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16 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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nicolas
@peyresaubes.com






To be

or not to be

FreeSoftware


http://www.peyresaubes.com

2
/
65

nicolas
@peyresaubes.com


Index
Definition :

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................................
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............

4

Legal Overview :

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................................
................................
...

5

History :

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................................
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................

6

Phantom menace

................................
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..............................

6

A new Hope

................................
................................
................................
.......

6

Main Organisations
:

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............................

7

The FSF

................................
................................
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............

7

APRIL

................................
................................
................................
...............

7

Free Softwares :

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................................
................................
..

8

Operating Systems :

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.........................

8

Linux:

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................................
................................
............

8

BSD s:

................................
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................................
..........

10

Nostalgia :

................................
................................
................................
...

10

Windows forever:

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........................

10

Office Applications :

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......................

10

Office Suite

................................
................................
................................
.

10

PAO
................................
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11

Project Management

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..................

12

Multimedia Applications :

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12

Graphics

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......

12

3D Software & Animations

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.........

13

Video Editing

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..............................

13

Files encoding : to be or not to be .... Free

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...............

13

Internet Clients :

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................................
............................

13

Browsers

................................
................................
................................
.....

13

e
-
mails

................................
................................
................................
........

14

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

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.........................

14

GRASS

................................
................................
................................
........

15

OpenJump

................................
................................
................................
..

15

uDig

................................
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................................
.............

15

Quantum GIS

................................
................................
.............................

15


DIVAGIS

................................
................................
................................
....

15

Migratio

................................
................................
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.......

15

GvSIG

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..........

15

SAGA

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..........

15

WEB Appli
cations

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...........................

15

Apache

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................................
........

16

Mysql

................................
................................
................................
...........

16

PostgreSQL

................................
................................
................................
.

16

PHP

................................
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............

16

Groupware

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................................
..

16

Content management system (CMS)

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.........................

17

Surveys

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........

17

A Gnu in windows and vice versa

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................................
..

17

Virtualization

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..............................

18

Emulation

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................................
................................
....

18


All about FreeSoftwares
................................
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.....................

19

Anti
-
FS point of view

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......................

19

Pro
-
FS point of view

................................
................................
.......................

19

Fr
eeSoftwares & Open Source

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................................
......

20

Free Spirit

................................
................................
................................
.......

20

FreeSoftware


what is it ?!

................................
................................
...............

22

Why do Freesoftwares are a must to have ?

................................
.................

22

Freedom and Independence

................................
................................
.......

22

An efficient support

................................
................................
....................

22

Made especially for you

................................
................................
.............

22

State is switching to Free Technologies

................................
........................

22

OpenOffice i
n Agriculture Ministry

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...............................

23

Interior Ministry and Free Mail

................................
................................
.

23

Central Administration, gendarmerie & OpenOffice

................................
.

23

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

................................
................................
.........

24

National Assembly

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..........................

24

Private Companies

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..........................

24

Amazon, Google, Ebay, Yahoo, Free ...

................................
......................

24

Le Tigre

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................................
.......

24

Movies Industry

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..........................

2
5

FreeSoftwares & Tourism

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..................

26

Acogit

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................................
..........

26

Gnu & Penguin ... for a world domination !?

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.....................

27

What's wrong ?!

................................
................................
..............................

27

Mentalities

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................................
................................
..

27

Migration

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................................
....

27

To a Free World

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28

Companies

................................
................................
................................
...

28

You, everybody ...

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................................
.......................

28

Impact on Economy

................................
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........................

29

Some facts

................................
................................
................................
...

29

From Free softwares to Free everyt
hing ...

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......................

31

Open Source beer
-

Vores Øl

................................
................................
..........

31

OpenCola

................................
................................
................................
........

31

Art and Free


GNUArt

................................
................................
...................

32

Bibliography & sources

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33

Annexe

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................

34

GPL V2

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34

GPL v3

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46



Definition :


«

Think of free as in free speech, not as in free beer

»


A Free Software can be owned, used, redistri
buted and modified by anybody
without any restriction. Theses rights are given by a Free licence, but this
kind of software are not always free in term of money. Most of the time it's not
the software that has to be paid for, but some special services, ins
tallation
help, set
-
up or personal tuning/modification.

Free Softwares must absolutely not be taken for freewares or softwares fallen
in the public domain. Liberties given by FreeSoftwares are much more wider
and restricted than the simple access to softwa
re sources. The simple access
to sources is the main characteristic of Open Source softwares. But in reality,
the Open Source softwares notion as it's defined by the Open Source Initiative
is very very close to the Free Software one.

A Free Licence is a l
icense that can apply to anything to make a free content
of it, giving to the final user some rights for use, modifications, retailing and
inclusion into other softwares. Here are the Free Software four
commandements :



Right 0 : freedom to execute without
any restriction



Right 1

: freedom of software analysis.



This implies sources access.



Right 2

: freedom to redistribute the software



this implies the freedom to resell the software.



Right 3

: freedom to improve the initial software and to redistribute th
e
new versions.



This implies source code access




This help to developer Communities creation for software
improvement.



This allows THE
FORK
, a new way to build a software from an unique
base, or in case of

problem between programmers of the main project
a new branch of development can be created.





Legal Overview :

FreeSoftwares as others software (except public domain ones) are protected
by a “copyright”. FreeSoftwares' s specificity is that the software
s' creator
are renouncing to any kind of exclusivity or rights given by traditional
copyrights. The software goes with a Free License naming all the rights and
duties given to the final user. This license is named Gnu Public License.

The right to redistri
bute a Free Software only apply if the whole software is
redistributed in the same terms named in the GPL of the initial software. This
license is told being “Viral”, because if it allows the merge between Free
Software and proprietary software, it only au
thorize the redistribution under
the terms of GPL. For proprietary Softwares creators this license is freedom
killer, but in a larger view it help to preserve FreeSoftwares from proprietary
companies who wouldn't hesitate a second to steel everything to in
tegrate it in
their products, to finally put a copyright on them

UNESCO registered the Free Software Foundation and many FreeSoftwares
as a world gift.



History :



Phantom menace

At the beginning of the times (in the 50's), IBM was providing the hardware
part, but the software part was a community work where customers were
ra
ising funds for (software) project in which they could be interested and next
the software was released to all freely. Till the beginning of the 80's,
operating systems source code was provided with “computers”. Softwares
were given to buyers for a large a
mount of money with analysis and
modifications rights.

In the 70's source codes began to close and this increased with the arrival of
Personal Computers (root hackers were replaced by basic users). Source code
closing and changes occurring in mentalities

allowed to softwares editors to
impose their own standards when, till then, nothing had been standardized
nor normed. Each constructor had his own specificities.

Bill Gates and Paul Allen (co
-
founders of micro
-
soft


actual Microsoft) are so
pining every
thing introducing the exploitation license applied to softwares : at
this time they sold their software (Altair Basic) for a cheap price (3000$) to
MITS (company making the Altair, first north American personal computer)
but remained main owners of it, ask
ing 35$ per Altair Basic provided with a
computer.

