HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT GUIDELINE FERM Facility Plan

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HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT GUIDELINE

FERM Facilit
y Plan


DOCUMENT ID

-

GU 230

REVISION

-

2.0

DATE

-


-

15/07/02



HSE


GUIDELINE

Recommending Best Practice





GU
-
230

REVISION 2.0

Page
ii






Authorised for Issue by the HSE IC 15/07/02





Document Authorisation

Document Authority

Document Custodian

Document Author

‘dapo Oguntoyinbo

oef. fnd: CpM

aate: 1
R⼰T⼰O

eamad hha汦een

oef. fnd: Cp䴯M1

aate: 1R⼰T⼰O

eamad hha汦een

oef. fnd: Cp䴯M1

aate: 1R⼰T⼰O


qhe fo汬ow楮g 楳 a br楥f summary of the four most re捥nt rev楳楯is to th楳 do捵ment. aeta楬s of a汬 rev楳楯is pr楯i
to these are he汤 on f楬e by the ao
捵ment Custod楡n.


Version No.

Date

Author

Scope / Remarks

Version 2.0

Jul 2002

Hamad Khalfeen,
CSM/11

Editorial changes, new format.

Version 1.0

Jul 1998


Original issue as HSE/97/13.



















User Notes:


This document is a guideline only.


A controlled copy of the current version of this document is on PDO's EDMS. Before making reference to this
document, it is the user's responsibility to ensure that any hard copy, or electronic copy, is current. For
assistance, contact the
Document Cust
odian
.


This document is the property of Petroleum Development Oman, LLC. Neither the whole nor any part of this
document may be disclosed to others or reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by
any means (electronic, mechanica
l, reprographic recording or otherwise) without prior written consent of the
owner.


Users are encouraged to participate in the ongoing improvement of this document by providing constructive
feedback.



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Contents

ABBREVIATIONS

................................
................................
................................
.........

IV

1.0

INTRODUCTION

................................
................................
................................
..

1

1.1

P
URPOSE

................................
................................
................................
...............

1

1.2

S
COPE

................................
................................
................................
..................

1

1.3


B
ACKGROUND

................................
................................
................................
.........

1

1.3.1

Pre Fire Planning
................................
................................
...........................

1

1.4

D
ISTRIBUTION AND
T
ARGET
A
UDIENCE

................................
................................
.........

2

1.5

D
OCUMENT
R
EVIEW

................................
................................
................................
.

2

2.0

PREPARATION OF A FER
M FACILITY PLAN

................................
.......................

3

2.1

G
ENERAL

................................
................................
................................
...............

3

2.2

D
OCUMENTS
R
EQUIRED

................................
................................
............................

3

2.2.1

Area Facility FES and Fire Protection Equipment Description

............................

3

2.2.2

Fire Protection Systems Maintenance Plans
................................
.....................

5

2.2.3

Pre
-
Fire Plan/Operator Response Sheet

................................
..........................

7

2.2.4

Fire Responder Capabilities

................................
................................
............

3

2.2.5

Shortfall Listing

................................
................................
.............................

5

2.3

F
IRE
S
CENARIO
D
EVELOPMENT
................................
................................
....................

6

2.3.1

General

................................
................................
................................
........

6

2.3.2

Resource Levels for Scenarios

................................
................................
........

6

3.0

EXAMPLES

................................
................................
................................
............

8

3.1

F
IRE
P
ROTECTION
S
YSTEMS
M
AINTENANCE
P
LANS

................................
...........................

8

3.2

F
IRE
S
CENARIO
W
ORKSHEETS

................................
................................
..................

10

ATTACHMENT I:
BLANK FIRE SCENARIO
WORK SHEET

................................
..................

29

ATTACHMENT II:
BLANK PRE
-
FIRE PLAN/OPERATOR R
ESPONSE SHEET

.........................

38

ATTACHMENT II
I:
BLANK FIRE RESPONDER

COMPETENCIES
................................
.........

43



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Abbreviations

AFFF



Aqueous Film Forming Foam

AFO



Airport Fire Officer


BA



Breathing Apparatus

BLL



Barrels

BLEVE



Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion

BPD



Barrels Per D
ay


CAA



Civil Aviation Authority


DCS



Digital Control System


EOM



Emergency Operations Manual

EP



Engineering Practice

ERD



Engineering Reference Document

ESD



Emergency Shut Down


FCP



Field Change Proposal

FERM



Fire and Explosion Risk Managem
ent

FES



Fire and Explosion Strategy

FMECA



Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis


HSE



Health, Safety and Environment


ICAO



International Civil Aviation Authority

IR



Infra Red

IT



Information Technology


LEBC



Local Emergency Base Contr
oller

LEL



Lower Explosive Limit

LPG



Liquefied Petroleum Gas

lpm



litres per minute


MAF



Mina Al Fahal


NED



National Emergency Director

NGL



Natural Gas Liquids

NFPA



National Fire Protection Agency


oo



out of (eg 2oo3 voting)

ORC



Oman Refine
ry Company

OWS



Oily Water Separator


PDO



Petroleum Development Oman

PPE



Personal Protective Equipment

PS



Production Station


QRA



Quantitative Risk Asssessment


RCM



Reliability Centered Maintenance

RFF



Rescue and Fire Fighting


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RFFS



Rescue an
d Fire Fighting Service

RMS



Remote Manifold Station


SCBA



Self Contained Breathing Apparatus

SIEP



Shell International Exploration and Production


UL



Underwriters Laboratory

UV



Ultra Violet


VESDA



Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus




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1.0

Intr
oduction

1.1

Purpose

The prime objective of a FERM Facility Plan is to minimise the risk to life and assets
by maximising the potential for risk mitigation with manual intervention, utilising
available manpower and equipment.


It is intended that FERM Faci
lity Plans be produced in a consistent manner for both
new facilities and modifications to existing facilities. Presently, throughout PDO
facilities there are differences in procedures, available equipment, manpower and
capability. The purpose of this Gu
ideline is to provide a consistent approach to
identified fire hazards, by setting standards for the preparation of specific pre
-
fire
planning documents for each PDO location.


This document supports the requirements provided in
SP 1075, Specification for

Fire
and Explosion Risk Management
, and provides examples where applicable.

1.2

Scope

This guideline is focused on FERM Facility Plans.

1.3

Background

Automated systems have the advantage of rapid response but are limited in terms of
assessment and usual
ly follow a single pre
-
determined pattern initiated by condition
sensors. Only trained personnel can provide the necessary assessment of a situation
but their performance is very much improved if all of the possibilities for escalation
have been considere
d and fully understood prior to any occurrence.


By preparing specific action plans for manual response based on identified fire
hazards and scenarios, simulated response exercises can be tested and practised.
The testing aspect provides information regar
ding any weaknesses in the systems, or
failures on demand; whilst the practice induces a level of familiarity with tasks which
then become routine, and therefore more reliable. During an emergency, fire
responders rely on their ability to use equipment sa
fely and effectively.

1.3.1

Pre Fire Planning

Pre
-
fire planning may be described as the advance preparation of documentation and
practical rehearsals, based on potential credible fire scenarios, which can assist fire
departments and line management personn
el to respond to and control fire events
within company facilities. Pre
-
fire planning addresses the nature of contribution from
human intervention as a recovery measure.


