Nuclear Changes Thermodynamics

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27 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Nuclear Changes

Thermodynamics


Three Types:


1. Radioactive Decay
-

Atoms emit high energy
particles and waves as they change into new less
reactive atoms.


2. Nuclear Fission
-

Atomic nuclei with large mass
numbers split into isotopes with smaller mass
numbers and release energy.


3. Nuclear Fusion
-

Two atoms usually hydrogen
fuse together to produce one helium atom and
energy.


Unstable isotopes called radioisotopes
release have energy particles and waves as
they decay into more stable isotopes over
time.


This time is called a Half
-
life
-

the amount of
time it takes for one
-
half of the radioisotope
to decay.


Alpha particles
-

fast moving, positively
charged, made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons


Beta particles
-

fast moving, negatively
charged, made of electrons.


Gamma rays
-

high energy electromagnetic
radiation. The most common and most
dangerous type of ionizing radiation.


First Law of
Thermodynamics


Energy is neither
created or
destroyed , but may
change form.


Second Law of
Thermodynamics


When energy
changes form, some
energy is always
degraded into lower
quality.


High
-
Throughput Economy

High quality
energy and matter go in, waste is produced,
and low quality energy and matter come out.


Matter Recycling Economy

Saves matter and
energy, however, matter and energy still
eventually degrade.


Low
-
Throughput Economy

Maximizes matter
and energy flow, is more sustainable because
of less waste.