In 1976, things are not going fast enough for them and mentalities are too
slow to change (piracy of Altair Basic was the main sport in these times), so
Bill Gates wrote an open letter to the Altair Commu
nity telling them to stop
copying their software. Little by little , the copyright started to apply on
softwares (something absolutely new). Since this time, softwares are sold
independently from any hardware, and it's absolutely forbidden to analyse,
atte
mpt to correct or improve them. This is the end of an era.



A new Hope

To face this situation, Richard Stallman build the notion of free software in the
first mid of the 80's and then make it pop
ular with the GNU Project and the
Free Software Foundation.

In 1984, the same Richard Stallman starts the creation of a free Operating
System named GNU (quickly Linux kernel is used. The Hurd/GNU project
restarted recently). Since 1985 Richard Stallman, af
ter quitting his job (at the
MIT and Xerox), have full time job with the project of his life. The General
Public License GNU is also known under the acronym GPL and has been
written with the help of an International Lawyer Eben Moglen. In opposition
to t
he copyright the term copyleft have also been invented for the occasion by
Richard Stallman himself. Since this time Richard Stallman is seen in FSF as a
“modern knight” fighting for freedom to share softwares, medias, informations
etc...etc... his action
takes place every where on earth. He got on strike in
France in 2006 to show his opposition to the DADVSI law.


Main Organisations :

The FSF

Richard Stallman founded it in 1985. This association's goal is to bring funds
to the GNU Project and Free Softwar
e Community. Funds are raised with the
help of contributors, goodies selling ( T
-
shirts, magnets, stickers, ...). Some
sisters organisations are also existing : FSF Europe (created on the 10
th

of
March 2001), FSF India (2002) and FSF Latin America. In Apri
l 2001Frédéric
Couchet launched FSF France. He also is the APRIL founder.


APRIL


Association for Promotion and Research for Free Softwares (Association pour
la Promotion et la Recherche en Informatique Libre) has been created in 1996
by Frédéric Couchet.
This is a very active association in France and in the
Francophony more generally. It's goals are :

• Promote Free Softwares for Professionals, Institutions and all citizens;

• M
ake people concious about the advantages of Open Standards;

• Getting politica
l decisions to improve use of Free Softwares and
Technologies;


Helping to improve Knowledge's sharing.








Free Softwares :

These softwares are created by independents programmers or communities of
programmers everywhere on earth. Softwares released u
nder GPL are
belonging to all categories possibles (accounting, office, studies, music, photo,
etc...etc...). Success encountered by Linux in the 90's has been a huge boost
for many softwares to be released under GPL.

Operating Systems :

The Operating Syst
em is a software directly used by the computer and makes
a human computer interface.

In the proprietary world, as famous operating systems you have Microsoft
Windows, Apple MacOSX , Sun Solaris, HP HPUX, IBM AIX etc...etc... for most
of them, these systems

are very expensive and are only running on very
specifics architectures. Windows operating systems are quite unstable, unsafe
(the fog over source code might hide some privacy intrusions or some back
doors to access to confidential data's ), expensive. Ag
ainst that some Free
Operating systems are existing !!

Linux:

http://www.linux.org

It's surely the most famous of them. He is pretending to be a concurrent to
Microsoft Windows in Personal Computing but also to big systems in
administrations or companies.
It can be used as Desktop computer but also as
a very reliable servers (web, databases, files, mails, applications etc...)

The use of the name “Linux” as an OS is a language extrapolation. In fact,
Linux is just the system kernel name. The kernel directly

“speak” with the
hardware and allows to softwares to communicate with the hardware : it's a
hardware to software interface.

Linux is born on the 5
th

of October 1991 thanks to a Finish Student named
Linux Torvalds (Linux = Linus Unix) who decided to make (
on his free time) a
Unix system running on classical PCs. Nearly immediately his project has
been a success and hundreds, thousands of developers worked on it all around
the world. In our days, the number of developers working more or less directly
on Linu
x can be evaluated to millions of persons : everyone of them is helping
improving kernel and applications running on it. Linus Torvalds is still the
Keeper of the Gates : he manages the Linux project, and tells which
modification has to be added, removed,
which direction the kernel has to take.

Linux Symbols Tux (a manchot pygmy) has been chosen next to a contest in
1996. Linux is now available on a very large number of different architectures
(something impossible for proprietary OS): x86, IA64, AMD64, PA
-
RISC,
MIPS, S/390, Sparc, strongARM, Alpha, m68k etc...etc...

A lonely kernel being a bit useless for a human being normally built,
GNU/Linux is being installed as a distribution. The so called distributions are
packages made of a Linux Kernel of course a
nd hundreds of various

applications such as graphic user interfaces (xorg), configuration tools,
databases, video, audio, graphics, servers applications etc...

Differences between distributions are residing into chosen softwares, kernel
version (kernel ca
n also be modified by distribution's owners) and also to
some tools added to help the final user or to make administration easier (all
of these tools are of course released under GPL and can be used by other
distributions).

The oldest version still active

arrived on earth on the 17
th

of July 1993 and is
named Slackware. It's a very lightweight distro mainly used for server
purposes. It has been created and is still maintained by a lonely man Patrick J.
Volkerding.

h
ttp://www.slackware.org


In August 1993 the Debian GNU Linux has been released for public. It's the
FSF's official Gnu Linux and the Debian project has been directly launched by
Richard Stallman. Each new version is named from a Toy Story character
(Woody
, Buzz, Potato ... Etch is the last one). Debian Gnu Linux can be use as
well as desktop (mainly with Ubuntu a Debian's fork) or server.

http://www.debian.org


Redhat is the first commercial company to make a busines
s out of Linux and
the first release appeared ending 1994. Today, Redhat provide a commercial
Linux with support (mainly for big companies) being named Redhat Linux, but
also a free community Linux named Fedora Core. Redhat is actually rated in
the Nasdaq.

http://www.redhat.com


Mandriva (ex Mandrake) is a French distribution released for the first time in
1998 and based on redhat 5.1. Since then, Mandriva has its own evolution and
in term of usability has become bett
er than Redhat. They just miss good
commercials to be a real concurrent for redhat in companies world. It's one of
the easiest distribution to use and install. It can be used as desktop and
servers. It also have been the first distribution to provide a ful
l graphic
installation program allowing the use of non latin alphabet : the installation
program exists in 73 languages such as Russian, Greek, Chinese, Basque etc...

http://www.mandriva.org


On Internet you can fi
nd hundreds not to say thousands of Linux distributions
being original ones, or just forks from others. Some are generalists, other
more specialized in music composition, or video editing, or gaming ... anybody
can realise its own distribution.



BSD s:

http://www.freebsd.org

http://www.openbsd.org

http://www.netbsd.org

Another Free Unix exists and comes from the Berkeley (California Univers
ity)
Unix branch. These systems are named FreeBSD, OpenBSD and NetBSD.
Their use is more focused on security and servers. They are represented by a
little red demon named Chuck or Beastie. Theses systems are partially
released under GPL, but their main rel
ease license is the BSD License : a very
very open license without any constraints (You just have to credit the person
or group from whom you are taking and redistributing the software. This
allowed Apple to take a BSD and after some small modifications t
o resell it as
MacOS X.