Pre
-
fire planning sets plant control, safeguarding and fire fighting objectives and

strategies so that in the case of a potential incident critical time is saved should
hazardous events come about. It also identifies particular fire and explosion scenario
resource requirements and hazards that may be encountered during an incident.
The
appropriate actions to be employed when applying mitigation and recovery
measures are then developed.


Pre
-
fire plans need to be scenario specific. They should not be overly detailed or
inflexible since it is not possible to predict the precise events or

impact that may
occur from any given scenario. Having identified plausible fire scenarios and relevant

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control methodologies it is then possible to identify the role of contributing systems,
for example:




Response times and capabilities of fire responders




Physical site aspects including adequate access ways for the assigned
equipment taking wind directions into account



Clear communication procedures and systems



Availability of suitable quantities of foam, water or hand extinguishers



Convenient location of

equipment such as hydrants, monitors and fireman’s
equipment.

1.4

Distribution and Target Audience

This guideline has been developed for the use of PDO staff, contractors and
consultants that are involved in the design of new facilities and modification o
f
existing facilities.


It is also intended for use during the review of existing FERM Facility Plans as they
are completed on a periodic basis.

1.5

Document Review

This Guideline shall be reviewed as necessary in line with any review and
modification of
the related Specification.



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2.0

Preparation of a FERM Facility Plan

2.1

General

This section provides guidance on how to prepare a FERM Facility Plan, and provides
a list of documents for a typical plan.


In establishing facility plans it is necessary t
o prepare a list of company facilities,
then list the processes, plants, operation, structures and personnel within the
facilities. From this list the numbers and types of potential (moderate, serious and
major fire) incident scenarios should be further l
isted. It is anticipated that company
personnel in the vicinity would deal with minor or incipient fires and therefore such
incidents should not be used for pre
-
plans.


After confirming the credibility of the draft fire scenarios with line management,
sup
ervisor actions to prepare for the event can be developed. These should be in
line with an emphasis on the impact on operations, facility, plant and equipment to
ensure accuracy of planning. A final list of scenarios should then be converted into
fully p
repared pre
-
fire plans with further investigative work on impact on the
environment and the public.


Establishing a pre
-
fire plan for every single potential fire incident in all company
facilities serves little useful purpose since it would take many years

to exercise the
response to these incidents. Operator’s pre
-
plans should be developed as well as
those for fire fighters and the two should be coordinated on a scenario basis.

2.2

Documents Required

The following documents are required in order to compl
ete a FERM Facility Plan:


1.

Area Facility FES and Description of Fire Protection Equipment, for reference,
information and possible inclusions in the HSE Case.

2.

Fire protection systems maintenance plans, for inclusion in the site EPMARS.

3.

Pre
-
fire plans/Opera
tor response, for inclusion in the Site Emergency Procedures,
Part III.

4.

Fire responder capabilities, for inclusion in the Operator Competency Assurance
Scheme and/or the Fire Brigade Training Programme.

5.

Shortfall Listings, for inclusion in the EOM, Staff
Training Plan and FCP as
required.

2.2.1

Area Facility FES and Fire Protection Equipment Description

Area Facility FES

This should be in accordance with PDO’s FERM and FES levels assigned to the
facilities. Include a description of each main area of the s
ite being examined and list
the strategy that is assigned.



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An example might be:


Strategy Level 1 (Minor Incident Intervention Only)

Remote manifolds 1 to n

Gathering station X

Camps and offices


Level description

Fire response is limited to trained pe
rsonnel using portable extinguishers or other
types of first aid fire fighting equipment. In addition, in critical areas, such as some
areas of camps, automatic detection systems may be installed to provide fast alarm
and personnel escape.


Strategy Level

2 (Dedicated Fixed Fire Protection Systems)

Power station


Level Description

Automatic actuation of a self contained extinguishing system, for a specific facility
from detection systems.


Strategy Level 3 (Fixed Fire Protection Systems Plus Back Up)

Produ
ction Station


Level Description

Dedicated fixed fire protection systems and a fire water network with back up from
manual intervention by trained personnel using fire fighting equipment.


Strategy Level 4 (Fixed Fire Protection Systems Plus Fire Brigade)

Airstrip


Level Description

Similar to strategy 3 with back up from a professional fire brigade.

Fire Protection Equipment


Each area identified above needs to have a description of the fire detection and
protection equipment installed, together with a con
clusion as to the adequacy, and
applicability of the strategy level assigned.


An example might be:


Remote Manifold Stations


Strategy Level 1


The remote manifolds have the following fire protection equipment in place:



1 x 60kg dry powder trolley exti
nguisher



4 x 12kg dry powder extinguishers



2 x CO
2

extinguishers


The extinguisher type and number are appropriate to the facilities. There are no fixed
fire systems at any RMS in accordance with strategy level 1.


The following fire and gas detection is i
n place:



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RMS 1 to 4 and 6 to 10



RMS 5



H
2
S gas detection (DCS building)


Break glass units (external) only



Smoke detection (DCS building)



Break glass units (external)


Actuation of any of these devices will alarm in the control room and ESD the
respect
ive RMS.


Conclusion:

Strategy level 1 is applicable to the Remote Manifold Stations.

2.2.2

Fire Protection Systems Maintenance Plans

This section needs to identify the weekly, monthly, quarterly, 6 monthly and annual
maintenance requirements for each of the fir
e protection systems at the site under
consideration. It is intended for reference against the facility EPMARS to ensure
testing of systems hardware is carried out.


An example of a Fire Protection Systems Maintenance and Testing system is provided
below.

Additional examples are provided in Section 3.1.


EXAMPLE 1.

Fixed Semi
-
Sub Surface Foam Injection System (SSSFIS)


The following maintenance, inspections and tests and frequency applies to the SSSFIS
hardware either in addition to the existing maintenanc
e requirements or to enhance the
requirements. The following considers the operating environment, water supply and
materials in use for the SSSFIS.


The fire and gas detection testing frequency and methods have been checked and were
generally found satisfa
ctory:


1.1

Weekly



Check all valves on the foam system and ensure they are all in the correct
stand
-
by positions;



Inspect firewater supply system to ensure pressure and flow required for the
SSSFIS;



Align valves to circulate foam concentrate back to tank,
ensure foam
discharge to surge tank is fully isolated and run foam pump and verify the
duplex gauge foam pressure indicator is working;



Check foam tank and fittings for leakage;



Check storage temperature of foam concentrate to ensure it is within
manufactu
rers limits.


1.2

Monthly



Inspect full system for physical wear and tear or damage;



Remove, clean, inspect and reassemble foam concentrate line and sensing
line strainers;



Check foam generators air inlet screens and clean if necessary;



Align valves to circ
ulate foam concentrate back to tank and ensure foam
discharge to surge tank is fully isolated then run foam pump and check for
leakage, excessive noise, vibration or overheating in the pump or driver
motor;



Ensure foam tank is isolated and water supply is
isolated and cycle valves
from the control room fire and gas control panel or by manual override at
valves;


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Inspect foam tank pressure/vacuum vent to ensure free movement and that
screens are clean.

1.3

Quarterly



Override solenoid switch for deluge valve o
peration



Remove solenoid, inspect, clean and test operation



Reassemble solenoid



Reinstate actuation system to stand
-
by mode


1.4

6 Monthly



Check complete system, all valves, fittings and connections for leakage



Check flange bolts for tightness



Isolate and

remove hose container from tank and inspect hose condition,
and return to service.



