IEEE 730 Annex I Coverage of ISO/IEC 29110 Basic Profile for Very Small Entities (VSEs) against the tasks of SQA process of ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207

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1


IEEE 730 Annex

I

Coverage
of ISO/IEC 29110 Basic Profile
for Very Small Entities (VSEs)
1


against the
tasks of SQA process

of
ISO/
IEC/IEEE 12207

This annex first presents an
introduction to

an
International standard, ISO/IEC 29110, targe
ted at very
small organisations.
Next a description of the coverage of the ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207 Software
Quality
Assurance Process
by the
Basic profile of the
ISO
/IEC

29110 standard
.

ISO/IEC 29110

standards and technical reports are targeted at
Very Small Entities (VSEs)
.
A Very Small
Entity (VSE) is
defined as
an enterprise, organization, department or project

having up to 25 people.
The
ISO/IEC 29110 series

is a

ser
ies

of international standards entitled
"Software Engineering


Lifecycle
Profiles for Very Small Entities (VSEs)".

A

collectio
n of four standards provides

a progressive approach to
satisfying a vast majority of
the needs of very small organisations.

The n
eed for lightweight software e
ngineering standards

I
ndustry recognizes th
e value of
Very Small Entities
(
VSEs
)

in contributing val
uable products and services.
VSEs also develop and/or maintain software that is used in larger systems, therefore, recognition

of VSEs
as suppliers of high quality software is often required.

According to the Organization for Economic Co
-
operation and Development (
OECD
) SME and
Entrepreneurship Outlook report (2005),
Small and Med
ium Enterprises (
SMEs
)

constitute the dominant
form of business organisation in all countries world
-
wide, accounting for over 95

% and up to 99

% of the
business population depending on country. The challenge facing OECD governments is to provide a
business environment that supports the competitiveness of this large heterogeneous business population
and that promotes a vibrant entrepreneurial cult
ure.

From studies and surveys conducted (Land 1997, Laporte et al. 2008), it is clear that the majority of
International Standards do not address the needs of VSEs. Conformance with these standards is difficult, if
not impossible, giving VSEs no way, or v
ery limited ways, to be recognized as entities that produce quality
software in their domain. Therefore, VSEs are often cut off from some economic activities.

It has been found that VSEs fin
d it difficult to relate international

standards to their business

needs and to
justify the
ir application

to their business practices. Most VSEs can neither afford the resources, in terms of
number of employees, budget and time, nor do they see a net benefit in establishing software life cycle
processes. To rectify some
of these difficulties, a set of guides have been developed according to a set of
VSE
characteristics. The guides are based on subsets of appropriate standard
s elements, referred to as VSE
p
rofiles.
The purpose of a VSE profile is

to define a subset of inte
rnational S
tandards relevant to the VSE
context, for example, processes and outcomes of
ISO/IEC 12207

and products of
ISO/IEC 15289
.

The Set of
ISO/IEC 29110
Standards and Technical Reports

The
ISO/IEC 29110

series are

targeted by audience (s
ee Table 1
)
.

T
he ISO/IEC 29110
is composed of a s
et
of
five documents: the o
verviews and
the two g
uides are published as Technical Reports (TR),
the two
Profiles are published as International Standards (IS).




1

This text is extracted from the Introduction section of ISO/IEC 29110.


ISO/IEC TR 29110
-
1 defines the business terms common to the VSE Profile Set of Documents. It
introduces processes, lifecycl
e and standardization concepts, and the ISO/IEC 29110 series. It also
introduces the characteristics and requirements of a VSE, and clarifies the rationale for VSE
-
specific
profiles, documents, standards and guides.

ISO/IEC 29110
-
2

introduces the concepts for software engineering standardized profiles for VSEs, and
defines the terms common to the VSE Profile Set of Documents. It establishes the logic behind

the
definition and application of standardized profiles. It specifies the elements common to all standardized
profiles (structure, conformance, assessment) and introduces the taxonomy (catalogue) of ISO/IEC 29110
profiles.