Nostalgia :

http://www.freedos.org

After the official end of MS
-
DOS in 1994 (the first big success for Microsoft), a
student not wanting to use the windows series Oses decided to build his ow
n
system and started the FreeDOS project making it much more better than the
original one. A stable version of it has been released on the 3
rd

of September
2007 but FreeDOS was stable and usable long before this time. The official
STABLE status of a softwa
re only depend on the will of its creator.

Windows forever:

http://www.reactos.org

People not wanting to use a closed, bugged and unsafe microsoft windows, but
wanting a system compliant with it and looking like it s
tarted the ReactOS
project (without any access to windows source code). The project is very far
from being finished and very unstable but you can freely download it and test
it.

Once you have an operating system installed on your computer, you just need
s
ome applications to be run on it.

Office Applications :

Office Suite

OpenOffice.org (http://www.openoffice.org)

This is the main and direct concurrent for Microsoft Office. This project has
been built on the basis of StarOffice (Star Division


Sun Micro
system) when
Sun Microsystem frees the source code in June 2000.

OpenOffice

Microsoft Office

Writer

Word


Impress

PowerPoint

Calc

Excell

Base

Access


It contains vectorial drawing applications, complex mathematics formulas
editors etc... OpenOffice a
llows to read and write documents to and from all
known extension (rtf, doc, xls etc...), and has a built in PDF exporting tool. It
also has its own documents type (open document). This one has been
recognised and adopted as an OASIS norm in May 2005 and a
s an ISO norm
(26300) in may 2006.

With Openoffice, anybody can freely have a powerful and free office suite
solution. In function of the needs of a persons or a company this product can
“easily” be adapted, tuned, modified due to the access to sources. Op
enOffice
is available for a large amount of computers (PC, Mac, Unicies etc...) and is
fully compliant with most of proprietaries Office Suites.


Koffice (http://www.koffice.org)

Another Office Suite integrated to KDE desktop but can be used from other
gra
phic environments. It's fully compliant with the OpenDocument standard
and most of proprietaries documents. This suite is made of a large number of
applications :

Koffice

Windows Equivalent

KWord


Microsoft Wo
rd

KSpread


Excel

KPresenter


Power Point

Kexi


Access, filemaker, oracle forms

Kivio


Visio

Karbon14


Vectorial Drawing (illustrator)

Krita


Photo editing (photoshop)

KPlato


MS Project

KChart


Graphs and charts

KFormula


Complex mathematics formulas

Kugar


Report generator

PAO

Scr
ibus

(
http://web2.altmuehlnet.de/fschmid/

)

It's a page maker publishing software allowing professional printing and
publishing. It help to realise some complex page settings for flyers,
magazines, newspa
pers etc... as it can be done with Microsoft Publisher,

Adobe Pagemaker or Quark Xpress.


PassePartout (
http://www.stacken.kth.se/project/pptout/screenshots.html

)

Another publishin
g software like Scribus.



Project Management

Project planner : The Free equivalent of MS Project is named Planner
(formerly MR Project). It belongs to the project Gnome Office (Gnome is one
of the various user interface proposed by Linux


and other unicies
).

(
http://www.gnome.org/gnome
-
office/mrproject.shtml
)


GanttProject is a java software (working on all computers with a java
machine). It allows to manage project and create some Gantt gra
phs.

(
http://ganttproject.biz/

).

The actual most complete Free software for project management is only
running with windows (or linux with some emulation) and is named
OpenWorkbench. (
http://www.openworkbench.org/

)

Diagrams : Visio has some Free equivalents with Kivio
(
http://www.thekompany.com/projects/kivio/

) et Dia
(
http://www.gnome.org/projects/dia/

).

Stickers/Visit Cards : This can be done with OpenOffice of course, but also
with a little software named glabels (
http://glabels.sourceforge.net/

)

Multimedi
a Applications :

Graphics

The Gimp:

Actually THE reference for Image Manipulation in the Free World. It's a
perfect alternative to Adobe Photoshop. It's used as well by professional and
public and nearly does everything what his proprietary cousin does.

(
http://www.gimp.org

)

XaraLX :

As OpenOffice Paint, XaraLX is now released under GPL License and allows to
make some vectorial drawing : simple drawing, photo
-
realistic ones, technical
drawings, comics, banners, image m
anipulations etc... It can easily replace
some Adobe Illustrator. This soft was first released as a proprietary one with a
copyright and recently the company decided to provide a GPL version of their
softwares. (
http:/
/www.xaralx.org/

)

Inkscape :

It's the main concurrent of Adobe Illustrator, it's older than XaraLX and is
widespread into the vectorial drawing Free Software users community.


(http://www.inkscape.org/

)

3D Softw
are & Animations

Blender : (
http://www.blender.org
)

This is a very high quality software dedicated to computer generated images
and animations like 3D Studio or Maya. This software was previously released
and provide
d with a copyright and was belonging to a company. Due to some
problems (bankrupt) the company closes in 2002. Blender's creator (an ex
employee from the ex company) didn't want his software to end like that and
decided to buy software's rights. Company's
owner asked 100000€ but the
creator wasn't owning this amount of money, so he decided to raise funds
from the Blender's users community : in a week already 50000€ were
gathered and he finally succeded in his purchase. Being grateful to the
community he gav
e Blender to the community and released it under GPL
License. Since then Blender's improvement are continuing even better than
the time when it was a proprietary software. Blender is also used for
professional purposes in cinema industry for example.



Video

Editing

cinelerra.org (
http://www.cinelerra.org

)

It's an audio/video editing software allowing to digitalise, edit, copy, paste,
mix various sources. It also allows to make some real time effects, video
overlayin
g into video sequences. It's a very strong concurrent to Adobe
Premiere.

kdenlive (
http://www.uchian.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/kdenlive.html
)

It's a very basic video editing software, but muc
h more easier than cinelerra.

Open Movie Editor (
http://openmovieeditor.sourceforge.net

) is a recent
software having a very good future.

Files encoding : to be or not to be .... Free

ogg : free (mp
3 proprietary


Thomson & Fraunhofer)

matrioshka: Free container now integrated in freeboxHD modem and in
many multimedia hard drives or DVD players (avi, mpeg4, quicktime :
proprietary containers)

Xvid : Free Encoding (DivX;) : Proprietary Encoding)

pn
g : Free standard for pictures using the best features of GIF and JPEG (
some proprietaries types)

Internet Clients :



Browsers

In 1998 Netscape gives the Netscape browser source code and create a little

organisation named mozilla.org working on various pr
oducts all released
under GPL License with the help of Netscape. In 2003, AOL buy netscape and
suppress all Netscape's developments teams. After that, the Mozilla
Foundation is created (no profit association) to continue working on products
such as mozilla

suite, firefox, thunderbird, camino, seamonkey ... Actually
mozilla stamped products are directly available from mozilla teams, or from
some forks and running on all operating systems (when microsofts internet
clients are barely running on microsoft OS).
Unlike Internet Explorer,
Mozilla/Firefox/seamonkey are made in the respect of the World Wide Web
Consortium recommendations ( the WWWC is centralizing the directions that
the web should take, and giving recommendations about that). To be exact,
Mozilla i
s distributed under Mozilla License.