Check system for any external damage to paint surfaces.



Check supervision of control circuit and check air supply. Check low air
supply alarm and check for leakage/passing
valve seats.



Remove, clean, test and reassemble the pressure vacuum vent on the tank.



Remove, clean, test and recalibrate the duplex foam/water gauge.



Check that proper control system indicators are present, check supervision of
all circuits, check alarm o
peration, check system operation and check that all
indicators illuminate.



Isolate duplex foam/water gauge and clean water and foam lines to gauge.
Flush and pressure test gauge for water and foam indications


1.5

Annually

1.

Carry out annual discharge test,
ensuring discharge to surge tanks is fully
isolated and check foam solution proportioning, foam expansion and
drainage in accordance with NFPA 11.

2.

Check foam pump alignment in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions

3.

Check that proper voltage is avai
lable at pump motor.

4.

Check motor for proper rotation and rotate pump by hand to ensure free
movement.

5.

Check that foam pump can supply adequate pressure for the foam supply
system by observing the duplex water/foam gauge. The foam needle
indicator (red) sho
uld be approximately 1 barg higher than the water
pressure.

6.

Remove water filter from line and clean, inspect for damage and reassemble.

7.

Strip, clean, test and reinstall the system deluge valves in accordance with
manufacturers instructions.

8.

Check foam pump

relief valve setting for proper operation.

9.

Take sample of foam concentrate and submit for analysis on sedimentation,
corrosion, dilution or contamination to an approved foam supplier.



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2.2.3

Pre
-
Fire Plan/Operator Response Sheet

This section of the FERM

facility plan should contain pre
-
fire plans for each of the
scenarios identified in the fire scenario development section.


In addition, an operator response sheet is also required for each scenario developed.


An example of a Pre
-
Fire Plan and Operator

Response Sheet for a surge tank or full
surface fire follows. Blank sheets with guidance notes, are shown in Attachment II.




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PRE
-
FIRE PLAN FOR

SURGE TANKS T
-
XXXX OR TXXX FULL SURFACE FIRE

FIRE FIGHTING STRATEGY :

Operator confirms fire in tank
-

Tanks

inlet/outlet ESD and hydrocarbon ESD
-

Actuation of fixed foam system
-

Fire brigade response
-

Fire brigade deploy portable water
monitors for cooling adjacent tank roof
-

Fixed system foam application until extinguishment and thereafter until a secure

foam blanket is achieved
-

Fire brigade deploys foam monitor in case foam system
requires supplementary application
-

Fire brigade stand
-
by until incident is declared over.


IMMEDIATE RESPONSE


ACTIONS

RESOURCES REQU
IRED

[ ] Control Room Operator

[ ] Control Room Operator

[ ] Control Room Operator

[ ] Control Room Operator

[ ] LEBC

[ ] Control Room Operator

[ ] Control Room Operator


[ ] LEBC

Request fire alarm fire confirmati
on

Verify or activate site fire siren

Alert fire brigade to respond to incident

Alert LEBC and advise nature of incident

Request emergency team response

Check fixed foam system valves have activated

Check ESD is initiated for tanks and station and inform L
EBC of status
of shutdown

Designate an OSC

Outside operator to confirm fire event.

Use control room fire siren switch if necessary.

Radio, telephone or pager call out.

Telephone, radio or pager call out.

Emergency pager call out button in control room or i
ndividual telephone numbers.

Control room fire and gas panel

Radio or telephone.


Radio contact or control room telephone.


1st RESPONSE


ACTIONS

RESOURCES REQUIRED

[ ] OSC or designated person

[ ] OS
C or designated person


[ ] OSC or designated person


[ ] OSC or designated person

Check personnel evacuation status for missing persons

Verify fire size/severity and any obvious immediate hazards and
advise LEBC

Ensure fixed foam system is opera
ting correctly




Ensure both tank bund drains are closed.

Personnel Log Book in control room

Radio in vehicle with external loudspeaker


Fixed semi
-
sub surface foam system pump and valves. Manual pneumatic valves can be
actuated at the foam skid if requi
red. Foam system tank requires a minimum of 5880
litres foam concentrate for injection into one tank. 100% quantity should be available for
refilling within 24 hours.

Tank bund drains.


2nd RESPONSE



ACTIONS

RESOURCES REQUIRED

[ ] Fire Brigade

[ ] OSC



[ ] OSC

[ ] Fire Brigade

Deploy/actuate cooling water monitors on next tank roof.

Check foam system effectiveness in reducing and controlling tank fire
and advise LEBC.


Ensure cooling wate
r does not drift into tank being foamed.

Deploy foam monitor in readiness to support foam system application
in case some “fire traps” remain under tank shell folds which the
f潡m system cann潴 fully extinguish.

㈠x ㌰〰Plpm water m潮it潲s, ㈴Ox 㜰Tm x ㈰
m delivery fire h潳e.

sisual assessment 潦 fire size reducti潮. c潡m system t漠be run f潲 a minimum 潦 㔵R
minutes. ph潵ld be signs 潦 fire c潮tr潬 after appr潸imately ㌰Pminutes. ff n漠visible fire
reducti潮 after 㔵Rminutes then f潡m system 潢vi潵sly no
t effective.


ㄠx ㌴〰Plpm p潲table f潡m m潮it潲, ㄲ1x 㜰Tm x ㈰Om delivery fire h潳e and
minimum ㈰㐰Olitres ㌥ f潡m c潮centrate f潲 ㈰Ominutes supply f潡m m潮it潲.

OTHER ACTIONS/CONCERNS:
Cooling of adjacent unaffected tank is necessary to preven
t tank roof damage and protect tank integrity. To check if cooling is required, play a water stream on to the roof
and if steaming occurs, the roof needs to be cooled. If foam system does not achieve extinguishment after 55 minutes then all

personnel shoul
d evacuate the LPS and await boilover event. Crude oil and
water pumpout from affected tank should be commenced as soon as it is obvious that foam extinguishment has failed. Pump out
will not prevent a boilover but may reduce the fireball and fire spread
extent.

ONGOING POTENTIAL HAZARDS :
Crude oil boilover will occur if tank fire extinguishment is unsuccessful. Boilover event may overflow bund walls.

Fireball may achieve heights of 100m with resultant high radiant heat levels dangerous to fire respond
ers and observers.

Probable escalation involving adjacent tank or separators once a boilover occurs. More than one boilover is possible . Person
nel should not re
-
enter LPS after a first or second boilover. The fire incident will
only be safe once the tank
fire, or fires, are burned out.


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OPERATOR RESPONSE FOR

LPS SURGE TANKS T
-
XXXX OR T
-
XXXX FULL SURFACE FIRE

FIRE FIGHTING STRATEGY

Operator confirms fire in tank
-

Tanks inlet/outlet ESD and hydrocarbon ESD
-

Operator confirms fire event
-

Actuation of fix
ed foam system
-

Fire brigade
response
-

Fixed system foam application until extinguishment and thereafter until a secure foam blanket is achieved
-

Fire brigade deploys foam monitor in
case foam system requires supplementary application
-

Fire brigade st
and
-
by until incident is declared over.


