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14 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Web Services and NIEM

COPS 2007
Technology
Program
Advanced
Training
Workshops

Andrew Owen

Justice Information Systems Specialist

SEARCH

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

2

Web Services


A
Web service

is defined by
the W3C as "a software system
designed to support
interoperable machine
-
to
-
machine interaction over a
network."

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

3

How Can Web Services
Help Your Project?


Expose system functionality


Open, non
-
proprietary,

cross
-
platform means for
interconnecting systems




SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

4

M
ore About Web Services



Web Services…


are application components


communicate using open protocols


are self
-
contained and self
-
describing


are formally described, and the
descriptions are made available to
potential consumers


can be used by other applications


XML is the basis for Web
Services

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

5

M
ore About Web Services



A Web Service has an interface
described in a machine
-
processable
format (specifically
WSDL
)


Other systems interact with the Web
Service in a manner prescribed by its
description

using SOAP
-
messages,
typically conveyed using HTTP with
an…




…XML serialization in conjunction
with other
Web
-
related standards

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

6

Web Services:

Basic Concepts


Web Services can convert your
applications into Web
-
applications


By using Web Services, your application
can publish its
function

or
message

so it
is available for consumption by other
systems


XML provides a language that

can be used between different
platforms and programming

languages and still express

complex messages and functions


SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

7

Web Services and SOA


Web Services is not
synonymous with
service
-
oriented architecture

(SOA)


Web Services can be used to
implement an architecture
according to SOA concepts,
where the basic unit of
communication is a
message
,
rather than an
operation

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

8

Web Services Protocols


Web Services consist of a set of
protocols based on
XML

(Extensible Markup Language)



The following base protocols
formed the initial specification
for Web Services

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

9

Web Services Protocols:
SOAP

Simple Object Access Protocol:

SOAP


Defines the runtime message that
contains the service request and
response


XML
-
based


Independent of any particular
transport and implementation
technology

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

10

Example SOAP Message

SOAP Envelope

SOAP Body

SOAP Header

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

11

Web Services Protocols:
WSDL

Web Services Description

Language: WSDL


Describes a Web Service and its SOAP
Message(s)


XML
-
based


Provides a programmatic way to
describe what a service does



SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

12

WSDL Structure

Structure defined by

Input or output defined by

Contains one or more…

Defines message format

and protocol details

Defines a port and
assigns to it a binding

Types

Message

Operation

Port Type

Binding

Service

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

13

NIEM Refresher


National Information Exchange
Model

(NIEM): A national, multi
-
community data model


Made possible by input and review
from State, Local, Federal, and Tribal
agencies


The NIEM physical model is XML
-
based


NIEM provides a foundation for
developing information exchange
specifications (IEPDs)

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

14

Where Does NIEM Come
Into Play?


IEPD used to define the structure
of the Web Service message


NIEM
-
conformant schemas are
referenced directly from the
WSDL


XML instances that conform to a
NIEM IEPD are carried in the
SOAP body

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

15

Strengthening Web Services


To improve the security and reliability of
Web Services and to address more complex
business scenarios, a wide range of
standards exist…

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

16

WS
-
Policy


A standard that provides a general
purpose model and corresponding
syntax to describe the policies of a
Web Service


Defines a base set of constructs
that can be used and extended by
other Web Services specifications
to describe a broad range of
service requirements and
capabilities

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

17

WS
-
Addressing


A standard that allows Web
Services to communicate
addressing details


Defines concepts like:


MessageID


To


From


ReplyTo


Action


RelatesTo

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

18

WS
-
Reliable Messaging


A standard that supports reliable
delivery of SOAP messages across
unreliable infrastructure (the
Internet)


Ensures delivery in times of
software, system, or network
failures


Supports end
-
to
-
end reliability
rather than point
-
to
-
point
reliability


SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

19

Understanding the

Reliable Messaging Model

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

20

Reliable Messaging
Exchange

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

21

WS
-
Security


A standard that describes how to
incorporate security tactics with Web
Services


Provides end
-
to
-
end integrity and
confidentiality for SOAP messages


Has flexibility to support a variety of
security models (PKI, Kerberos, SSL)


Two core functions


Message confidentiality (Encryption)


Message integrity (Signature)


SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

22

Message Encryption

I Love
Web
Services

Recipient’s Public Key

I Love
Web
Services

Ua78=ui
Hdf56hyu
@i*&ewO
IY^5%4d

Encrypt

Recipient’s Private Key

Decrypt

SEARCH, The National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics |
www.search.org

23

Digital Signature

Transfe
r
$100.00

Sender’s Private Key

Transfe
r
$100.00

Ua78=ui
Hdf56hyu
@i*&ewO
IY^5%4d

Sign

Sender’s Public Key

Verify