Microsoft Builds a Green Campus to Save Costs and Reduce Carbon Footprint

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Microsoft Builds a Green Campus to
Save Cost
s

and Reduce Carbon
Footprint

Published:
April

2010

Microsoft
incorporated environmental sustainability into the
construction and operation of
an expanded campus in China
.

The
project is expected to provide a return on investment (ROI) in terms of
cost savings, cost avoidance, and strategic value.

To accommodate business growth, Microsoft reserved about 66
,
000 square meters
of land
and planned to

build four
new
buildings at the Zi Zhu campus, Shanghai, China
.

The
buildings would
accommodate about 7000

8000 people.
Microsoft saw this project as an
opportunity to create a "green campus"

of four buildings

one that would save costs and
reduce environmental impact.
Microsoft
incorporated environmental sustainability into all
phases of development: design, procurement, provisioning, construction, and
ongoing
operations.

Construction on the project started in
September 2007,

and
occupancy of the
new buildings began in
June 2009.

Microsoft
Information Technology (Microsoft
IT
)

worked with the
Real Estate & Facilities

(
RE&F
)

team

and other
business units
across Microsoft to set goals and complete the
project.
Mic
rosoft IT expects
the
Zi Zhu

campus
to save 47 million kilowatt
-
hours (kWh) per
year, which is equivalent to powering 4,700 homes for a year
.

With the experiences gained from this project, Microsoft IT can share practical examples and
best practices with

o
rganizations that want to incorporate environmental sustainability into
office construction. This paper is intended for business decision makers and

IT executives
who want to embrace a
n environmentally sustainable approach to IT operations.

S
ituation

Busin
ess growth can create environmental challenges for any organization. The
Zi Zhu

campus includes the following elements, each of which presents an opportunity to improve
environmental sustainability
:



Offices



Data

center



Lab
s



Desktop

and laptop computers



Mee
tings and other types of collaboration

Microsoft has developed best practices and policies for reducing the environmental impact of
its facilities, including the construction and operation of energy
-
efficient data centers. The
Situation

Microsoft planned to expand its facilities
in Shanghai, China, beginning in late
2007. It needed to incorporate
sustainable building requirements and
cost savings into
the campus.

Solution

Microsoft IT
worked with other Microsoft

teams t
o

build and run a green campus
in Shanghai
. The teams focused on
deriving benefits from the following
elements of the campus: offices, d
ata

center
, labs, desktop and laptop
computers, vir
tual collaboration.

Benefits



Reduced electricity consumption of up
to 47 million kWh



Total

c
ost
a
voidance
of

about
$1.
6
million



Total c
ost
s
avings
of about
$66
3
,000



R
eduction
of

about
14
.
6

kg of CO2
emissions

Products
&

Technologies



Windows Server 2008



Wi
ndows Vista



Hyper
-
V



Microsoft System Center Virtual
Machine Manager


Microsoft Builds a Green Campus to Save Costs and Reduce Carbon Footprint

Page
2


Microsoft IT
and RE&F teams
f
ully adopted the
se

best practices to
expand

the
Zi Zhu

campus
.
For more information, refer the article "
Microsoft’s Top 10 Business Practices for
Environmentally Sustainable Data Centers
" at
http://www.microsoft.com/environment/our_commitment/articles/datacenter_bp.aspx
.


Solution

The
Zi Zhu

campus features a

d
irect
d
igital
c
ontrol (DDC)
b
uilding
m
anagement
s
ystem
(
BMS
)

that consists of a

central monitor
ing

system, actuators, sensors
,

and transmitters. The
BMS monitor
s

and control
s

the
heating, ventilating, and air conditioning

(
HVAC
)

system,
power supply system, lighting system, and utility systems to maintain
optimal power
conditions in each

building and
s
ave
energy.
The
BMS also has
uninterruptible power supply
(
UPS
)

and backup power to minimize the risk of power outages.
The following sections
describe the components of the BMS and the other elements that make the campus
environmentally sustainable.