CONTROL ROOM OPERATOR RESPONSE ACTIONS




1


Request outside operator to confirm fire in tank




2


Verify siren has activated or activate if necessary





3


Alert fire brigade to respond to incident




4


Alert LEBC and advise nature of incident




5


Alert Emergency Team if advised by




6


Check tanks foam system valves have actuated and advise LEBC




7


Check ESD operated for tanks and station
-

confirm to LEBC shutdown status.




8


Await
further instructions from LEBC and act accordingly.








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2.2.4

Fire Responder Capabilities

Fire Responder Competencies

The fire responder competencies should be identified through the use of the scenario
worksheets. This will be in terms of the fire f
ighting or fire control strategy and tactics
which fire responders will have to apply, and also in terms of the hardware they may or
will have to utilise as part of the tactics. Fire responder competencies should be
developed for each fire scenario identi
fied.


A blank form for this is provided in Attachment III.

Fire Responder Fitness

To be analysed against the requirements laid down in EP 95
-
0351, Fire Control and
Recovery.


An example of fire responders competencies for a surge tank or full surface f
ire follows.




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FIRE RESPONDERS COMPETENCIES FOR:

SURGE TANKS T
-
XXXX and T
-
XXXX FULL SURFACE FIRE

KEY ELEMENTS REQUIRED:

Knowledge of operations emergency plan, emergency team composition, chain of command.

Knowledge of firewater supply system for stat
ion .

Understanding of the need and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for firefighting and emergency incident response.

Location of surge tanks within station, tanks construction and function and concept of pump out under emergency conditions.

Kn
owledge of location and manual operation of surge tanks foam system, minimum duration of foam system application on a surge t
ank and reasons for this.

Use of portable water and foam monitors, fire hose, fire hydrants and foam tanker for foam monitor conce
ntrate supply.

Use of water for cooling heat affected plant and equipment, correct foam application rates for foam monitor application and a
pplication methods.

Knowledge of mechanisms of crude boilover and potential fire escalation by crude oil boilover
and associated hazards

COMPETENCIES

RESPONDER KNOWS:



Area emergency plan, emergency team members and team call out system, emergency incident command structure and fire respond
er responsibilities.



Station firewater system normal flowrate and pressures
, the location of firewater system isolation valves, how to use a fire hydrant safely and how to avoid water hammer.



Function of surge tanks and basic tank design including roof
-
to
-
seam design and main gas and oil piping connections.



Types of portable w
ater monitor and foam monitor in use at the station in particular and the area in general.



Types of delivery fire hose and connections in use at the station and the area.



Types of fire hydrants and number of hydrant outlets on hydrants at the LPS.



Types of

foam in use at the station in the surge tank foam system and in the station fire cabinets and their correct proportioning rat
io.



Types of portable foam inductors and foam branches in use in the station and the station area and their respective flowrates
a
nd pressures.



Hazards associated with crude oil boilover events.

RESPONDER IS ABLE TO:



Identify fire response personal protective equipment.



Describe surge tank pump out under emergency conditions and how this may affect boilover damage.



Identify all val
ves on fixed foam system to operate system manually at the foam station.



Explain what is meant by the terms “boilover and pump
-
out”.



Identify time before a 20 litre foam concentrate drum is empty using a given a portable foam branch.



Deploy and actuate wa
ter and foam monitors in use at the station in a safe and stable manner as part of a two man team and as one man.



Describe the objectives of cooling a fixed roof tank and explain where water streams should be directed to achieve maximum co
oling protection.


RESPONDER DEMONSTRATES:



Method of wearing PPE for fire response.



Method of delivery fire hose running, hose connection, disconnection, advancing/retiring a length of fire hose, connecting br
anches to fire hose and how to make up fire hose.



Method of su
pplying foam concentrate to portable foam monitors from a foam tanker.



Method of setting up and stabilising portable water monitors using fire hydrants and fire hose as part of a two man team and
as one man.



Method of handling a charged hoseline with branc
h as part of a two man team and as one man.



Method of setting up portable foam making equipment to produce foam from a foam branch as part of a two man hoseline team.



At least two methods of gentle foam application from a portable foam branch.



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REVISION 2.0

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5



2.2.5

Sho
rtfall Listing

This section should list all shortfalls identified during the preparation of the pre
-
fire
plan in comparison to the FERM Specification requirements. The listing should
include statements regarding whether or not the shortfall is acceptable
and that a
waiver from the Specification should be obtained. In those shortfalls which are not
acceptable, a priority shall be assigned, together with personnel designated for
action.


Examples of shortfall listings are provided in the worked examples of
Fire Scenario
Worksheets in Section 3.2.



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6



2.3

Fire Scenario Development

2.3.1

General

This section needs to list the major fire scenarios identified after reviewing the
facilities.


Those scenarios of a minor nature need not be listed individually if fo
r these strategy
level 1 types, the existing resources have been reviewed and are considered
adequate. Minor fire scenarios are equated to a FERM strategy level 1. Minor fire
scenarios are those which can reasonably be expected to be dealt with by operato
rs
or staff using available fire equipment. The equipment would not normally exceed 1
or 2 extinguishers or a trolley extinguisher. Such minor fires may be a limited
hydrocarbon spill fire, refuse container fire, small office fire, or other easily contai
ned
fires.


Serious and major fire scenarios are those involving critical production equipment
that present potentially serious consequences and require specific protection or
response resources. Serious or major scenarios can be equated to a FERM strat
egy
level 2, 3 or 4. The following procedure should be followed when filling out the work
sheet (refer to Attachment I for a blank work sheet):




Identify the consequences from each



Identify the existing FERM measures in place



Compare existing and required
FERM measures for each scenario



Establish the fire response and training for fire response



Identify shortfalls in resources and training for fire response.


The fire scenarios identified should then be listed. Section 3.1 of this Guideline
provides exampl
es of typical major fire scenarios. Guidance is provided below on
how to complete the resource levels for scenarios.


A blank work sheet example showing the format and information requirement is
shown in Attachment I.

2.3.2

Resource Levels for Scenarios

T
he Scenario Worksheets contain quantities of resources identified for the particular
fire event described. The quantities should be based on the following information.

Foam Concentrate

Calculations to be based on NFPA minimum application rates plus foam b
lanket
maintenance (top up) where required and considering foam capacity of foam
monitors or foam branches.

Fire Hoses

Review the nearest hydrants which may be used, number of hose inlets in a portable
water monitor or portable foam monitor or foam branch.

Monitors

Judgemental based on practical fire ground experience and/or surface area or
number of exposure hazards to be cooled if for water monitors, or foam solution
capacity if for foam monitors.


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Manpower

Based on the number of monitors or handlines to b
e deployed or SCBA to be used.
Typically, three men are needed for deploying a single monitor and fire hose to the
monitor, maintaining the flow direction of the water stream or for maintaining the
foam supply and direction of the foam stream. Where obvi
ously practical, man
power for monitors are also used to supply foam concentrate to foam hand lines if
they are also in use.


For foam hand lines, typically, a minimum of 2 fire responders are needed for each
hand line excluding foam re
-
supply.

Vehicles

Ge
nerally, there is only one fire truck listed although a foam tanker may also be
used.

Specialist Equipment

Mainly SCBA sets. Based on one set per person for scenarios where personnel may
be exposed to smoke conditions or atmospheres.




