Brain Computer Interface - Electrical, Computer & Biomedical ...

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10 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Invasive BCI


Hans Berger

Discovered the EEG


Signal Reflecting the electrical field produced by trillions
of individual synaptic connections in the cortex and
subcortical structures of the brain




Niels Birbaumer

Trained severely paralyzed people to self
regulate the slow
cortical potentials in their EEG in such a way that these
signals could be used as a binary signal to control a
computer cursor (1990s)

Tests included writing characters with the cursor

System users require training just as any person is trained
to use a keyboard or a computer

Those who depend


Amyotrophic Lateral sclerosis

Muscle weakness and atrophy throughout the body caused
by the degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons.

Individuals may ultimately lose ability to initiate and
control all voluntary movement

For the most part, cognitive function is preserved

Sensory nerves and the autonomic nervous system are
generally unaffected


BCI systems have the ability to allow a paralyzed,
in” patient to communicate words, letters and
simple commands to a computer interface that
recognizes different outputs of EEG signals and
translates them through use of assigned algorithms into
a specific function or computing output that the user
has the ability to control.

A complex mechanical BCI system would allow a user to
control an external system possibly an artificial limb by
creating an output of specific EEG frequency

P300 Speller

User observes 6x6 matrix where each cell contains a
character or symbol

User receives stimuli that coordinate with a specific

User learns to recognize certain stimuli that exist in
relation to a specific output

System created successful feedback when tested among
the ALS population

EEG Rhythms

For analyzing EEG signals, studies suggest that
frequencies of 8
12 Hz (mu) and 13
28 Hz (Beta) are
most sensible for human control

The form or magnitude of a voltage change evoked by a
stereotyped stimulus is known as an evoked potential
and can serve as a command

ie. The amplitude of the EEG in a particular frequency
band, can be used to control movement of a cursor on a
computer screen

Invasive BCI

Forefront of human experimentation

Cost effective

No implantation

Susceptible to noise

Cranial barrier dampens signal

What about right now

Today, BCIs are already being incorporated into modern
technologically dependent society

As they were once thought to be strictly

a bridge between a neurologically

disconnected brain to an outside mechanism

of replacing neuromuscular function,

the commercial exploitations have already

begun as devices can now be purchased that

allow users to control an exterior system

and navigate and control a graphical

Interface using only EEG output signals


Developers at NeuroSky created the Brainwave, a
comprehensive non
invasive BCI that connects the user
to iOS and Android platforms, and transfers all signal
information through Bluetooth as opposed to radio.

The EEG outputs for this setup are controlled primarily
by variations in brain
state. In order to achieve a
specific level of EEG the user may be prompted to relax
or improve focus, thus altering the specific output of
brain energy and ultimately changing the level of
expressed EEG signals


Devolped a BCI called the EPOC

16 sensors capture EEGs to the extent of which the
system can return feedback to let the user know
whether or not they blinked, or sneezed, or smiled

The device allows a user to connect to a computer, and
perform all basic functions that they otherwise would
control using a keyboard, but with the mind. That
includes control of gaming platforms as well


For the future, BCI technology seems very applicable in
a wide variety of areas whether it be medically or

The possibilities of how far the systems can go is
virtually limitless

Control of subvocalization and more advanced EEG
processing could lead to telepathic communication and
active learning mechanisms

This all would bring up an unfeasible amount of ethical
discomfort and confrontation


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U.S national library of medicine
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