Light
ing

A p
assive optical system

redirect
s

daylight deep into the

work
space while eliminating all
direct sunlight on work surfaces. It has been integrated into the building fenestration design

to provide

uniform ambient lighting

so that

electric lights to be t
urned off or dimmed. It is
mounted inside, directly adjacent to the daylight

window

glazing, to protect
it
from the
weather
. It can
pivot
to

enable
easy
cleaning
of the windows
.

Ventilation

The ventilation system for the buildings is d
emand
-
c
ontrolled
v
entilation.
Sensors measure
the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the buildings. Based on those readings, the system

adjusts outside ventilation air based on the number of occupants and the ventilation demands
that those occupants create.

Cooling

W
ater
-
sid
e economizer
s

and air
-
side economizer
s

provid
e

cool
ing for buildings
.
T
he water
-
side economizers automatically use outside air to cool chilled water when the temperature of
external air falls below a certain threshold and turn of
f

the main chiller tower to

save energy.
Meanwhile, the air
-
side economizers bring outside air directly into the data center and labs.
This
system
will yield significant energy savings and reduce carbon footprint in mild seasons.
Microsoft IT estimates
that air
-
side free cooling
alo
ne
will save 3,684,603 kWh
of e
lectricity
,

or
about $316,000 US

in

total cost
s
,

yearly.

To further save the energy used for cooling,
the buildings

use thermal ice storage
:

O
ff
-
peak
electricity produce
s

ice for cooling during peak hours.
Microsoft IT
estimates that thermal ice
storage

will

save about

$29,000

per year

in energy costs
.

Variable
-
frequency drives (VFD
s
)

and
v
ariable
p
rimary
f
low (VPF)
are
effective tools

that
a
facility manager

can use to
reduce
energy use
.
VFDs match system output to load requirements by slowing HVAC
drive
components.
S
lowing a motor to match a decreased load

reduces

a motor’s energy
requirements
,
thus saving costs
.

Microsoft implemented
VFDs and VPF in the following ways
:



Variable
p
rimary
p
umping
. The primary pumps and chillers
are

configured in a
headered arrangement to provide the flexibility of operating any pump with any chiller.


Microsoft Builds a Green Campus to Save Costs and Reduce Carbon Footprint

Page
3




Chiller with VFD
s
. The chilled water system
can

efficiently operate over varying part
load conditions.
A

sma
ll chiller with VFD
s

respond
s

to the impact that varying cooling
loads has on the chilled water system supply and return
s

the
temperature difference.



VFD for
c
ooling
-
t
ower
f
ans
. The fan of the cooling tower with VFD
s

can be adjusted
according the
temperatu
re of the
returned cooling water.

Heating

In winter, the buildings u
se
a
g
round
-
s
ource
h
eat
p
ump
(GSHP)
to
heat

the
office.
GSHPs
are electrically powered systems that tap stored energy

from the ground
.

They
us
e

the
relative
ly

constant temperature

of the earth

to provide heating

and
cooling
.

Cabl
es

Traditionally, metal trays accommodate cables in horizontal and vertical cabl
e routes
. T
he
Zi
Zhu

campus

instead
use
s

open basket
s
, which are lighter than

cable trays
. The baskets

reduce the load on each

floor
,

and they
save
a
significant amount of material.
Because

the
length of
all the
trunk
cable trays

equal
s

nearly

4

kilometers (km)

and
the length of all the
branch
cable
trays equals

nearly

8

km,

Microsoft IT
estimates
that the baskets reduce

the
tota
l load
by

roughly

14.4 tons
.

Figure 1 shows…



Figure 1. Configuration of cable baskets

Power Management

Server racks in
IT
and

l
ab room
s
contain

m
etered
r
ack

p
ower
d
istribution
u
nits
(
PDU
s
) from
thi
r
d
-
party vendors
. Th
r
ough th
e
se power meters, IT
m
anagers and
l
ab
m
anagers can
analyze the power load and efficiency of each rack to fine
-
tune the power supply and achieve
further energy efficiency.