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REVISION 2.0

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8



3.0

EXAMPLES

3.1

Fire Protection Systems Maintenance Plans


EXAMPLE 2.

Water Deluge System


Following maintenance, inspections and tests and frequency applies to the water deluge
system either in addition to the existing maintenance requirements or to enhance the
requireme
nts. The following considers the operating environment, water supply and
materials in use for the deluge system.


The fire and gas detection frequency and methods have been checked and generally
found satisfactory:


2.1

Weekly



Check all valves to ensure th
ey are in the normal stand
-
by mode;



Inspect firewater supply to ensure water supply will be operational if
required;



Check water supply and air supply valves for leakage;



Check deluge valve pressure gauges to ensure pressure differential is
maintained at t
he required settings.


2.2

Monthly



Check for system hardware wear and tear or physical damage;



Check for corrosion at drain/weep holes on discharge piping;



Check low air supply alarm for deluge valve;


2.3

Quarterly



Override or isolate executive actions on

the fire detection and alarm panel;



Override Solenoid switch for deluge valve operation



Remove solenoid, inspect, clean and test operation



Reassemble solenoid



Test solenoid actuator on deluge valve;



Actuate the system (from different detection or manual d
evice each time) to
check each nozzle water pattern;



Remove and clean any blocked water nozzle;



Flush the discharge piping and nozzles;



Remove terminal nozzles from the discharge piping array;



Run deluge system for minimum 2 minutes with terminal nozzles
and any
blocked nozzles removed for flushing purposes;



Close water discharge valve;



Reassemble all removed nozzles;



Reset the deluge valve;



Reinstate the fire detection system to normal operation;



Ensure discharge piping drain/weep hole is functioning cor
rectly.


2.4

6 Monthly

Remove and clean water screen/filter and reassemble.


2.5

Annually

Strip, clean, test and reinstall the deluge valve in accordance with manufacturers
instructions;


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EXAMPLE 3 Turbine Enclosure CO
2

System


3.1

Weekly



Check all CO
2

status lights are indicating outside the turbine enclosures



The following maintenance, inspections and tests and frequency applies to
the CO
2

system for the power station either in addition to the existing
maintenance requirements or to enhance the requir
ements. Check system is
on automatic release at F & G panel and at enclosures



Check CO
2

cylinders are in position and are securely fastened.



Check slave cylinder is in position



Check manual isolation device is available in the cylinder room



Check there are

no fault signals on the fire and gas panel for the generators



Test automatic/manual switch at enclosure and ensure this indicates at F &
G panel. Return switch to automatic.


3.2

Monthly



Check general condition of heat detectors,flame detectors and gas de
tectors
in the enclosures.



Check enclosure doors are properly closed and door seal is in good condition.


3.3

6 Monthly



Check cylinders CO
2

content either by non intrusive level detection or by
weighing cylinders. Any cylinder showing a net loss of 10% or
more should
be refilled or replaced.



Check all piping and flexible hoses for wear and tear or damage.



Ensure system is isolated if weighing cylinders



Return system to service on completion of cylinder content checks.



Check flame detectors positioning and e
nsure they are aimed in accordance
with design intent.



Isolate or override flame detectors executive actions and test using UV test
lighting device.



Reinstate UV executive alarms.


3.4

5 yearly

All high pressure hoses should be removed and tested by hydrot
est to a pressure
of 175 barg. Pressure to be maintained for one minute. Any hose and/or coupling
developing a leak during this time should be replaced




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REVISION 2.0

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3.2

Fire Scenario Worksheets

Example worksheets are provided for the following typical fire scenario
s:




Full Surface Fire
-

coned roof tank.



Rim Seal Fire
-

floating roof tank.



Gas Compressor.


SCENARIO WORKSHEET 1

REFERENCE: XXX
-
1


FACILITY


Crude Oil

Dewatering




FERM STRATEGY LEVEL


3


PLANT/EQUIPMENT

Tank T
-
XXX. One of two surge tanks. No sparing.
Tank is 27.5m
diameter and 11.5m height. Tank maximum capacity is 6830 m
3
.


FUNCTION


Surge/Dewatering Duty Tank.

Normal duty is between 55% level and 80% level at approximately
45
o
C. Both tanks serve as buffer storage for approximately 5 hours.




SCENA
RIO

Full surface “open can” fire occurs due to either internal explosion or
overfilling of tank. Tank roof is either partly or wholly separated from
tank shell.

Adjacent dewatering tank T
-
2613 roof affected by radiant heat. Tank
is full at time of fire eve
nt.


CONSEQUENCES

Immediate

Life safety


Personnel not normally on the tank roof. If internal explosion occurs, roof may
totally separate resulting in spiralling heavy object. Personnel in the general area may be at
risk from this event. Radiant heat at g
rade level should not present a life threatening
condition from the full surface fire.


Environment


Initially, smoke pollution only. Some crude may have spilled into bund on roof
separation but this will be retained in bund.


Business interruption


Im
mediate shutdown.



Asset Loss/Production Deferment


Involved tank damaged due to loss of roof and burning
surface. Immediate production deferment, will be approximately 14,000 m
3
.


Escalation Route and Time Estimates

Adjacent surge/dewatering tank roof w
ould be subjected to moderate radiant heat that may
result in roof damage or failure in the order of 50/60 minutes if no cooling actions were
taken. Radiant heat effects may increase if wind direction and speed causes flame to tilt
toward adjacent tank and

therefore time to failure may be much less than the above.


If fire is not extinguished within first 1 or 2 hours, boilover will result some time after this.
Crude boilover may overflow tank bunds and then would involve adjacent surge tank and
possibly so
me of the bulk and/or test separators outside the tank bund.


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REVISION 2.0

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Post Escalation

Life safety


Fire responders may be fatally or seriously injured if caught in the vicinity of a
crude boilover.


Environment


Soil contamination will occur if crude overflowed

bunds. Continued smoke
pollution.


Business interruption


Prolonged station shutdown.


Asset Loss/Production Deferment


Loss of both surge tanks due to escalation. Production
deferment would be approximately 14,000 m
3
/day.


EXISTING FERM

Detection

Proce
ss


Tank low and high level alarms. High level trips tank inlet and outlet and causes
hydrocarbon ESD.


Fire Event


Fusible plug heat detection ring on tank roof rim with 3 pressure switches voting
2 out of 3 to cause tank ESD, hydrocarbon ESD, site fire

siren, foam pump start and foam
system valve to tank opened.


Gas Event


Not applicable for this event.


Mitigation

Process Controls


Tank inlet/outlet valves, hydrocarbon ESD, Station ESD.


Containment


Tank acts as containment. Tank walls will fold i
nward during fire event. Bund
acts as containment for oil spillage/release.


Drainage


Bund drains provided and normally closed.


Passive Fire Control


Single bund and intermediate bund between tanks.


Active Fire Control


Fixed automatic semi sub
-
surf
ace injection foam system serving both
tanks. Quantity of foam concentrate required in foam storage tank is not precisely indicated
but appears to be in the order of 8,500 litres. (See section 2.2.5). Firewater system taken
from water injection header but
it is not known if the water pressure and supply can be
increased under fire/emergency conditions.


Fire hydrants in the general area of the tanks. No fixed water monitors.

12 x fire boxes with
typical contents as 6 fire hose, 120 litres 3% fluoroprotei
n foam concentrate, 1 x 225 lpm
foam branch and inductor and 1 x 450 lpm water branch.