(
http://www.mozilla.org

)



e
-
mails

In our days, how would it be possible to live without e
-
mail. For many people
email is synonym of outlook (as a slide show presentation would b
e defined by
Powerpoint), but many other software are doing the same job and most of the
time doing it better and being Free.

Mozilla's solutions:



You can use a standalone email client named Thunderbird or a mail reader
included in the seamonkey suite. Bo
th of them are running on most of
computers of the known world. (
http://www.mozilla.org

)



Ending 2007, Qualcomm (a famous mail client/server maker) joined
Mozilla's Foundation to provide its most famous software unde
r GPL
License, I've named Eudora. The project goes on under the name of
Penelope. (
http://wiki.mozilla.org/Penelope

)

Within mail clients available under GPL License the most powerful is surely
Evolution by Ximian Sof
tware. It's only 3 years that this software is released
under GPL and is now part of the Gnome Desktop Project. It's an heavy weight
software in this topic and can easily be compared to Outlook Professional and
doing better. It can be connected to some exi
sting Exchange servers even if
once again some FreeSoftware solutions are recommended overall for server
purposes. It does all what the other clients are doing (connect to shared
calendars, schedules, address book ...) without any problem nor restriction.
(
http://www.gnome.org/projects/evolution/

)

Users not needing all of this can just use some lightweight mail clients as
sylpheed (the lightest one), kmail ...

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

On

the 30
th

of June 2006, Toulouse hosted a conference on “Is a Free GIS
possible ?” Of course this conference goal was to prove that of course it was
something true and that some were already existing and used (even in
Avignon University's Labs). In the pre
sented software there was :




GRASS


http://grass.itc.it

initially made by US Army and next given to the
FreeSoftware community.



OpenJump


http://www.jump
-
project.org

an im
provement of SIG JUMP



uDig

http://udig.refractions.net/confluence/display/UDIG/Home

is a multi
-
architecture GIS able to connect to various local or remote databases
(Canadian infrastr
ucture of Geo
-
Spacial data's). This is a very modular
software and can be adapted to users need at will.



Quantum GIS

http://www.qgis.org

at its creation should only have been a GRASS viewer but
is finally able to accom
plish many tasks.




DIVAGIS

http://www.diva
-
gis.org

is dedicated to biologic diversity and genetic
spreading cartography and analysis.



Migratio

http://www.migratio.fr

is a c
artography, drawing and vectorial drawing tool
able to connect to database.



GvSIG

http://www.gvsig.gva.es

initially made by the Region of Valencia (Spain) to
manage transports and infrastructures there, it's now av
ailable as a Free
Software.



SAGA

http://www.saga
-
gis.uni
-
goettingen.de/html/index.php

is now available to all
after a specific development by Goettingen University to give a work interf
ace
to geo
-
scientists.

WEB Applications

Internet growing helped a lot to the Free World raise. It allowed to
programmers, developers all over the world to chat with each others and plan
some new project without even meeting in real life. This fact explain
why
there is a huge quantity of Free Software having WEB interface presentation.
This kind of software need three main engines :




Apache


It's the most common web server in the world (about 70% of all web
servers). This project began in 1995 and became offi
cial in 1999 with the
Apache Software Foundation creation. This is a fully modular server and is
being realised everywhere on earth. Apache grew fast and today is not only
a classical web server but a suite of applications all related to Internet
(SpamAssa
ssin, Tomcat ...). Apache HTTP server job's is to create a link
between a web browser and himself and to deliver some web pages
contents.



Mysql

This SQL relational database engine is now as important as Apache in Internet
world and is widely used on many w
eb servers. It's part of the LAMP (term to
name a traditional web server architecture running with Linux) : Linux Apache
Mysql Php. It's a very robust, reliable and powerful database engine
accepting a large number of simultaneous connections and can be u
sed in
high availability systems. It can be used by any person already knowing sql
language. This language is a Standard in the database world and allows data
to be move from an engine to another without any big problem. Non SQL
speaking users can use some

graphical interfaces to manages databases and
data In small, medium or large companies mysql is an alternative to Oracle
(actual world's database leader


more dedicated to big industries). To help
mysql to be used in companies, Mysql developed some comme
rcial services for
training, hotline, support, consulting ... (
http://www.mysql.org

)



PostgreSQL

This engine is based on Ingres database engine which is used in some big
companies and industries. Postgres is a bit les
s easy to set
-
up and use than
MySQL but it will have favours of experimented users and databases experts.
As for Mysql, Postgres is available on any kind of systems and also have some
Graphical User Interface to ease some tasks. (http://www.postgresql.org
)



PHP


It's a programming interpreted language (concurrent of Microsoft ASP)
allowing to create advanced web sites with much more functions than with
simple HTML. PHP can directly access to databases, centralized address book
and allows dynamic web sites
creation
. ( http://www.php.net/ )

Once we have LAMP running we can install thousands of web applications :



Groupware

These software are dedicated to collaborative work, i.e., all member of a team,
a company can easily share their schedules, calendars, addr
ess books, files
(mails have to be prohibited for file sharing) etc... Most of the time these
applications are including some little project manager modules allowing to
make some Gantt graph, managing time and resources ... Groupware are also
including som
e real tome messengers, lightweight mail reader, forums etc...

As these softwares (same for all FreeSoftwares) are made all over the world
they are most of the time available in a huge quantity of languages. This type
of application is very important to i
nsure a good communication in a team and
so help a lot in a project life.

Main software are :

phpGroupware : http://www.phpgroupware.org

eGroupware :
http://www.egroupware.org

There is also a non web groupware nam
ed OpenGroupware :
http://www.opengroupware.org



Content management system (CMS)

These softwares are used for on
-
line publication of articles, forums, e
-
news,
blogs etc...etc ... Site's administrators can allow or not interaction between
visitors and arti
cles published. Various levels of rights can be set to access to
different parts of sites, sections, sub
-
sections. The main CMS are :

SPIP and his fork Agora
-
Spip (realised on request of French Foreign Affairs
Ministry and next released under GPL): This
famous cms is used by many
French administrations as foreign office, foreign affairs etc... (
http://www.spip.org

&
http://www.agora.gouv.fr

)

phpNuke: a very modular software

between groupware and cms (
http://www.php
-
nuke.org
)

Mambo, Joomla etc....etc....




Surveys

The king of the Free Survey is named LimeSurvey
(
http://www.limesurvey.org
). I
t allows to build very complex survey, stores
everything in databases. Questions, answers and results can be exported as
sql files, csv files or spss files (data analysis software). Results are available in
text format or graphs.