Virtual Machines

Microsoft IT
faces the same issues that

many
IT
organizations

face
: Data
c
enters and
labs

reach space and power
-
consumption capacity rapidly, while many servers run at very low
utilization. To address these issues, Microsoft IT encourages all the lab managers
to do the
following:


Microsoft Builds a Green Campus to Save Costs and Reduce Carbon Footprint

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4




U
pgrade the
operating system

in labs to Windows Server
®

20
08 beca
use tests revealed
that Windows Server

20
08
out of the box (
OOB) achieved power savings of up to 10
percent over Windows Server

20
03 OOB at comparable levels of throughput.



A
ctively adopt Hyper
-
V


virtualization technology to reduce the number of physical
server
s
, maximize the existing investment,
reduce

the hardware and maintenance cost
of new servers
, and

reduce the load of power and cooling facilities in labs and data
centers.



Use

Microsoft®
Sy
stem Center Virtual Machine Manager to deploy, manage
,

and
monitor thousands of virtual machines and hosts to ensure
that
they can meet the needs
of the corresponding business groups.

A
dopting
v
irtualization provides immediate benefits in terms of reducing

energy usage,
lowering
emissions of
greenhouse gas
es
, and
reducing

costs for the company.

Table
1

demonstrates the
difference in
power consumption between physical machines and virtual
machines.

Table 1.
Power
C
onsumption
C
omparison (
Ph
ysical vs.
V
irtual)

S
erver

s
etup

Processing
l
oad

Average
w
atts

Projected
p
ower
c
onsumption
(kWh per
y
ear)

Internet
Information
Services
(
IIS
)

7
.0

×

1

stand
-
alone

20 active clients

500.10

4,383.88

Hyper
-
V IIS

7
.0

×

4 virtual
machines

20 active clients
per
server that is
running
IIS

517.66

4,537.81

Hyper
-
V IIS

7
.0

×

10 virtual
machines

20 active clients
per
server that is
running
IIS

512.17

4,489.68


C
omparing the stand
-
alone IIS configuration to the Hyper
-
V configurations reveals
that
virtualization can provide
significant power savings.
A

physical server consume
s

517.6 watts
on average while running
four

virtua machines

running IIS
, just 3.5 percent more power than
it use
s

when configured as a stand
-
alone IIS machine. If multiple
virtual machines can run on
a single physical machine without consuming significantly more power than a stand
-
alone
server while keeping comparable throughput,
Microsoft IT

can add virtual machines at
essentially no power cost, as dictated by hardware and
performance needs. The savings
continue to scale with the number of servers
that Microsoft IT can

virtualize. Running
four

virtual machines means saving the equivalent power output of three physical servers; running
10 virtual machines means saving the equ
ivalent power output of
nine

physical servers.

T
able 2 shows the practical effect of expanding data center
s

and labs by adding virtual
capacity, compared to physical capacity. The difference adds up to millions of dollars a year
at current electricity rate
s.


Microsoft Builds a Green Campus to Save Costs and Reduce Carbon Footprint

Page
5


Table 2. Adding Physical Capacity vs. Adding Virtual Capacity

Business
u
nit

Before
v
irtualization

After
v
irtualization


Number

of
s
ervers

kWh

per
year

Number

of
s
ervers

kWh

per
year

Server & Tools

3017

13214460

242

10599
60

W
indows
L
ive
C
hina

1000

438000
0

50

219000

Customer Service
and Support

2500

10950000

50

219000







Total
p
ower
s
avings per
year in kWh

Dollar

s
aving
s

in
p
ower ($0.1083
per kWh)

Reduction in
CO2
e
mission
s

(0.778

k
g CO2
per kWh)

Equivalent n
umber

of
h
omes to
p
ower

(2,832

kWh
per home
per year)

Total ROI

27046500

US$
2929136

21042177

9550
4


Desktop

and Laptop Computers

The Windows Vista
®

operating system features significant changes to power management
infrastructure, functionality
,

and default settings of the Windows
®

operating system. These
changes
affect

how
computers

running
Windows

Vista consume energy.

