area of education.
Depending on the type of training institutions and training
courses conducted,

the following may apply:



Regulation of the Minister of Education and Science of 3
February 2006 on the acquisition and completion of
general knowledge, professional skills and qualifications
in non
-
school forms



Article 68b of the Act of 7 September 1991.
On the
education system



Regulation of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy of
2 March 2007 on the standards of the labor market






26

Centrum Badań nad Szkolnictwem Wyższym Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego

31
-
007 Kraków, ul.
Gołębia 24


In creating a group of standards, a definition of education and training services has been
applied that, in accordance to the desires of the entity ordering the training, refers to the
broadest, most universal take o
f various forms of non
-
formal adult training on the market.
This point of view was adopted to influence the form of the standards’ content and elicited a
resignation from indicating direct relations to e
-
learning, which is only one many forms of
supporting

development.

E
-
learning has a concretely defined specificity and referring to it in the content of the
standards would disable postulates about the universality and openness of the entire model
and would force the creation of a separate sub
-
group of s
tandards, concentrating solely on e
-
learning. Consequently, it would be then necessary to introduce a separate standards relating
to educational events such as „action learning”, standards that relate to educational field
games and activities such as: outd
oor, instructional group coaching, teaching with project
methods etc.


The standard concentrates on outlining that which is common to all or decidedly most
of the educational forms fulfilling the already mentioned definition. It appears that most of
thes
e standards (1
-
7; 9
-
10; 15
-
20) can be applied also to e
-
learning and can be treated as
development indicators for entities implementing such services.

A more exact outline of the requirements regarding e
-
learning can be eventually
formulated as a development of general education and training service quality standards
(through, among other ways, indicating additional competencies of the training staff


s
tandard 8; changing the infrastructure conditions for realizing the trainings


standards), or
by the addition of suggestions for the type of educational materials, engaging training leaders
and increasing their proportion to the number of participants. Th
is type of solution must
correspond to the general standards, but should not represent their content. We thus suggest
maintaining the model in its proposed form as to preserve its universal character.


The Quality Assesment Model for Education and Trainin
g Services


The quality assessment model for education and training services presented in the next
part of this report consists of:



Criteria for quality attribution



Quantitative and qualitative measures of service quality



The awarding entity granting qual
ity attribution











The awarding entity or commission and the mechanics of its emergence



Conditions for the eventual accreditation of an institution



Mechanisms for the periodic assessment of the entity’s work

The criteria for quality attribution

The criteria

for quality attribution were based upon international standards dedicated to
the evaluation of accreditation entities PN
-
EN ISO/IEC 17011:2005, the accreditation of
certifying entities PN
-
EN ISO 17021:2007, to the needs related to the internal auditing of

quality management systems PN
-
EN ISO 19011:2003 and were also based on Polish and
international good practices and documents:



The Polish Centre for Accreditation: www.pca.gov.pl



European Accreditation EA: www.european
-
accreditation.org



International Accr
editation Forum IAF: www.iaf.nu

A crucial issue is the creation of an institutional framework for the accreditation of
entities that, in meeting the below stipulated requirements, can lead certification processes
and grant training institutions with a Malo
polska region quality attribution.


The awarding entity or commission and the mechanics of its emergence

The accreditation entity


The Malopolska Regional Agency for the Standardization of
Educational and Training Services

We here postulate the
formation of a Malopolska Regional Agency for the Standardization
of Educational and Training Services (from here on called the „Agency”). This would be an
self
-
financing entity independent from administrations or companies that are seeking
accreditation,
dealing with the evaluation of the potential and quality management system of
entities, which would seek certification for training institutions in the Malopolska region. It
would be necessary, especially in the first phase of the Agency’s functioning, to
secure
external financial sources for the Agency, e.g. EU programs and funds.