There is an infinite list

of web application and the number is increasing
everyday : from photo
-
album, to cooking recipe going thru christmas wishlists
sites, everything can be made. If you're looking for some applications you can
just have a look on the following search engines :

http://framasoft.net

http://www.sourceforge.net

http://www.freshmeat.org/

A Gnu in windows and vice versa

To run a software on a sy
stem, you first have to make sure that both are
compliant. In general there is the possibility to run some natives programs

without any problems (in theory because with microsoft even natives
softwares are not always running right ;) ). But from times to o
ther this is not
possible and native made programs are not always existing, so we need a
solution to have un
-
compliant things being compliant.

Virtualization

It's absolutely possible to run an OS inside another OS : we can have a
windows running inside a L
inux. This is possible with a virtualization
softwares (VirtualBox, VMWare, XEN, Qemu ...). This is a good solution for
someone deciding to start using a new Operating System to leave one. Of
course it's absolutely possible to install many systems on a com
puter but you
have to reboot when you want to use your second or third OS. Virtualization is
also a nice way to simulate local network. Virtualization requires a very big
computer with a lot of memory and one or more powerful processor(s).

http://www.virtualbox.org/

http://www.vmware.com/fr/


http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/research/srg/netos/xen/


http://fabrice.bellard.free.fr/qemu/


Emulation

This method requires less resources than virtualization but does not allow to
run all the programs we want (all depend from the way the program has been
coded). With this met
hod un
-
compliant program with an OS can nearly run as
if it was made native thanks to a wrapper.

To run Linux programs under windows the best emulator is cygwin
(
http://www.cygwin.com

). It runs as it can and cygwin
setup is not what we
can call a piece of cake. Most of the time, to run a program first has to be
recompiled.

Running some windows programs under Linux is more trivial with wine
(http://www.winehq.com ) or with a commercial application based on it :
Cros
soverOffice (http://www.codeweavers.com ). This is the ideal way to
switch to an Free Operating System continuing using your favourite windows
made application.

Pure MSDOS programs can be run with DosBOX (
http://www.d
osbox.com

).

DosBOX is of course mainly made for Linux / BSD but also for Windows Vista
... windows isn't including some real DOS in his operating systems.



All about FreeSoftwares

Anti
-
FS point of view



Security holes can be found more easily because of
source code
publication. On a small project there isn't enough programmers to
carefully re
-
read the whole source code so final users' security is
impacted.



GPL does not allow to freely use a GPL software to integrated it in a
commercial software (non GPL)
due to the viral characteristic of the
GPL. An abyss is being created between Free and Non
-
Free World
leading to interoperability troubles between the two worlds.



Selling a Free software is authorized, but liberty n°2 forbid exclusivity.
With that said, g
etting back on investment is very hard with a FS. In
brief FS programmers cannot live from their activity they must have a
some alternate activity (tuning, service, private modifications ...) to get
some money back (it's more or less a back to the root spi
rit of computers
where service and hardware were source of money, not the software
itself)



FS can't assure protection of innovations : as source code is freely
available it nearly impossible to keep long an advantage of a new
technology which would be base
d on a new method or algorithm.


Pro
-
FS point of view



Cooperative development of a soft by many programmers leads to a
clean coding and good documentation of this code to ease external
contributions. Dirty written project are usually not living long.



Quali
ty of a project is usually proportional to his development team size.
The bigger the project is, the more reactive the teams are. Development,
testing, improvement is not done at a company size but at the whole
planet size. With that said bugs and security

holes are corrected much
more faster than in private companies doing some proprietaries
softwares.



Most of the time FreeSoftwares are respecting very closely open
standards (when not creating some


cf OpenOffice). The use of an open
standard for which al
l specifications are clearly known is a guaranty of
very long time archiving. A document can be re
-
read 10, 20, 30, 100
years latter or even more, till the source code is being kept.



FS are offering a better security level than proprietary softwares :



sou
rce code being analyse by many experts all over the world;



the black box security rules (maybe the worst way to make some
security


microsoft is using it and its OS are stuffed with security
holes, viral attacks, random behaviour ...) is absolutely imposs
ible
to apply.




Freely having source code allows to faster raise security level
(new rules, holes corrections etc... )

FreeSoftwares

&
Open Source

Freedom to analyse and improve a software requires source code access. This
is very important because most of
the time software are provided in a non
human readable format : binaries directly usable by Operating
System/computer. Source code access leads to the Open Source notion.

Why using Open Source term : in English free can be used in a meaning of
freedom but
also in a meaning of nothing to pay, and this was a serious
“brake” in the adoption of FS in private companies.

A FS is by default an Open Source software as the access to source code is an
obligation. But an Open Source software is not an FS by default be
cause there
is no modifications and evolutions limit set by creator (when a FS has some
restrictions). In practice most of Open Source softwares are some
FreeSoftware : they are respecting Richard Stallman commandments.

The main difference is more of a p
hilosophic approach of these notions.
Richard Stallman created FS because in his mind sharing software is a moral
obligation : softwares must not be reserved to some elites or people having
money to spend in them. Many others like Linus Torvalds are tellin
g that it's
just a more efficient way of programming without any moral nor political view.
So for some FS is a moral fight, for others it's a technical fight and for many
it's a bit of both.

The last fight in date is the one of the OSI (Open Source Initiat
ive) whom goal
is to promote FreeSoftwares in direction of businessmen, leaders not always
open to Free Systems use (most of the time cause of lack of information).
Since few years a new kind of companies is appearing specialized in Free
Softwares Service
s. Thanks to FS a new branch of computer economy is born.

Free Spirit

A FreeSoftware is the result of one or more hackers' work ( a hacker is a
noble term for someone inventing, creating not a pirate as said in many
medias). The hacker community code of ho
nour might be this :




in the free world, “work” is not a heavy and painful duty but a game, a
hobby, keeping in mind that the result have to be of great quality and
very secure (the Hacker's Pride). Most of the time there is no strict
planning in a project

life :” software is released when it's ready” quality
is more important than realisation speed. The most important is to have
a product where you can have everything you need : useless options are
generally set away.



Money isn't the hackers' main motivati
on. The main motivation given by
hackers to the FreeSoftware consist in sharing knowledge with or
without any money. It's a cooperative and voluntary work in which
passion, creativity and socialization are the key words. Being recognised
for your work by o
thers hackers is more interesting than money.

FreeSoftwares programmers/communities are working for humanity
knowledge. Money is provided by some alternate activities.



Last but not less important thing is the “net ethic” : it's based on the
community struc
ture. Most of the time it's an horizontal scheme, but
some various level of responsibility are existing. Some very famous
persons for some previous software or acts in favour of FSF will
sometimes have a bigger influence and a bigger role than a perfect
an
onymous person. These persons are most of the time dealing with
important choices to make, having the final word in a decision etc... The
most important thing is that these persons must reflect the ideology of
the community, and must have the approval of t
he huge majority of
members of community.


For example, some time ago most of Free Unicies had a project named Xfree
used for graphical interfaces display ... little by little the third point of the
“code” ended to be respected, and one of the “leaders” de
cided to fire a very
important programmer of the project and at the same time took some
decisions going against the community's will. This led to a Fork named X.org
... today X.org is the leading project for displaying when Xfree has nearly been
forgotten.