When employees leave the office, they may not turn off their computers. Computers that
remain turned on when not in use continue to consume power. This waste of en
ergy has
direct financial and environmental impacts. The standardization of
Windows
Vista on desktop
and laptop

computers

at the Zi Zhu campus

and across Microsoft

takes advantage of the
low
-
power “
s
leep” feature to manage energy efficiency.

Microsoft IT
based its v
alues for the amount of energy that a typical
desktop computer

and
display consume on a 2002 study
by

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

(
Berkeley Lab
)
.
Table
3

contains the mean values for Intel Pentium 4
computer
s and for 17
-
inch CRT and
LCD displays.

Table
3
. Power Usage for Desktop PCs (
W
atts)

B
ased on
Berkeley Lab

D
ata

Statistic

Idle

Sleep

Savings

Mean of Pentium 4
computers

67.3

3.3

64.0

Mean of 17
-
inch CRT monitors

61.2

1.8

59.4

Mean of 17
-
inch LCD monitors

35.3

2.3

33.0


The
study measured p
ower consumption in both the idle state and the low
-
power
s
leep state.
The idle state was characterized as:



An idle Windows
-
based

desktop on a running, but otherwise quiescent system


Microsoft Builds a Green Campus to Save Costs and Reduce Carbon Footprint

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6




No software running other than the operating system



Displ
ay on (not blank)

To project potential energy savings,
Microsoft IT
compar
ed

a
computer

left running constantly
with

a
computer

running 10 hours a day,
five
days a week, and otherwise using the
s
leep
feature in Windows Vista while not in use.
Microsoft IT
used the following formula:

(Idle Power Draw


Sleep Power Draw) x 6,160 nonuse hours =

Annual Savings

Table
4

outlines the
estimated
energy savings
of

using the
s
leep feature versus leaving
a
computer

on constantly
, based on Microsoft IT calculations
.

Table
4
. Energy Savings for
a
Desktop C
omputer

(kWh)

Equipment

Power draw per year
(idle)

Power draw per
year (sleep)

Savings per year
(sleep vs. idle)

Typical P
entium
4
computer

with 17
-
inch CRT

791.56

31.42

760.14

Typical P
entium
4
computer

with
17
-
inch LCD

632.02

34.50

597.52


Because most of the Microsoft Shanghai employees us
e

LCD rather CRT monitors
,

and each
employee
has

at least two
computers on average (for a total of

3
,
500
comp
u
ters)
,
Microsoft
IT estimates
the total ROI
of power management
at

roughly
2

million kWh
,

and
more than

$226,000
, per year.
It also estimates an elimination of more than

1,627,000

k
g of CO2
emissions
, per year
.

Virtual Collaboration

In 2007, Microsoft employees traveled more than 1 billion miles

for

business
, which equates
to almost 14,000 miles per person. Microsoft IT offers many technologies and tools to
reduce
travel by
enabl
ing

productive teaming and collaboration.

For the
Zi Zhu
campus
, Microsoft IT is driving awareness and increas
ing

adoption
of
technologies

such as

Microsoft
Office Communicator,
Microsoft
Office Live Meeting,
and

u
nified
c
ommunication
s

(UC) t
elephony. These
technologies

increase
collaboration across
geographical boundaries (virtual collaboration)

and
reduce the need for employ
ees to travel
for face
-
to
-
face meetings.

Microsoft IT estimates that

virtual collaboration

will

eliminate 172.8 tons of
CO2

ever
y

year at
the Zi Zhu campus.

Polic
ies
, Process
es,

and People

Microsoft IT

believes that
technolog
y alone will not provide the be
nefits of a green campus.
To complement technology such as
computer

power management and tools for virtual
meetings, Microsoft IT
define
s

clear polic
ies
, implement
s

streamlined process
es,

and
educate
s

employees
about

their responsibilities
. For example,
office policies for the Zi Zhu
campus include

double
-
side
d

printing

to save paper, and a recycling program. Processes
include an approval process for printing in color, which is more resource intensive than
printing in black
-
and
-
white.

