Presentation on the Tanzanian Efforts

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Presentation on the Tanzanian Efforts
in curbing Corruption

Progress made as of
November
2009


General Budget
Support Review



By
Dr. Edward Hoseah

Director General of PCCB

Date: 23 Nov 2009


Presentation on the Tanzanian Efforts
in curbing Corruption

The presentation will cover:


PCCB functions and Mission (Part 1);


Achievements on anti
-
corruption efforts (Part 2);


NACSAP II Implementation (Part 3);


National Corruption Survey 2009 (Part 4);


NACSAP II M&E Framework (Part 5); and


Challenges and the Way Forward

PCCB Functions and Mission


The PCCB, is a law enforcement institution
established and mandated by the PCCA No. 11 of
2007


Mandate: to (a) prevent corruption, (b) educate the
society , and (c) enforce the law against corruption.


Section 5 of this law establishes the Bureau as an
independent public body


Section 7 sets out its functions.


Mandate and operations
-

limited to Tanzania
Mainland.


PCCB adopts the three
-
prong approach, namely by
prevention, public awareness, investigation and
prosecution of offenders.

PCCB Functions and Mission


Vision: The PCCB aspires to, and is
committed to being at the forefront of fighting
corruption in Tanzania while striving to be an
exemplar of Excellence, efficiency,
effectiveness and economy.


Mission: Working together with all
stakeholders to fight corruption by making it
high risk with low returns through Education,
Prevention, detection and prosecution



PCCB has 7 high levels goals to strategically
fight corruption with resolve and commitment.


General achievements

Brief Statistics on status of cases:


A total of 4,936 allegations were received in 2009 as
compared to 6,137 in 2008 and 8,235 in 2007. (not all
allegations were related to corruption)


A total of 720 cases investigated as compared to 928 cases in
2008 and 1,266 cases in 2007


A total of 1,003 were completed investigations as compared
to 936 in 2008 (figure to increase as we close the year).


A total of 29 administrative actions taken against public
servants proven to be inclined to take bribes and other
corrupt behavior, as compared to 74 in 2008 and 280 in 2007

…General achievements



A total of 135 files have been transferred to other
institutions as compared to 184 in 2008 (a decline
from last year)


Thus 19% of cases investigated, have been referred
to other agencies as compared to 20% in 2008.



So far 169 new cases are in courts as compared to
147 in 2008 (15% increase from 2008).


So far 437 cases have been prosecuted as compared
to 416 in 2008 (5% increase from 2008)





…General achievements


In 2009, PCCB has recorded 35 convictions as
compared to 37 in 2008 (more cases still in court and
some will be completed before the end of the year)


PCCB had 53 cases acquitted (in 2009) as compared
to 71 in 2008 (number of acquitted cases are
becoming minimal).


So far total money recovered by the PCCB operations
is TSS 86,951 million (US$ 67 million) through
seizures of property and other means

…General achievements


PCCB investigates at least 5 grand corruption cases per year and the
rest are medium or petty corruption cases.


Currently (2009) PCCB is prosecuting a total of 17 grand corruption
cases as compared to 14 in 2008 and only 1 in 2007.


Grand corruption in this case refer to cases that involve huge sums of
money, attract public interest, involve high profile individuals, have
impact on the economy and involve foreign jurisdiction (MLA).



Decline or increase in specific figures would mean:


Positive effects of efforts (i.e. less cases acquitted)


Cooperation from the judiciary


Other factors will be shown in Perception Survey slide.


What follows is a summary table on status of all cases since 1995.

…General achievements

Summary Table:

YEARS

Allegations

received

Cases
Investigated

Completed
Investigation
files

Administrative
actions taken

Files transferred
to other agencies

New cases into
courts

Total cases
Prosecuted

Conviction cases

Acquittal cases

Saved Money/
Asset recovered

1995

261

261

145

-

-

8

16

1

7

2,706,800,000/=

1996

513

513

245

-

-

21

34

2

9

1,900,651,000/=

1997

510

510

289

-

-

9

18

1

4

6,932,950,000/=

1998

545

545

200

-

95

15

31

2

6

9,300,478,000/=

1999

1,116

1,116

304

-

209

62

47

9

25

14,795,169,650/=

2000

1,244

1,244

276

-

234

49

42

6

3

11,100,000,000/=

2001

1,354

1,354

285

1

154

57

53

-

-

2,500,000,000/=

2002

1,383

1,383

732

42

222

52

191

12

12

2,714,199,000/=

2003

2,285

1,796

540

21

36

51

178

9

28

3,800,266,000/=

2004

2,223

1,149

458

126

25

60

202

6

8

4,000,216,000/=

2005

3,121

677

540

111

2

50

218

6

10

2,500,600,000/=

2006

6,320

1,528

1,688

209

496

71

251

18

28

1,301,492,528/=

2007

8,235

1,266

2,015

280

460

196

352

35

45

1,580,099,081/=

2008

6,137

928

936

74

184

147

416

37

71

13,203,459,357/=

2009
(Oct)