FreeSoftware


what is it ?!

Why do Freesoftwares are a must to have ?

For private companies or administrations, when a free solution face a
proprietary solution, the judicious choice is the one of Free. Why ?



Freedom and Independence

A Free solution kee
ps away from a closed solution in which you just know
what the vendor wants you to know. Using proprietary softwares is becoming
fully dependent of softwares editors decisions : for example, how long will the
editor support his software. In some situations

where data confidence is very
very important (defence, nuclear activities, international relationships, high
tech industries, health ...) using some black boxed products is absolutely
insane. In a way or other these proprietaries companies might be linked

to
some foreign governments, concurrent companies and enjoy of their lack of
transparency to steal some confidential informations.

Using FreeSoftwares with 100% known functions, code etc... is also a way to
prevent some troubles caused by some editor sto
pping a product and/or
support on a product for some marketing, reasons and because final user
cannot do anything against that except paying.



An efficient support

Contrarily to an urban legend being told here and there, using a FreeSoftware
doesn't mean th
at there isn't any valid support available. For the ones wanting
or having time to deal with that directly, internet has most of the time the
answer to your question (search engine, forum, IRC channels etc...). It's even
possible for some project to direc
tly deal with coders for free.

For the ones not wanting to deal with technical questions, as for proprietary
systems, some consultants, Services companies, subcontractors dedicated to
Free Technologies are existing.



Made especially for you

The main advan
tage for a FreeSoftware is that it can be adapted to the real
end user needs. An open source code, most of the time well documented and
commented, allows to anybody knowing a programming language to add,
remove, modify some functions. And for some projects

you don't even need to
order anything to a private programmer, you just have to put your idea or
request on a community forum, and if your idea is interesting enough for the
coders they might realise it for free.

State is switching to Free Technologies

Fr
ench state understood the interest to use FreeSoftwares, here are few
examples :


OpenOffice in Agriculture Ministry

Microsoft Office 2000 has been replaced by the now well known
OpenOffice.org. After a migration from NT4 servers to some Mandriva Linux
serv
ers, ministry's IT thought that Microsoft 2000 was outdated and
unsupported. After some analysis it has been decided that updating all
software to the most recent version was very expensive (and they were
condemned to do the same few years latter) so they
decided to switch to Open
Office Suite (OpenOffice.org) now being in its version 3. Migrating from
microsoft to microsoft was about the same price than migrating from
microsoft to openoffice.org and with the money saved on licenses prices some
training cou
rses could be made for final users. Adding to this that openoffice
use the opendocument standard and it fits perfectly into IGR (Interoperability
General Referential) interoperability constraints .



Interior Ministry and Free Mail

Ministry of interior affairs, of territory security and for local liberties (named
MISILL) replaced many proprietary applications by some GPL licensed
products f
ollowing the Governments wishes. The Tool CPS has been realised
by a French company specialized into FreeSoftwares (Nuxeo) in partnership
with CapGemini (European Leader in Technologies of Information)

“we had studied proprietaries solutions but they were
very expensive in term
of license and in term of installation” Frederic Verdot told (Project manager at
the ministry's IT).

“With an Open Source code, it's very easy to adapt it to all ministry's services
and to prefectures” he added

Courier CPS is release
d under GPL License. “Every add
-
ons we will develop in
the future will be given back to programmers' community and published on
internet” finally told François Verdot.

Courier CPS allow to deal with virtual mails : received mails (snail mails) are
digital
ized, emails, and fax are already in computer readable documents.
“Documents are processed on the ministry's intranet and can be
shared/accessed by users following some rules. The visualization is made with
a traditional web browser.” tells Arnaud Lefevre
council director at Nuxeo.
The order represent an amount of 150 000 € of income for a Free Software
editor.



Central Administration, gendarmerie & OpenOffice

During 2007, more than 400000 computers used at the central administration
have switch from Microso
ft Office to OpenOffice. It's the most important
migration in the world to a FreeSoftware.

In January 2005 National Gendarmerie used OpenOffice to replace microsoft
office : this allowed to save 2 millions euros in a year. Last year they decided
that till
2010 they will switch from windows to Linux for some costs and
independence reasons.

For the inter ministerial work group in charge of project, more than some

financial reasons, the goal is to introduce a mutualization notion.
FreeSoftwares ideology is ver
y close to ideas of resources and knowledge
sharing : a view fitting very well to collaborative work, and this is what
Finance Ministry wants for all French administration.



Ministry of Foreign Affairs

All sites more or less linked to foreign affairs (embas
sy, consulates ...) have
been remade with an open source application named Agora
-
Spip. This
application is based on SPIP (a content manager system). The ministry having
some special needs, a fork named Agora
-
Spip has been created and then been
released to
the FS community. Agora SPIP is also used for some other
administrations : court , Government sites, IDF transport regulation, ...)

National Assembly

On the Assembly's official site was told that all computers provided to the 577
deputies would be 100% Fre
eSoftwares (using Ubuntu Linux as Operating
system). This migration has been planned on request of Jean Louis Debré
(President of Assembly) :


This decision is an answer to a strong will from deputies to see French
administrations using more and more Free
Softwares”

Cost and maintenance for this has been evaluate to 80 euros per computer !

Private Companies



Amazon, Google, Ebay, Yahoo, Free ...

Are all companies that would have never been existing without freesoftwares.
For example google started his activi
ty recycling some old computers and
using them in big clusters running some Linux systems. It doesn't prevented it
to provide a very good and reliable service.

In all your internet “boxes”, most of Divx home players, Archos media player
etc... you have a m
icro Linux embedded. Most of ISP's are sued by FSF cause
they are not providing there “boxes” kernel source code.

A famous Taiwanese computer vendor : ASUS, made a micro laptop natively
running with Linux. L'EEE PC is also included in many mobile phone
ope
rators 3G+ offers.

Mentalities are moving little by little and computers are now being more and
more available with Linux. If not and if it is a windows pre
-
install computer,
the manufacturer has a legal obligation to refund you for system on your
request

(and following or more or less complicated procedure). Many Linux
users have sued manufacturers and this led to this situation.



Le Tigre

It's the first weekly generalist and independent (ad free) newspapers fully
made with Scribus and nationally distribu
ted in the NMPP network.




Movies Industry

Linux influence is getting more and more important in the film industry for
digital effects. Today some classical computer (even some old recycled ones)
running in big cluster grapes with Linux are much more cheaper

than
proprietaries graphical computer like Silicon Graphics ones. Some
proprietaries softwares are now ported to run on Linux and are being used on
films like : Harry Potter, The Grinch, Apes' Planet, Stuart Little ... Some 100%
Free Technologies are also

used on some commercial movies : Scooby
-
doo for
example.

A Science fiction Belgian film (Mask of Red Death) has fully be realised with
blender, cinelerra, gimp, Linux

(
http://users.skynet.be/mume/masque/mmr_sfx01.html

)


Elephant Dreams” was the first animation movie to to be realised 100% with
Blender, the first one to be distributed on HD DVD and finally the first one to
be released under a Creative Common Licen
se very close to the GPL License (
http://creativecommons.org/

).

