Wireless Sensor Networks with

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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Wireless Sensor Networks with
Motev’s Telos B Mote

Prof. Lisa Frye, M.S.

David J. Hooley, Ph. D.

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science

Kutztown University

Kutztown, PA

What is a Mote?


Mote: A small particle: speck


Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary


Usage appears with U.C. Berkeley’s Smart
Dust development



What is a Mote?


Small, low power single board computer
with a radio for wireless communication.

Evolution of the Mote

Initial Platform


4Mhz, 8bit MCU

512 bytes RAM, 8K ROM


900Mhz Radio

10
-
30 ft. range


Temperature Sensor


Light Sensor


LED outputs


Serial Port

Evolution of the Mote

Current state
-
of
-
the
-
art: Telos Rev B


Evolution of the Mote

Current state
-
of
-
the
-
art: Telos Rev B


Texas Instruments MSP430 Microcontroller

8 MHz Processor Speed

10 kB RAM

48 kB Program Space

ADC, DAC, UART, I2C, SPI, DIO

Low Power

Fast Wakeup

Evolution of the Mote

Current state
-
of
-
the
-
art: Telos Rev B


Chipcon Wireless Transceiver

250 kbps data rate

2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4 (Zigbee)

Programmable power (0 to

25 dbm)

Integrated onboard antenna (opt. SMA conn)

Range: up to 50m indoors / 125m outdoors

Evolution of the Mote

Current state
-
of
-
the
-
art: Telos Rev B


Optional Onboard Sensors


Photodiodes


Humidity


Temperature

Input/Output Ports


Analog to Digital


Digital I/O

Evolution of the Mote

Future: Fully integrated on a single chip

The ZigBee Standard


The ZigBee Alliance
-

120+ member companies


www. zigbee.org


Open standard


Typically involved with specifying and
standardizing the hardware and lower layers of the
communications protocol

The Zigbee Standard

PHY LAYER

2.4 GHz 915MHz 868 MHz

MAC LAYER

MAC LAYER

NETWORK LAYER

Star/Cluster/Mesh

APPLICATION INTERFACE

APPLICATIONS

Application

ZigBee Stack

Customer

IEEE

802.15.4

SECURITY

Silicon

Zigbee
Alliance

From Gutierrez IEEE 802.15.4

Other Recent ZigBee Motes


freescale semiconductor (Motorola)


MC1319x RF Transceivers


MC9S08GT MCU (HCS08 8 bit microcontroller)


Accelerometers


Pressure Sensors


Electric Field Sensors


Telos B Mote Hardware

Telos B Mote Hardware

Telos B Mote Hardware

Telos B Mote Hardware

Typical Mote


PC Configuration

Software Applications:

Serial Forwarder, Listen

Software Applications:

Oscilloscope Display

Wireless Counter Demonstration
Block Diagram


Mote
-

Transmitter

Mote


Receiver

PC with Listen app

USB


Serial Driver

SerialForwarder

Temp

Humd

Wireless Link

Counter Software

01 01 01 01 01 01

02 02 02 02 02 02

Counter Software for Mote

The CntToRfmAndLeds Application

CntToLedsAndRfm.nc

configuration CntToLedsAndRfm {

}

implementation {



components Main, Counter, IntToLeds, IntToRfm, TimerC;




Main.StdControl
-
> Counter.StdControl;



Main.StdControl
-
> IntToLeds.StdControl;



Main.StdControl
-
> IntToRfm.StdControl;



Main.StdControl
-
> TimerC.StdControl;



Counter.Timer
-
> TimerC.Timer[unique("Timer")];



IntToLeds <
-

Counter.IntOutput;


Wireless Gas Sensor Demonstration
Block Diagram


Gas
Sensor

Mote
-

Transmitter

Mote


Receiver

PC with O
-
scope
App

USB


Serial Driver

SerialForwarder

Temp

Humd

Wireless Link

Software Applications

The Oscilloscope application

The mote application we use in this lesson is found in
apps/Oscilloscope
.


It consists of a single module that reads data from the photo sensor.


For each 10 sensor readings, the module sends a packet to the serial port

containing those readings. The mote only sends the packets over the serial port.



(To see how the data can be sent over the radio see
apps/OscilloscopeRF
.)