ISO/IEC TR 29110
-
3 defines the p
rocess assessment guidelines and compliance requirements needed to
meet the purpose of the defined VSE Profiles. ISO/IEC TR 29110
-
3 also contains information that can be
useful to developers of assessment methods and assessment tools. ISO/IEC TR 29110
-
3 is

addressed to
people who have direct relation with the assessment process, e.g. the assessor and the sponsor of the
assessment, who need guidance on ensuring that the requirements for performing an assessment have been
met.

ISO/IEC 29110
-
4
-
1

provides the specification for all the profiles of the Generic Profile Group. The Generic
Profile Group is applicable to VSEs that do not
develop critical software products. The profiles are based
on subsets of appropriate standards elements. VSE Profiles apply and are targeted at authors/providers of
guides and authors/providers of tools and other support material.

ISO/IEC
TR
29110
-
5
-
m
-
n pr
ovides an implementation management and engineering guide for the VSE
Profile described in ISO/IEC 29110
-
4
-
m.


ISO/IEC 29110

Title

Target audience

Part 1

Overview

VSEs
, assessors, standards producers,
tool vendors, and methodology
vendors.

Part 2

Framework and t
axonomy

Standards producers, tool vendors and
methodology vendors. Not intended
for VSEs.

Part 3

Assessment g
uide

Assessors and VSEs

Part 4

P
rofile s
pecifications

Standards producers, tool vendors and
methodology vendors. Not intended
for
VSEs.

Part 5

Management and engineering g
uide

VSEs

Table 1
-

ISO/IEC 29110 target audience
2

(ISO/IEC 29110)

If a new profile is needed,
ISO/IEC 29110
-
4 and
ISO/IEC 29110
-
5 can be developed without impacting
existing documents and they

become ISO/IEC 29110
-
4
-
m

and

ISO/IEC 29110
-
5
-
m
-
n respectively through
the ISO/IEC process.

ISO/IEC 29110 is not intended to preclude the use of different life cycles such as:
waterfall, iterative, incremental, evolutionary or agile.





2

ISO/IEC 29110
Part 1, 3 and 5 are

available at no cost from ISO
:


http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/index.html


Profiles

The core characteristic of the entities targeted by ISO/IEC 29110 is size, however there are other aspects
and characteristics of VSEs that may affect profile preparation or selection, such as: Business Models
(commercial, contracting, in
-
house development
, etc.); Situational factors (such as criticality, uncertainty
environment, etc.); and Risk Levels. Creating one profile for each possible combination of values of the
various dimensions introduced above would result in an unmanageable set of profiles. Ac
cordingly VSE’s
profiles are grouped in such a way as to be applicable to more than one category. Profile Groups are a
collection of profiles which are related either by composition of processes (i.e. activities, tasks), or
by
capability level, or both
.

Ge
neric
Profile Group

The Generic Profile Group has been defined [3] as applicable to a vast majority of VSEs that do not
develop critical software and have typical situational factors. The Generic Profile Group is a collection of
four profiles (Entry, Basic

Intermediate, Advanced), providing a progressive approach to satisfying a vast
majority of VSEs.

VSEs t
argeted by the Entry Profile are VSEs working on small projects (e.g. at most six
person
-
months effort) and for start
-
up VSEs.

The B
asic P
rofile describ
es software development
practices
of a single application by a single project team with no special risk

or situational factors
.
The Intermediate
P
rofile is targeted at VSEs
developing multiple projects

within the organizational context

taking advantage
of it
. The Advanced P
rofil
e is target to
VSEs which want to sustain and grow as an independent
competitive software development business.

Overview of the Basic Profile

The Basic VSE Profile

define
s

a subset of processes and outcomes of IS
O/IEC 12207 an
d products of
ISO/IEC 15289

for
the
software implementation and project m
anagement processes.
Project management
and software implementation processes are interrelated as illus
trated in Figure 1.

Project
Management
Statement of Work
Software
Implementation
Software
Configuration

Figure 1


Basic
profile guide processes

(ISO/IEC 29110
-
5
-
2
-
1)

The purpose of the Project Management process is to establish and carry out in a systematic way the tasks
of the software implementation process, which allows complying with the project’s objectives in the
expe
cted quality, time and cost.