The Agency would be composed of notable management specialists who, besides
documented research and/or practice, would have to pass a test containing questions regarding
the cite
d standards and Malopolska region quality standard for training companies, and on this
basis
,

specialists would become licensed. The Agency would be called into existence by a
resolution of the local government. The project of the resolution for the existe
nce of the
Agency would be prepared by
the Board, the director of which would serve a three
-
year term.
The Agency would annually submit
a

report of its

activities. The Agency would be financed








by way of payment for the tasks performed by the contracting en
tity of the task. The principle
responsibility of the Agency would be related to the granting of accreditation to entities that
seek to certify Malopolska regional training entities who are seeking certification, and would
be connected to audits conducted
by its (the Agency’s) employees and processing complaints
about the work of the certifying entity as well as about the quality of services provided by the
certified training companies. The mechanisms for reacting to complaints are review in latter
parts of

this report.


Introducing such a dualistic structure


the accreditation entity and the certifying
entities


is aimed at commercialisation of the quality attribution service, which in turn means
attaining a price for such a service as well as shortening

the length of audits. The accrediting
agency should therefore be a warden of this system and an entity of appeal, nevertheless


in
the case of a lack of interest on the part of the certifying services market, the Agency would
take over their function and

lead certifying audits. This would lead to a flattening of the
system, but also possibly it would cause lesser accessibility to the service. Market
observations over a few months will allow an orientation about what scale of interest


equally on the part

of training companies as on the entities seeking accreditation


this might
entail.





Fig
.1
The structure of entities participating the accrediation, certification and service quality
evaluation process


The

Agency would be subject to universally accepted terms concerning accreditation and
certifying entities, namely:

Małopolska
Regional
A
ccreditation Agency

Companies certifying the quality of training services

Training companies applying for certification

Local Government and
Board

client











Impartiality,
understood as an absence of a conflict of interests, especially financial
interests and those of familiarity between auditor and
auditee



Competencies
, equally those of the entity as of the personnel, understood as the ability
to apply knowledge and skill



Responsibility

for the objectivity of the accreditation process



Openness
, understood as the guarantee of public access (Bulletin o
f Public Information
(BIP), website) about the accreditation process and conferred accreditations



Confidentiality


introducing mechanisms that would guarantee the safety of personal
and other information collected during the audit



Responding to complaint
s
, meaning implementing procedures that guarantee a quick
and objective response to clients’ complaints.


1.

The Malopolska Regional Agency for the Standardization of Education and Training
Services is enacted on the basis of a local government resolution. It
s director is called by
the Board of the Malopolska Region.

2.

The Agency has a legal body attained by an entry into the National Judicial Register
(KRS) and conducts its activities on Polish territory.

3.

The Agency is a self
-
financing institution, wherein in t
he first year of activity, if external
funding cannot be attained (e.g. EU funds and programs), it should seek local support or a
loan for the initiation of its activities from the Regional Board.

4.

The Agency will provide accreditation for the certification

of training service in
accordance to the accepted standard for the Malopolska region, wherein, if this form of
activity will be successful, it can also provide accreditation for other
type of certification

services depending on market expectations and sta
ff possibilities. Such solutions are not
the subject of this study.

5.

The Agency undertakes the process of accreditation on the request of an entity which
would like to attain certification after payment for the accreditation process by the entity
(pricing f
or the accreditation should be public, easily accessible and easy in
interpretation).

6.

The accreditation process always takes place on the basis of a written agreement between
the parties involved and encompasses:

-

An overview of documentation of the compan
y seeking accreditation

-

An audit of resource conducted at the company’s place of business

-

An observation of the services provided in real situations









-

Permanent supervision and monitoring of the quality of the services provided

7.

The documentation submitted
by the company seeking accreditation should contain:

-

An application form from the Agency’s website

-

A description of the management system on the basis of standard ISO 9001:2008 or its
equivalent in the form of strategic documents, policies, certification
procedures and
improvement activities.

8.

The Agency possess procedures allowing it to conduct supervision over documentation,
equally that of its own as of its clients, especially in the context of personal data safety.

9.

The Agency informs the client about
the receipt of the application and about the person
responsible for its processing. In case the
document is incomplete, or possesses

other
formal defects, the Agency informs the client in written form and expects the issue to be
resolved with 30 days.



Fig. 2 Mode
l procesu akredytacji

Model of the accreditation process