More recently Peach Open Movie (
http://peach.blender.org

) followed the
same process. A game titled Apr
icot and taken from Peach is the first Open
Source game big project.


FreeSoftwares & Tourism

In a first view there's absolutely no link between FS and Tourism. But if
looking closer to this, computers are being very important at work and
Tourism need some

tools, softwares for every days activities. So why not using
freesoftwares for all you activities.

As we have seen freesoftwares offers are very very wide : office, project
management, OS, page making, e
-
business, web, GIS ... you can find what
ever you
want in Free Technologies. Using them, you can reduce License costs
of a company (mainly if it is yours) and overall you stay independent from
software editors, subcontractors etc... Switching to Open Technologies is
overall a state of mind, a new behaviou
r, a change of habits ... a bit like what
happen with ecology and durable development in our days.

Few years ago in 2006 Pierre Crescenzo and Michel Gautero from Nice
University have started thinking to some conference on FreeSoftwares and
Tourisme (LoLiTo
) but it's still an idea. Both are still thinking this kind of
conference possible (
http://www.i3s.unice.fr/~lolito/index.html
) ...




Acogit

This FreeSoftware (
http://www.acogit.org
) application collect, sort and
manage tourism information following the TourinFrance standard. It's being
used by Charente Tourism Commity.



Gnu & Penguin ... for a world domination !?

Everything goes for the best for proprietary s
oftware industry since few years
now, and nothing seems to be able to change this situation ( Microsoft has a
quasi monopolistic situation for personal computers : 90% of PC on earth are
installed with a microsoft system.) Meanwhile, strong of their domina
nt
position softwares editors just forgot a little detail being named
FreeSoftwares.

FreeSoftwares adepts are first seen as hippies, members of a sect, ill people
not understanding the world in which they live ... these persons are coming
various categorie
s (professional, social, etc...): you can find scientists, geeks,
hackers, final users, teachers, doctors, students etc... Everybody has a role to
play to accomplish a very big work : not just technical resources are required
but also people having ideas,

wanting to help to track bugs, people giving
their vision of what a software could be etc ...etc... Thanks to a World Wide
Work nearly all proprietaries softwares have their Free equivalent. As we have
seen previously, products coming from a Free developm
ent are generally
superior in term of quality, security ...

So why aren't we all using 100% of FreeSoftwares ?

What's wrong ?!

Mentalities

Maybe the biggest problem met by FreeSoftwares is people' mentalities. Old
habits are hard to change, overall when f
ree products are looking like hiding
some traps ... As always, ignorance is the main reason to mentalities
unchanging, change sounds like being something very dangerous ... we are we
going ? What will happen ? FreeSoftwares also have to fight years and yea
rs
of brainwashing by softwares' editors, and still doing all they can to keep their
customers (not always with very clean methods) : some fake independents
labs showing superiority of Microsoft's systems (when watching closer, you
realise that these sames

labs are more or less directly belonging to the
Redmond firm).

Migration

Switching from a solution to another, always imply a migration phase. Data
migration can be source of problem when it's a very close format, but most of
the time some migration tools

are made by reverse engineering to convert
data into Free and open Standard.

There is also an important expense in term of time and investment for such a
migration, the biggest part of these expenses being taken by trainings. Of
course all of this has a c
ost for a company (overall if this one is fully prisoner
proprietaries solutions), and if we are looking in a short term view, a
migration campaign might be more expensive than a license renewal
campaign.



To a Free World

Companies

Previously we have seen

that migrations could be expensive in a short term.
But when you look a bit more far, Free technologies are immediately and
always cheaper for many reasons :



no more license renewal



a warranty of unlimited data keeping time : closed format/software can be

lost with years following the editors' will, with free softwares there will
always have a way to restore, read, use data as you can remake software
yourself starting from sources.



Quality & reliability : when a Free product is being made, there is no
time
/money taken in account, programmers are just focusing on qualitative
aspects. Free Operating Systems like Linux or BSD are much more reliable
and natively secured (by their architecture). When a windows server has to
be rebooted every week or two weeks (w
hen not rebooting alone for no
reason), a Linux server can be kept on
-
line without any service disrupt for
months, years ... This non lost time is at the end some money saved by the
company and some productivity gained.



Finally, FreeSoftwares being made a
ll over the world are most of the time
natively released with many localizations. In our times of mondialisation,
this can be a positive point for a global company.

What was initially looking like an expensive decision is finally a warranty of
money savin
g.

For a progressive migration, Free technologies can live with proprietaries
ones. For example you can have some windows desktop and laptop “chatting”
with some Linux servers (files sharing, printing ...)

You, everybody ...

We mainly focused on FreeSoftwa
res for companies and business, but each
one of you can change things (and so, stop microsoft monopole) switching
little by little to Free Technologies : in a first time mixing Free/Closed systems
and application, or doing a dual boot system with both wind
ows and Linux
installed (that's how everybody begins in general


you just need some space
on hard drive). The final goal is to remove any proprietary part in the end (if
possible, and if some software aren't having their Free equivalent you can still
use
emulation).

In our days, installing Linux is just as easy (even more) as installing windows :
you just have to read and click. Maybe some “install parties” at University or
inside a Linux dedicated course could be a good way to start with Linux. But
if y
ou really want, some “install parties” are being made everywhere in France
with the help of associations named LUGs (Linux Users Groups). In Avignon
you have Avignu (
http://www.avignu.org
).


Once again, the only th
ing that can stop you is the fear of change : we are
used to something, it might be hard to change it, but it's not impossible, like
everything it's a question of will ... just having to get used to it.

Other details : viruses, trojans, worms very botherin
g with windows systems
are absolutely unknown in the Linux, BSD universe. Some experimental
worms were existing but they never succeeded getting out the labs where
they had been made. It's not a consequence of Linux not widely used, but just
due to the way

of Linux is being realised (user security, memory access
protections etc...).

Not using microsoft is also keeping yourself safe from this system's random
behaviour (blue screen, reboot and pray, reboot without being asked to ...)

Next point : how many of

you are buying 100% of software they are using ?

More than qualitative advantage FreeSoftwares prevent you from being
outlaws.

Software piracy is punished with :

Till 1,5millions € for companies and till 300.000€ for common users. Both also
risk being en
jailed for 3 years max.

Impact on Economy

Some facts

FreeSoftwares represent a real business, often being in good position on many
markets : as well as in company than for common users. Most of softwares are
due to private initiatives, companies or adminis
trations are “only”
representing 35% of contributions.

Europe is from far a leader in terms of programmers and project leaders
working on FreeSoftwares. European's smalls and mediums companies are
more using FreeSoftwares than their concurrents in the rema
ining of the
world.

The amount in euros for good quality software is evaluated to 12 Billions € : a
minimum of 131.000 programmers/year or an annual contribution of 800
millions €, where the half is provided by Europe.

In terms of service, FreeSoftwares pl
ace could represent 32% of services
market in 2010. FreeSoftwares could be the unique way to allow Europe
becoming the powerful economy on this knowledge till 2010.