Table 2 lists th
e objectives of the project

management processs.

Software quality assurance is covered
specifically
by objective 7: '
Software Quality Assurance is performed to provide assurance that work
products and processes

comply with the Project Plan and Requirements Specification
'
.

The implementation
of the Software Quality Assurance process is through the performance of the verifications, validations and
review Tasks performed in Project Management and Software Implement
ation processes.



Identification of
the objective


Description of the objective

PM.O1.

The Project Plan for the execution of the project is developed according to the
Statement of Work and validated with the Customer. The tasks and resources
necessary to
complete the work are sized and estimated.

PM.O2.

Progress of the project is monitored against the Project Plan and recorded in the
Progress Status Record. Corrections to remediate problems and deviations from
the plan are taken when project targets are n
ot achieved. Closure of the project is
performed to get the Customer acceptance documented in the Acceptance Record.

PM.O3.

The Change Requests are addressed through their reception and analysis. Changes
to the software requirements are evaluated for cost
, schedule and technical impact.

PM.O4.

Review meetings with the Work Team and the Customer are held. Agreements are
registered and tracked.

PM.O5.

Risks are identified as they develop and during the conduct of the project.

PM.O6.

A software Version Control Strategy is developed. Items of Software
Configuration are identified, defined and baselined. Modifications and releases of
the items are controlled and made available to the Customer and Work Team
including the storage, handling

and delivery of the items.

PM.O7.

Software Quality Assurance is performed to provide assurance that work products
and processes comply with the Project Plan and Requirements Specification.

Table 2


Objectives for the Project Management Process (ISO/IEC

29110
-
4
-
1
)


The four

outcomes of the Software Quality Assurance Process of ISO/IEC/IEEE are included in the Basic
Profile

(see figure 2)

7.2.3 Software Quality Assurance Process

a)

a strategy for conducting quality assurance is developed;

b)

evidence

of Software quality assurance is produced and maintained;

c)

problems and/or non
-
conformance with requirements are identified and recorded; and

d)
adherence of products, processes and activities to the applicable standards, procedures and

requirements are verified.


[ISO/IEC 12207, 7.2.3]

Figure 2



Outcomes
Basic profile guide processes

(ISO/IEC 29110
-
4
-
1
)


Figure 3

shows the flow of information between the Project Management Process activities including the
most relevant work products and

their relationship.



Project
Planning
Statement of Work
Project
Assessment
and Control
Project Plan
Execution
Project Closure
Verification Re
sults
Meeting Record
Project Repository
Project Plan
Project
Repository
Backup
Meeting Record
Progress Status
Record
Correct
ion

Register
Acceptance
Record
Software
Configuration
Change Request

Figure 3



Project Management process diagram
(ISO/IEC 29110
-
5
-
2
-
1)

The purpose of the Software Implementation process is the systematic performance of the analysis, design,
construction, integration and
tests activities for new or modified software products according to the
specified requirements.

Table

3 lists the objectives of the Software Implementation Process.



Identification
of the objective


Description of the objective

SI.O1.

Tasks of the
activities are performed through the accomplishment of the current
Project Plan.

SI.O2.

Software requirements are defined, analyzed for correctness and testability, approved
by the Customer, baselined and communicated.

SI.O3.

Software architectural and d
etailed design is developed and baselined. It describes the
software items and internal and external interfaces of them. Consistency and
traceability to software requirements are established.

SI.O4.

Software components defined by the design are produced.
Unit test are defined and
performed to verify the consistency with requirements and the design. Traceability to
the requirements and design are established.

SI.O5.

Software is produced performing integration of software components and verified
using Test
Cases and Test Procedures. Results are recorded at the Test Report. Defects
are corrected and consistency and traceability to Software Design are established.

SI.O6.

A Software Configurati
on, that meets the Requirements
Specification as agreed to
with the Customer, which includes user, operation and maintenance documentations is
integrated, baselined and stored at the Project Repository. Needs for changes to the
Software Configuration are detected and related Change Reque
sts are initiated

SI.O7.