EFFECTIVENESS OF FIXED FIRE SYSTEMS

Applicability of Type



Applicable for the type of tank and tank duty although a base injection system is the
preferred foam system
for such tanks. Use of a Universal foam concentrate is unnecessary as
a standard approved fluoroprotein concentrate would be just as effective.

System/Hardware Suitability

The firewater supply is pressure governed and during a test with a water monitor onl
y 3 barg
was achieved. It was stated that the pressure would rise after a short time but on a later
foam discharge test the pressure was again low. The foam discharged appeared to be weak

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REVISION 2.0

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12



although visual indications cannot prove inaccurate proportioning. I
t is therefore necessary to
carry out tests as soon as practically possible to ensure correct proportioning across a range
of pressures. The foam concentrate storage tank has had leaks and the tank level is difficult
to read.


There is no clear level gaug
e and there is no information available as to the minimum
operating foam concentrate quantity that should be maintained in the tank. There are 3 high
backpressure foam generators (HBPG) but one of these is normally valve locked closed,
acting as a stand
-
by

for maintenance. Generally, the hardware is suitable but there are
shortfalls as noted.


Reliability


System has actuated in 1996 although cause was a spurious fire alarm. The design of the
foam hose deployment inside the tank is unknown, i.e. is it verti
cal, horizontal or inclined ?
Sludge build
-
up in the tank over the course of 5 years may prevent foam hose deployment
and thus prevent foam application on the tank fire. The foam inlet is less than 1 metre from
the tank base.


During a discharge test, th
e foam/water duplex gauge did not function, indicating blocked
water and foam lines. The drain valves for the gauge did not work, indicating lack of effective
maintenance.



Operability


System is automatic from heat detection or remote at control room or

locally by pneumatic
switch actuation. System actuated during test when pressure was reduced in the fusible plug
line. There are no instructions posted at the foam station for manual operation of the system
or which valve to open for which tank. Also, the

tank numbers cannot be seen from the foam
station.


There are questions over the pressures available from the water injection supply header. The
pressure regulators appear to be set at a maximum of 10 barg but on testing it was obvious
that the pressure w
as much lower than this.


This scenario envisages use of water monitors and a foam monitor that will result in an
obvious pressure drop. It is not clear if this will impact on the foam system and it is also not
clear if the control valves on the water sup
ply header can be altered to meet water demand
under emergency conditions.


Survivability (in incident)

Foam inlets are at lower tank area. Roof separation would not affect foam system operation
unless roof blow
-
off descends and impacts on foam inlets or i
nlet piping.


FIRE PROTECTION & FIREFIGHTING STRATEGY OBJECTIVES

Heat detection and alarm
-

Tank inlet/outlet ESD and hydrocarbon ESD
-

Operator confirms
fire event
-

Actuation of fixed foam system to affected tank
-

Fire brigade response
-

Fire
brigade d
eploy cooling water monitors on adjacent tank roof
-

Foam application until
extinguishment and thereafter until a secure foam blanket is achieved
-

Fire brigade deploys
foam monitor in case foam system requires supplementary application
-

Fire brigade stan
d
-
by
until incident declared over.


Firefighting Tactics

Stage 1


Heat detector alarms in control room. Operators confirm fire event and ensure tank
ESD has initiated and foam system has actuated. Control room selects relevant pre
-
fire plan
and ensures si
te alarm has activated and alerts fire brigade.


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REVISION 2.0

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13




Stage 2


Fire brigade selects relevant pre
-
fire plan and responds to incident.


Stage 3


Control rooms alerts LEBC who designates OSC for the incident and requests call
out of emergency team.


Stage 4


Fi
re brigade deploys and actuates cooling water monitors on adjacent tank roof to
prevent potential fire escalation.


Stage 5


Fire brigade deploys foam monitor in event additional foam application is required.


Stage 6


OSC monitors fire size and severity

for foam system control impact and ensures
water streams are not affecting foam application.


Stage 7


Foam system application continued until extinguishment and thereafter to ensure a
secure foam blanket is achieved on the liquid surface.


Stage 8


Fi
re brigade actuate portable foam monitor if fire is controlled by foam system but
not fully extinguished due to fire trap areas of folded tank shell maintaining minor fire
pockets.


Stage 9


Fire brigade checks to ensure fire is totally extinguished and a

secure foam blanket
is achieved.


Stage 10


Fire brigade stand
-
by until incident is declared over and stand
-
down is
announced.


RESOURCES REQUIRED TO MEET STRATEGY OBJECTIVES

Resources for Other than Fire Response Group


Detection


Process




As Existi
ng FERM measures



Fire Event





As Existing FERM measures


Gas Event




Not applicable.


Alarm system


For Operator




Tank level alarms, Heat detection alarm and Site
Alarm


For Fire Brigade




Emergency Team Pager Call Out


Process Control




As exist
ing FERM measures


Passive Fire Protection


As existing FERM measures


Active Fire Protection


As existing FERM measures plus:
-






Method and procedures for additional firewater

supply/pressure under emergency conditions.






Instructions on manual ope
ration of foam system.



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REVISION 2.0

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14



Fixed Syst. Firewater Flow


3457 lpm for affected tank from fixed foam system.


3500 lpm for propane accumulator water deluge
system which will actuate on surge tank heat
detection.







Total = 6,957 lpm


Resources for Fire Brigad
e


Procedures




Pre
-
fire plans






Emergency response procedures


Hose





12 x 70mm x 20m fire hose for water monitors.






12 x 70mm x 20m fire hose for foam monitor.




Total of 24 x 70mm x 20 delivery fire hose.




Monitors




2 x 3000 lpm water mon
itor






1 x 3400 lpm foam monitor


Foam Concentrate



5880 litres 3% AFFF for T
-
2623






3060 litres 3% FP for foam monitor (if used)







Total

= 5,880 litres 3% AFFF







3,060 litres 3% FP.


Specialist Equipment



None



Manpower




6 fire resp
onders for portable water monitors






3 fire responders for foam monitor







Total of 9 fire responders


Vehicles




1 x fire truck






1 x 9000 litre 3% flouroprotein foam tanker


Port. Equip. Water Flow


6000 lpm for water monitors






3400 lpm for

foam monitor (if used)







Total = 9,400 lpm


Fixed and Port. Total Flow


3,457 lpm for fixed foam system






3,500 lpm for water deluge system






6,000 lpm for water monitors






3,400 lpm for foam monitor (if used)







Total = 16,357 lpm.


Total

Water Quantity




190 m
3

for fixed foam system (55 minutes)

(fixed & portable)



105 m
3

for water deluge system (30 minutes)






360 m
3

for portable water monitors (60 minutes)



99 m
3

for foam monitor (30 minutes
-

supporting

the foam system if necess
ary).


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REVISION 2.0

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15










Total =

754 m
3
.