These softwares allow to save 36% of computer related investment : better
incomes for compa
nies.


(source: Open source software impact on economy Report)

This rise of Free is seen as a menace for computers economy and employment
... but when switching from proprietary to Free nothing would basically
change : programmer would keep being progra
mmer, media would keep being
media etc... Money would be more earned by services installations, tuning,
consulting. In brief, it would mainly be a service and hardware based economy

(as it was at the beginnings of times). Such a change must goes with a re
al
Revolutions in minds for computers world's actors.

Qualcomm freed his most famous mail client : Eudora, Xara is freeing some
source code for XaraLX, Sun released some Free version of their Solaris, freed
java's sources ... things are moving, the Soft Re
volution is starting but the
path is long an sinuous.

Finally switching to FreeSoftwares would be going back to computer roots
some fifty years ago.

This array is provided by a training company and shows mentalities evolutions
and the growing interest f
or Free :

(observatoire du logiciel libre : Anaska)


From Free softwares to Free everything ...

Life is not computers and computers are not life ... fortunately ! But
unfortunately in our worlds many things are being kept closed, secret,
copyrighted : reci
pes, songs, photos, movies. Free spirit also applies to all
these domains : music, painting, cooking, etc...


Open Source beer
-

Vores Øl

http://www.voresoel.dk

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vores_%C3%98l



Unique in its category, Vores Øl beer has been created by some Copenhague
students to explain more easily the Open Source concept, using an all day
product. “Why beer ? Why not ! We all like that !” are tell
ing creators.
Principle is to offer a recipe that anybody can use, copy, modify at will (if
respecting some conditions).

These conditions are set by a Creative Commons License :



principle of paternity : all user must name the original creator



initial shar
ing conditions : if someone modify, transform part of the
recipe, this new recipe must be released under the same term than the
original one.

An urban legend being told on this beer birth, wants that it has been done as
an answer to Richard Stallman common

telling “Free as in free speech, not as
in free beer” : even if you can have some free beer by a way or other, this
beer's recipe is secretly kept ! So they wanted to have a Free beer for the
recipe part .. an next, up to you to get some free beer (money
).

OpenCola

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenCola


«OpenCola is an unique cola brand due to the fact that its recipe is Free.
Anybody can now make his/her own cola soda at home under the condition of
it

being released under GNU License.

As for beer, open cola was first created to explain the principle of
FreeSoftwares ... but it has been sold more than 150.000 cans of it. OpenCola
company is based in Toronto and has become more famous than
FreeSoftwares
it was supposed to promote. Laird Brown, OpenCola strategy
manager, tells that people are doubting of big companies and “proprietary
nature of almost everything” is being suspect. From its beginning commercial
strategy didn't change and this beverage is on
ly advertised on its web site.



Art and Free


GNUArt

http://www.gnuart.org/


«

GNUart is born from this fact : Artist expression way is creation. But
creation is just the half of the full process as communication req
uire a
receiver and all creativity some critics.

To find a public, an Artist must be provided : a contract most of the time
abusive with a company getting the exclusivity on his work in exchange of
some money ... but is this money enough to counterpart t
he loss of creation
freedom.

This exclusivity is the end of public view and appreciations, and also the end
of artists' free creation : financial incomes will be set at the first rank high
upper the Artist interest.

All is being sold, all is being bought.

Show is just a front office of business : troubadours are out !”

Any kind of artist's work can be protected with a GPL, Creative common
license, just to share this work, abandoning some authors' rights but
protecting it from any kind of steeling.



Biblio
graphy & sources


http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Stallman

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fondation_pour_le_logici
el_libre

http://www.fsf.org/

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Licence_publique_g%C3%A9n%C3%A9rale_GNU

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_software_foundation_europe

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/FSF_France

http://www.fsffrance.org/

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fr%C3%A9d%C3%A9ric_Couchet

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/APRIL

http://www.apri
l.org/

http://www.gnuart.org

http://www.framasoft.org

http://sourceforge.net

http://freshmeat.net

http://www.linux.org

http://www.gnu.org

http://www.linuxfr.org

http://www.unesco.org

FreeSoftwares im
pact on economy repport : flossimpact.pdf

FreeSoftwares white book (Diane Revillard): livreblanclogicielslibres.pdf

Tourism and FreeSoftwares (Michel Gautero): tourisme.pdf

Institutional e
-
tourism meeting (ARDESI ) : Atelier3.pdf





Annexe

GPL V2

Version 2
, June 1991



Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.


59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111
-
1307 USA


Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies


of this license document, but changing it is

not allowed.


Preamble



The licenses for most software are designed to take away your

freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public

License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free

software
--
to make sure the
software is free for all its users. This

General Public License applies to most of the Free Software

Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to

using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by

the GNU Libr
ary General Public License instead.) You can apply it to

your programs, too.



When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not

price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you

have the freedom to distribute copies o
f free software (and charge for

this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it

if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it

in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.



To protect your r
ights, we need to make restrictions that forbid

anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.

These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you

distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.




For ex
ample, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether

gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that

you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the

source code. And you must show them these terms so they k
now their

rights.



We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and

(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,

distribute and/or modify the software.



Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want
to make certain

that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free

software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we

want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so

that any problems introduced
by others will not reflect on the original

authors' reputations.



Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software

patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free

program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effe
ct making the

program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any

patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.



The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and

modification follow.



TERMS AND CO
NDITIONS FOR COPYING,
DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION



0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains

a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed

under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program",
below,

refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"

means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:

that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,

either verbatim or with modifications and/or

translated into another

language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in

the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".


Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not

covered by this License; t
hey are outside its scope. The act of

running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program

is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the

Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).

Whether that is t
rue depends on what the Program does.



1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's

source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you

conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate

copyright notice an
d disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the

notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;

and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License

along with the Program.


You may charge a fee for the physical act of t
ransferring a copy, and

you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.



2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion

of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and

distribute such modificatio
ns or work under the terms of Section 1

above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:




a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices


stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.



b) You must cau
se any work that you distribute or publish, that in


whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any


part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third


parties under the terms of this License.



c) If the modifi
ed program normally reads commands interactively


when run, you must cause it, when started running for such


interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an


announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a


notice

that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide


a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under


these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this


License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interact
ive but


does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on


the Program is not required to print an announcement.)




These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If

identifiable sections of that work are not derived from
the Program,

and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in

themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those

sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you

distribute the same sections as part of a

whole which is a work based

on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of

this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the

entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.


Thus, it is not
the intent of this section to claim rights or contest

your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to

exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or

collective works based on the Program.


In addition, mere aggregatio
n of another work not based on the Program

with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of

a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under

the scope of this License.



3. You may copy and distribute the Program (
or a work based on it,

under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of

Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:



a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine
-
readable


source code, which

must be distributed under the terms of Sections


1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,



b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three


years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than
your


cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete


machine
-
readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be


distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium


customarily used for software interchange; or
,




c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer


to distribute corresponding source code