Verification and Validation tasks of all required work products are performed using
the defined criteria to achieve consistency among output and input products in each
activity. Defects are identified and corrected; records are st
ored in the
Verification/Validation Results.

Table 3


Objectives for the Software Implementation Process (ISO/IEC 29110
-
4
-
1
)

Figure

4

shows the flow of information between the Software Implementation Process activities including
the most relevant work pr
oducts and their relationship.


Software
Implementation
Initiation
Software
Requirements
Analysis
Software
Architectural
and Detailed
Design
Software
Construction
Software
Integration and
Tests
Product
Delivery
Project
Plan
Validation
Re
sults
Verification
Re
sults
Requirements
Specification
Traceability
Record
Software
Design
Software
Components
Test

Report
Maintenan
ce
Documentation
Product
Operation Guide
Software User
Documentation
Test Cases and
Test Procedures
Software
Configuration
Project
Repository
Software
Change
Request

Figure 4



Software Implementation Process Diagram
(ISO/IEC 29110
-
5
-
2
-
1)


Coverage of the sixteen

tasks of
the SQA Process of
ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207

The coverage explained
in table 4
below is
presented
. An assumption is that a VSE

has fully implemented
the project management and software implementation activities and tasks of
the Basic profile.





ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207

SQA Process Tasks

ISO/IEC 29110
-
5
-
1
-
2

Basic Profile

Activities
and Tasks

Cover
age

(F/P/N)

Observations

7.2.3.3.1.1 A quality assurance
process suited to the project shall
be established. The objectives of
the quality assurance process shall
be to assure that the software
products and the processes
employed for providing those
software products comply with
their established requirements and
adhere to their established plans.

There is no SQA process in the
Basic profile

N

The
SQA activities are embedded in the
pro
ject management and so
ftware
i
mplementation processes
.

7.2.3.3.1.2

The quality assurance
process should be coordinated
with the related Software
Verification (subclause 7.2.4),
Software Validation (subclause
7.2.5), Software Review
(subclause 7.2.6), and Software
Audit (subclause 7.2.7) Processes.

There is no coordinatio
n
between processes

N


The review, verification and validation

tasks as well as the roles are defined

and
embedded in the project management and
software implementation processes.

7.2.3.3.1.3 A plan for conducting
the quality assurance process
activities and tasks shall be
developed, documented,
implemented, and maintained for
the life of the contract. The plan
shall include the following:

a) Quality standards,
methodologies, proce
dures, and
tools for performing the quality
assurance activities (or their
references in organization's
official documentation).

b) Procedures for contract review
and coordination thereof.

c) Procedures for identification,
collection, filing, maintenance
,
and disposition of quality records.

d) Resources, schedule, and
responsibilities for conducting the
quality assurance activities.

e) Selected activities and tasks
from supporting processes, such
as Software Verification
(subclause 7.2.4), Software
Vali
dation (subclause 7.2.5),
Software Review (subclause
7.2.6), Software Audit (subclause
7.2.7), and Software Problem
Resolution (subclause 7.2.8).


There is no SQA plan

N

The SQA activities are embedded in the
pro
ject management and so
ftware
implementation
processes.


ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207

SQA Process Tasks

ISO/IEC 29110
-
5
-
1
-
2

Basic Profile

Activities
and Tasks

Cover
age

(F/P/N)

Observations

7.2.3.3.1.4 Scheduled and on
-
going quality assurance activities
and tasks shall be executed. When
problems or non
-
conformances
with contract requirements are
detected, they shall be
documented and serve as input to
the Problem Resolution
Process
(subclause 7.2.8). Records of
these activities and tasks, their
execution, problems, and problem
resolutions shall be prepared and
maintained.

PM.2.3 Conduct revision
meetings with the Work Team,
identify problems, review risk
status, record agreem
ents and
track them to closure.

PM.3.2 Establish actions to
correct deviations or problems
and identified risks concerning
the accomplishment of the plan,
as needed, document them in
Correction Register and track
them to closure.

PM.3.3 Identify changes to

requirements and/or Project
Plan to address major
deviations, potential risks or
problems concerning the
accomplishment of the plan,
document them in Change
Request and track them to
closure.