SHORTFALLS IN EXISTING FERM & STRATEGY LEVEL

The following are listed as shortfalls in procedures, hardware or resources when compared to
the facility FES Strategy Level or the FERM Specification SP 1075 as noted during the
de
velopment of this scenario worksheet:


i)

The operators do not have the necessary fire training to act as back
-
up for the fixed
systems or to assist the fire brigade. Reliance for back
-
up rests solely with the fire
brigade who may be on stand
-
by at the air
strip when this scenario develops.


ii)

Fire cabinets and equipment within intended for operator use but operators are not
trained to use equipment in boxes. (FES Strategy Level 3 Issue)


iii)

A total of 9 fire responders are required for this scenario. T
here are only 5 fire
brigade personnel to respond and the operators cannot back
-
up the fire brigade due
to lack of training in use of monitors and hose handling etc.


iv)

Firewater supply taken from water injection system. Pressure is controlled via
press
ure control valves (3 of) but there are no fire pumps. This is a deviation but
may be acceptable provided pressure and flow can be maintained under emergency
conditions.


v)

The maximum firewater demand for this scenario is 16,357 lpm but the design
firewa
ter supply is listed as 12,000 lpm (720 m
3
/h) @ 10 barg. There is no known
procedure or method for increasing firewater pressure/supply under emergency
conditions where additional water is required. Although not listed in the Specification,
this would be p
art of a requirement for fire water pumps.


vi)

There are no instructions on the operation of the fixed foam system at the foam
station. These should be provided.


vii)

No labelling of main valve functions on the foam system.


viii)

No sight glass on foam

concentrate tank.


ix)

It is understood that there is a sludge build up in the tanks over the course of 5
years. It is possible, given the low location of the foam injection system inlets, that
depending on the design of the foam inlet within the tank (ve
rtical bend or straight
pipe inlet) sludge will prevent or obstruct the deployment of the foam hose in the
tank. It is necessary to check the inside of a tank to ensure the foam hose can be
deployed.


x)

The foam system flexible hose inspection quoted as e
very 5 years when tank is down
for maintenance but it is possible to remove the hose container and visually inspect
the hose as there is a tank isolation valve downstream of hose unit and this should
be done.


xi)

An annual foam discharge is carried out bu
t the necessary proportioning, expansion
or drainage tests are not being carried out.


xii)

There is no foam test kit for proportioning, expansion and drainage testing.



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REVISION 2.0

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16



xiii)

The minimum foam concentrate quantity to be maintained in the foam system tank i
s
unknown. There appears to be approximately 8,500 litres but this is not confirmed
and the design quantity is not listed in the foam system installation manual.
Calculations (See below) illustrate that a minimum of 5880 litres should be in the
tank and as

per NFPA there should also be 100% of this quantity available within 24
hours. There is no exact heading for this in the Specification but generally this is
covered under SP 1075
-

Foam Systems.


xiv)

Spare foam concentrate is located in drums at the foa
m station but there is no
identification of the concentrate type or expiry date or UL approvals normally
associated with approved foam concentrate supplies. The source of the foam
concentrate is unknown. It appears to be a polymer AFFF (Universal type) but

this
cannot be confirmed without detailed analysis. It is possible that this concentrate is
decanted from the original manufacturers drums but this is not confirmed.


xv)

The original concentrate in the system was a universal 3 & 6% AFFF foam for use at
3
% on hydrocarbon fires and 6% for polar solvent fuels. This is a polymer
-
based
concentrate. It is unclear if the spare drums concentrate is the same type and if it
has UL approvals etc.


CRUDE SURGE/DEWATERING TANK FULL SURFACE FIRE

FOAM/WATER CALCULATIONS

SHEET

USING FIXED FOAM SYSTEM AND PORTABLE FOAM MONITOR


Fire Area (Tank Dia. 27.5m)



594 m
2


Foam Concentrate




3% AFFF


System Design Application Rate



6 lpm/m
2

(Taken from Installation Manual)


Total Application Rate




594 x 6 = 3564 lpm/m
2
.



F
oam Application Time




55 minutes


Total Concentrate Required



3564 x 0.03 x 55 = 5,880 litres


Total Water Required




3564
-

107 (3%) x 55 = 190 m
3


Portable Foam Monitor Application


Foam Monitor Capacity




3,400 lpm


Application Time




30 minutes


Total Concentrate Required



3,400 x 0.03 x 30 = 3,060 litres


Total Water Required




3400
-

102 (3%) x 30 minutes = 99 m
3



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REVISION 2.0

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17



SCENARIO WORKSHEET 2

REFERENCE: XXX
-
2


FACILITY


Crude Oil

Dehydration


FERM STRATEGY LEVEL

3


PLANT/EQUIPMENT

Tank T
-
XXXX. One

of six floating roof tanks. No sparing. Tank is
29.2m diameter and 14.6m height. Tank maximum capacity is 8586
m
3
.


FUNCTION

Crude Oil Dehydration Tank.


Normal duty is between 55% level and 60% level at approximately
40
o
C. One of six dehydration tanks.




SCENARIO

Rim seal fire occurs on tank T
-
XXXX. Tank is 60% (5140 m
3
) full at
time of fire event. Overfilling of tank. Adjacent dehydration tanks
are all almost full under normal operating conditions.


CONSEQUENCES


Immediate

Life Safety


Personnel not

normally on the tank floating roof. Immediate life safety risk is
considered low.


Environment


Smoke pollution only. Fire is contained in the tank rim seal area.


Business interruption


Immediate shutdown on detection of rim seal fire, plus all inco
ming
oil MOV/ESDV from all areas will close
-
in.


Asset Loss/Production Deferment


Involved tank seal damaged due to fire. Production
deferments from all gathering stations when surge tanks and storage tank high levels are
reached.


Escalation Route and
Time Estimates

Rim seal fires have burned for several hours without escalation and in at least two known
cases, for more than 24 hours without escalation. However, this was due to the high
standard of effective maintenance of the tanks involved and it shou
ld not be assumed that
these time frames would apply to every floating roof tank rim seal fire.


The main concern is that if the fire is unchecked it will continue around the full seal
circumference and thereafter the flame impingement would affect the tan
k shell and roof. It
is therefore prudent to expect escalation within a few hours if no fire control or extinguishing
actions are taken. Escalation would occur if the roof tilted/jammed or sank, creating a full
surface fire event.


Post Escalation


Life Sa
fety


Fire responders on the gaugers platform may be injured by burns if they are at
the tank top when the roof jams or tilts. Such an event should be noticeable and therefore
the risk to responders is considered low.


Environment


Continued smoke pollut
ion. Fire would still be contained.


Business interruption


Prolonged shutdown.


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REVISION 2.0

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18




Asset Loss/Production Deferment


Loss of affected dehydration tank due to escalation.
Production deferment for all areas will be approximately 70,000 m
3
/day.


EXISTING FERM

Detection

Process


Tank low, high and high
-
high level alarms. High
-
high level trips tank inlets and all
incoming oil lines and causes Station ESD.


Fire Event


Halon fusible plug detection. New fusible plug heat detection ring provided
around tank rim
seal area with 3 pressure switches voting 2 out of 3 to cause total ESD. This
new detection system is installed but not yet commissioned.


Gas Event


Not applicable for this event.


Mitigation

Process Controls


Tank inlet/outlet valves, Station ESD remot
e from control room and
automatic on rim seal point heat detection.


Containment


Tank acts as containment for rim seal fire.


Drainage


Bund drains provided and normally closed.


Passive Fire Control


The primary seal and secondary seal material speci
fication could not be
confirmed during the study. It is doubtful if the material is fire retardant.