Microsoft IT
also co
nducts a training program called

Work Smart
,
which

educate
s

employees on
how they can limit their environmental impact
.


Microsoft Builds a Green Campus to Save Costs and Reduce Carbon Footprint

Page
7


Benefits

By bearing “
g
reen” in mind when building the Shanghai Zi Zhu campus, Microsoft
expects to
achieve

benefits in terms of cost eff
icacy, working environment, employee productivity,
and
employee satisfaction
, in addition to

environmental sustainability.
T
he ROI of the project

falls
into three

categorie
s
:



Cost
s
aving
s
. This
can

be due to implementing a more energy
-
efficient measure
wi
thout any initial investment or with some initial investment. However, ongoing saving
s

can surpass

the initial investment in a certain period. Examples include
e
conomic
al

p
rinting (no initial investment)
,

a
ir
c
ooling (some initial investment
,

which

can be
justified
by ongoing cost saving
s
)
,

and

c
omputer

power
management

(
some
initial investment
,

also

justified by ongoin
g

cost savings)
.



Cost
a
voidance
.
Implementing

a new technology or a new process
might significantly
affect the business's budget
by saving
unnecessary cost
s

from being incurred. Examples
include power cost avoidance by using
v
irtualization in labs
,

and
increased
productivity

and decreased travel expenses

by using
v
irtual
c
ollaboration technology.



Strategic
v
alue
.
A

small
number
of investments

may

raise operation
al

cost
s

to some
extent
, but their

positive impact to the working environment or public environment

make
them worthwhile
. The
se

“soft” returns
on investment include

improving employee health
and job satisfaction,
and
reducing the carbon

footprint of Microsoft operation
s
. A
n

example is encouraging employees
r
ecycl
e paper and other supplies
.

Table
5

summarizes the projected ROI across categories for elements of the Zi Zhu campus.

Table
5
. Overall Return on Investment

Element

Cost
a
voidance per
y
ear

Cost
s
aving
s

per
y
ear

Reduction of
CO2
e
mission
s

(
k
g)

Of f ice

Not applicable

$99,025

383,201

Data

center

Not applicable

$337,375

2,866,621

Lab
s

$1,332,461

Not applicable

9,572,061

Desktop

and
laptop
computers

Not applicable

$226,490

1,627,047

Virtual
c
ollaboration

$257,143

Not applicable

172,800

Total

$1,589,604

$662,890

14,621,730


Conclusion

By
using teamwork and Microsoft best practices, Microsoft IT

helped create a green campus
in Shanghai. Microsoft IT
anticipate
s that the
campus will provide a

total cost
savings and
cost avoidance
of about $2.25

million

per year
,

and
will
reduce CO2 emission
s

by

about
14,621 tons per year.

For More Information

For more information about Microsoft products or services, call the Microsoft Sal
es
Information Center at (800) 426
-
9400. In Canada, call the Microsoft Canada information

Microsoft Builds a Green Campus to Save Costs and Reduce Carbon Footprint

Page
8


Centre at (800) 563
-
9048. Outside the 50 United States and Canada, please contact your
local Microsoft subsidiary. To access information via the World Wide Web, go to
:

http://www.microsoft.com

http://www.microsoft.com/technet/itshowcase


© 2010

Mi crosoft Corporati on. All ri ghts reserved.

Thi s document i s for i nformational purposes onl y. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, IN THIS SUMMARY. Microsoft,
Hyper
-
V,
Wi ndows, Wi ndows Server
, and Wi ndows Vi sta

are ei ther
regi stered trademarks or

trademarks of Mi crosoft Corporati on i n
the United States and/or other countri es. The
names of actual companies and products menti oned herein may be the trademarks of thei r respecti ve owners.