F


7.2.3.3.1.5 Records of quality
assurance activities and
tasks
shall be made available to the
acquirer as specified in the
contract.


PM.2.4 Conduct revision
meetings with the Customer,
record agreements and track
them to closure.

F



7.2.3.3.1.6 It shall be assured that
persons responsible for assuring
compliance with the contract
requirements have the
organizational freedom,
resources, and authority to permit
objective evaluations and to
initiate, effect, resolve, and verify
problem resolutions.



N

This activity will be covered in advanced
profiles of
ISO 29110

7.2.3.3.2.1 It shall be assured that
all the plans required by the
contract are documented, comply
with the contract, are mutually
consistent, and are being executed
as required.

PM.1.13 Verify and obtain
approval of the Project Plan.
Verify
that all Project Plan
elements are viable and
consistent. The results found
are documented in a
Verification Results and
corrections are made until the
document is approved by PM.


PM.1.14 Review and accept the
Project Plan. Customer reviews
and accepts th
e Project Plan,
making sure that the Project
Plan elements match with the
Statement of Work.


F




ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207

SQA Process Tasks

ISO/IEC 29110
-
5
-
1
-
2

Basic Profile

Activities
and Tasks

Cover
age

(F/P/N)

Observations

PM.2.1 Monitor the Project
Plan execution and record
actual data in Progress Status
Record.


PM.3.1 Evaluate project
progress with respect to the
Project Plan, co
mparing:

-

actual Tasks against planned
Tasks

-

actual results against
established project Objectives

-

actual resource allocation
against planned Resources

-

actual cost against budget
estimates

-

actual time against planned
schedule

-

actual risk a
gainst previously
identified

7.2.3.3.2.2 It shall be assured that
software products and related
documentation comply with the
contract and adhere to the plans.

PM.3.1 Evaluate project
progress with respect to the
Project Plan, comparing:

-

actual Tasks against planned
Tasks

-

actual results against
established project Objectives

-

actual resource allocation
against planned Resources

-

actual cost against budget
estimates

-

actual time against planned
schedule

-

actual risk against pre
viously
identified

F

In the Basic profile

progress is not
evaluated against the contract but agains
t

the project plan approved by the
customer
.

7.2.3.3.2.3 In preparation for the
delivery of the software products,
it shall be assured that they have
fully
satisfied their contractual
requirements and are acceptable
to the acquirer.

PM.4.1. Formalize the
completion of the project
according to the Delivery
Instructions established in the
Project Plan, providing
acceptance support and getting
the Acceptance Rec
ord signed.

F

The delivery instructions included in the
project plan list what has to be done to
meet the customer requirements.

Delivery instructions were defined
(PM1.2) and approved b
y the customer in
the project p
l
a
n (PM 1.14)

7.2.3.3.3.1 It shall be
assured that
those software life cycle
processes (supply, development,
operation, maintenance, and
support processes including
quality assurance) employed for
the project comply with the
contract and adhere to the plans.

All Project Management and
Software

Implementation
activities and tasks of the Basic
profile

P

The activities are embedded in the project
management and software implementation
processes
.

The contract is not used to verify
compliance. The statement of work is
used instead.

7.2.3.3.3.2 It shall be assured that
the internal software engineering

PM.1.3 Identify the specific
Tasks to be performed in order
P

The contract is not used to verify
compliance. The statement of work is

ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207

SQA Process Tasks

ISO/IEC 29110
-
5
-
1
-
2

Basic Profile

Activities
and Tasks

Cover
age

(F/P/N)

Observations

practices, development
environment, test environment,
and libraries comply with the
contract.

to produce the Deliverables an
d
their Software Components
identified in the Statement of
Work. Include Tasks in the SI
process along with verification,
validation and reviews with
Customer and Work Team
Tasks to assure the quality of
work products. Identify the
Tasks to perform the Del
ivery
Instructions.

PM.1.5 Identify and document
the Resources: human, material,
equipment and tools, standards,
including the required training
of the Work Team to perform
the project. Include in the
schedule the dates when
Resources and training will be
needed.

used instead.