Active Fire Control


Fixed automatic halon system provided for the rim seal area. Fixed
manually operated rim seal foam pourer system using balanced press
ure proportioning. Foam
system concentrate tank holds 1370 litres of 3% fluoroprotein. Firewater system supplied
from dedicated firewater tank. Fire hydrants in the general area of the 6 x fire boxes
strategically located throughout the facility. Each box

typically contains 1 x 250 lpm foam
branch, 3 x 20 litre fluoroprotein 3% foam concentrate drums, 1 x 450 lpm water branch, 4 x
70mm x 20m delivery fire hose.


Effectiveness of Fixed Fire Systems

Applicability of Type


Halon is being phased out and the r
im seal foam system is designed to replace the halon
system.

Foam system is applicable for the type of tank and rim seal. An automatic system would be
more appropriate considering the low manning levels and the absence of fire crews (airstrip
stand
-
by) du
ring daylight hours.


System/Hardware Suitability

Foam system hardware is suitable for a fixed manually operated system but better weather
protection of the system is necessary to prevent foam concentrate deterioration and overall
hardware wear and tear, e
specially valve identification and instructions.


Reliability

Foam system has been commissioned in May 1998. With this type of system it is necessary
to either regularly flush the foam pump with clean water (weekly) and maintain a dry foam
pump or if pum
p permanently flooded with concentrate then regularly turn the pump over
and cycle the foam concentrate back to foam tank. Given the operating environment, it is

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important that a high frequency of foam pump flushing or circulation running is provided,
othe
rwise this system will become very unreliable.


Operability

Foam system is manual only and requires operators or firefighters to actuate during a fire
event. There are no instructions on how to operate the system and there are no foam tank
valve and syste
m valve identification labels. The original labels have been damaged or the
combination of sand and heat has erased them.


Survivability (in incident)

Foam system pourers are above the rim seal and therefore above the fire area. If the tank
roof is high a
nd the rim seal fire is high the pourers may be subjected to radiant heat and
damage. Therefore it is important that the foam system is actuated as quickly as possible to
extinguish the fire.


FIRE PROTECTION & FIREFIGHTING STRATEGY OBJECTIVES


Heat detect
ion and alarm and halon discharge
-

Tank inlet/outlet ESD, Station ESD
-

Operator
confirms fire event
-

Actuation of fixed foam system to affected tank
-

Fire brigade response
-

Fire responders check if rim seal fire is extinguished and a secure foam blan
ket is achieved in
the rim seal area
-

Portable foam application into rim seal to support fixed system application
if required
-

Fire brigade stand
-
by until incident declared over.


FIREFIGHTING TACTICS

Stage 1


Rim seal heat detection alarms in control r
oom. Operators confirm fire event and
halon discharge and ensure tank ESD and Station ESD has initiated. Control room selects
relevant pre
-
fire plan and ensures site alarm has activated and alerts fire responders.


Stage 2


Fire responders select relevant

pre
-
fire plan and responds to incident.


Stage 3


Control rooms alerts LEBC who designates OSC for the incident and requests call
out of emergency team.


Stage 4


Operator actuates the rim seal foam system for the affected tank.


Stage 5


Fire responde
rs don SCBA and ascend tank and check to ensure rim seal fire is
extinguished and foam application covers all the foam dam area.


Stage 6


Fire responders in SCBA run a foam handline to the tank top and apply foam into
the rim seal to support the rim seal

system if necessary. (This may require responders to
move on to the roof as there is no wind girder (walkway) around the tanks)


Stage 7


OSC verifies fire is extinguished and a secure foam blanket is achieved in the rim
seal foam dam area.


Stage 8


Ri
m seal foam dam blanket is topped up to ensure foam blankert is maintained
effectively, acting as a vapour suppression blanket.


Stage 9


Fire brigade stand
-
by until incident is declared over and stand
-
down is announced.



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RESOURCES REQUIRED TO MEET STRA
TEGY OBJECTIVES

Resources for Other than Fire Response Group


Detection


Process



As Existing FERM measures


Fire Event



As Existing FERM measures


Gas Event



Not applicable.


Alarm system


For Operator



Tank high and high
-
high level alarms, Heat dete
ction alarm.





Site Alarm


For Fire Brigade



Emergency Team Pager Call Out


Process Control


As Existing FERM measures


Passive Fire Protection

As Existing FERM measures


Active Fire Protection

As Existing FERM measures and also removal of halon

syste
m for the tanks.


Fixed Syst. Firewater Flow

700 lpm for affected tank from fixed foam system.







Total = 700 lpm

Resources for Fire Brigade


Procedures




Pre
-
fire plans






Emergency response procedures


Hose





8 x 70mm x 20m fire hose for foam han
dline.







Total of 8 x 70mm x 20m delivery fire hose.


Monitors




None.


Foam Concentrate



420 litres 3% fluoroprotein for rim seal.







270 litres 3% fluoroprotein for handlines.







Total

= 690 litres.


Specialist Equipment



Minimum 4 x SCBA
sets



Manpower




2 fire responders for foam handline






2 fire responders for support/stand
-
by






1 fire responder for foam concentrate supply












Total of 5 fire responders


Vehicles




1 x fire truck






1 x 6300 litre 3% flouroprotein foam

tanker


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Port. Equip. Water Flow


450 lpm for foam handline.












Total = 450 lpm






Fixed and Port. Total Flow


700 lpm for fixed foam system






450 lpm for foam handline









Total = 1,150 lpm.


Total Water Quantity




14 m
3

for fixed f
oam system (20 minutes)

(fixed & portable)




9 m
3

for foam handline (20 minutes)







9 m
3

for foam blanket top
-
up








Total =

32 m
3
.


SHORTFALLS IN EXISTING FERM & STRATEGY LEVEL


The following are listed as shortfalls in either procedures, har
dware or resources when
compared to the facility FES Strategy Level or SP 1075 FERM as noted during the
development of this scenario worksheet:


i)

The operators do not have the necessary fire training to act as back
-
up for the fixed
foam system or to assi
st the fire brigade. Reliance for back
-
up rests solely with the
fire brigade who stand
-
by for most of the daylight hours at the airstrip, about 17 km
distant and may be there when this scenario develops. (Strategy Level 3 Issue)


ii)

Fire cabinets and equ
ipment within are intended for operator use but operators are
not trained to use equipment in boxes. (FES Strategy Level 3 Issue)


iii)

There are no instructions on the operation of the fixed foam system at the foam
station and no valve labels or descripti
ons. These should be provided.


iv)

Fire crews are not trained in the use of the fixed foam system.


v)

Fire crews are not trained to use foam handlines on a rim seal fire or for moving on
to a floating roof tank.


vi)

The foam system is not fully protect
ed against direct sunlight and sand erosion. This
is leading to poor system condition.


vii)

The temperature varations are causing water condensation on the tank inside cover
that is affecting the foam concentrate. This is due to inadequate weather protect
ion.


viii)

It is understood that the commissioning tests for the fixed foam system did not
include a foam proportioning, expansion or drainage test. This could not be
confirmed during the study period.


ix)

It is understood that there is no foam test kit

for proportioning, expansion and
drainage testing.


x)

Foam was discharged from the valve manifold connection during a brief flow test
(not to the tanks) and although there was no method of checking the quality or

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proportioning of the foam the visual obs
ervations raised doubts over the produced
foam effectiveness for firefighting, mainly due to the firewater contamination.


xi)