7.2.3.3.3.3 It shall be assured that
applicable prime
-
contract
requirements are passed down to
the subcontractor, and that the
subcontractor's software
products
satisfy prime
-
contract
requirements.



N

For Very small entities, it i
s assumed
, for
the Basic profile,

that no work would be
subcontracted

by the

VSE.

This activity will be covered in advanced
profiles of ISO 29110.

7.2.3.3.3.4 It shall be
assured that
the acquirer and other parties are
provided the required support and
cooperation in accordance with
the contract, negotiations, and
plans.


PM.2.4 Conduct revision
meetings with the Customer,
record agreements and track
them to closure.

Change

Request initiated by
Customer or initiated by Work
Team, which affects the
Customer, needs to be
negotiated to reach acceptance
of both parties.

If necessary, update the Project
Plan according to new
agreement with Customer.

F



7.2.3.3.3.5 It should be
assured
that software product and process
measurements are in accordance
with established standards and
procedures.


PM.3.1 Evaluate project
progress with respect to the
Project Plan, comparing:

-

actual Tasks against planned
Tasks

-

actual results against

established project Objectives

-

actual resource allocation
against planned Resources

-

actual cost against budget
F




ISO/IEC/IEEE 12207

SQA Process Tasks

ISO/IEC 29110
-
5
-
1
-
2

Basic Profile

Activities
and Tasks

Cover
age

(F/P/N)

Observations

estimates

-

actual time against planned
schedule

-

actual risk against previously
identified

7.2.3.3.3.6 It shall be assured that
the
staff assigned have the skill
and knowledge needed to meet
the requirements of the project
and receive any necessary
training.

PM.1.5 Identify and document
the Resources: human, material,
equipment and tools, standards,
including the required training
of t
he Work Team to perform
the project. Include in the
schedule the dates when
Resources and training will be
needed.

F


7.2.3.3.4.1 Additional quality
management activities may be
assured in accordance with the
clauses of ISO 9001.



N



Table
4


Coverage

of the project management and software implementation activities and
tasks of ISO/IEC 29110 Basic Profile against the ISO/IEC
/IEEE

12207 SQA process

tasks


The
Deployment Packages

Annex A of
ISO/IEC 29110 Part 5

defines
a D
eployment Package

(DP)

a set of
artefacts developed to
facilitate the implementation of a set of practices, of the selected fra
mework, in a VSE. The DP
s
have been
developed to help implement the processes of the Generic Profile Group.

The content

of a typical DP

is listed in
figure
4
. T
he mapping to standards and models is given as
information t
o show that a DP

has explicit links to Part 5 and to selected ISO standards, such as ISO/IEC
12207, or models such as the CMMI
®

from the Software Engineering Institute. By i
mplementing a DP
, a
VSE

can see its concrete step to achieve or demonstrate coverage to ISO/IEC 29110 Part 5
. DP
s are
designed such that a VSE can implement its content, without having to implement the complete framework
at the same time.



1. Technical Description



Purpose of
this document



Why this Topic is important?

2. Definitions

3. Relationships with ISO/IEC 29110

4. Overview of Processes, Activities, Tasks, Roles and Products

5. Description of Processes, Activities, Tasks, Steps, Roles and Products




Role Description




Product Description




Artefact Description

6. Template

7. Example

8. Checklist

9. Tool

10. References to o
ther Standards and Models (e.g. ISO 9001, ISO/IEC 12207, CMMI
®
)

11. References

12. Evaluation Form

Figure 4
. Table of content of a Deployment Packa
ge

(ISO/IEC 29110
-
5
-
1
-
2)

The basic profile describes software development of a single application by a single project team with no
special risk or situational factors. The set of DPs for the Basic profile is illustrated in
figure

5
.


Figure 5
. Deployment
Packages to support the Basic Profile

DP
s
as well as other support material
, such as a
plug
-
in
,
are available at no cost on
the
Internet
.

References

ISO/IEC
TR 29110
-
1, “Software Engineering
-

Lifecycle Profiles for Very Small Entities (VSEs)
-

Part 1:
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ISO/IEC
29110
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2 Software Engineering
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Lifecycle Profiles
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