4,936

720

1,003

29

135

169

437

40

53

420,3444,540
/=

TOTAL

40,183

14,990

9,656

893

2,252

1,017

-

184

309

86,951,894,206
/=

DPP was still having 72 files of corruption cases pending for consent to prosecute out of 133 files
that was sent during this year, data as up to 20
th

November, 2009.

PCCB: Regional perspective

Country
Bribery
incidence (%)
Rank
Kenya
45
1
Uganda
35
2
Tanzania
17
3

The
Transparency International (TI) report released

on

2
nd

July
2009 has named Tanzania as the least corrupt nation in the East
African region, with Kenya topping the list for having the highest
incidence of bribes.


According to the East African bribery index 2009 report Tanzania
remains the least bribery
-
tainted in East Africa with a corruption
incidence of 17%.

Transparency International CPI Score from
1998


2009 for Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda

0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Score out of 10

Years

Tanzania
Kenya
Uganda
…Transparency International CPI Score of
2009: Why Tanzania has dropped?

1.
These are just perceptions, they do not necessarily
represent the real factual situation on the ground.

2.
For the past three years some of the print Media had
reported continuously on corruption issues to the extent that
as if nothing is being done by the government in curbing
corruption.

3.
The instrumentalities to gather data used by Transparency
International are predominantly based on business people
perceptions whether the country is conducive for investment
and doing business. Such objectives are not necessarily the
best measurement of the extent of corruption in the country
though the data can not be ignored.

4.
Mistrust between and among other stakeholders which
needs to be reversed by working together and open up
communications and consultations.



No.

East Africa Rank

Overall Score

Overall Rank in Africa

1

Seychelles

77.1

3

2

Tanzania

59.2

12

3

Kenya

53.7

22

4

Uganda

53.6

24

5

Comoros

48.6

31

6

Rwanda

48.5

32

7

Djibouti

46.0

36

8

Ethiopia

45.6

37

9

Burundi

45.3

38

10

Eritrea

37.0

46

11

Sudan

33.4

49

12

Somalia

15.2

53

2009 Mo Ibrahim Foundation Index of
East African Countries’ Governance

Regional perspective Index

This can be attributed to:


Significant internal efforts to reduce
corruption


Existence of mechanism to report corruption;


Political will on the fight against corruption;


Behavioral change of citizens due to
awareness campaigns;


Participation of more stakeholders in
NACSAP II.


Enabling laws against corruption.


Progress of NACSAP II Implementation



The National Anti
-
Corruption Strategy and Action Plan
II(NACSAP II) was launched on Dec 10, 2006


NACSAP II (2008
-
2011) aims to set up, organize, and
mainstream a sustainable mechanism and responses
against corruption.


Also aims to address NACSAP I challenges by becoming
more focused, robust, relevant and inclusive.


NACSAP is the main vehicle that the Government is using
in its efforts in preventing corruption before it occurs.


NACSAP II is supported by UNDP and GoT (financially and in
kind respectively)


NACSAP II Implementation



The key executing agencies of NACSAP II are:


PCCB (day to day management and implementation of
NACSAP II)


GGCU (Monitoring and Evaluations);


DPP;


Others: MDAs, private sector, LGAs and the CSOs.


The overall policy and strategic guidance to
NACSAP implementation is vested in the National
Steering Committee, whose membership has
been widened and inclusive.


NACSAP II


8 goals



Goal 1: Combat corruption in a more scientific way and by
addressing its root causes


Goal 2: Ministries, Departments and Agencies of government.


Goal 3: Local Government Administration (LGA)


Goal 4: The Private Sector into anti
-
corruption.


Goal 5: CSOs and Non State Actors (i.e. media and FBOs)


Goal 6: Raise public awareness of anticorruption.


Goal 7: Build Synergy between NACSAP and Legislative and Judicial
Integrity Programmes.


Goal 8: Enhance the capacity of PCCB, GGCU and DDP to deal with
corruption, manage and implement NACSAP II

NACSAP II Achievements


Goal 2:
MDAs


All 25 ministries, 35 Departments, and 68 Agencies have established
a total of 128 Integrity Committees.


Trained 559 members of ICs, (150 females (26%)) on
corruption and ethics (8 departments and 7 agencies are yet
trained).


Functionality of ICs will be evaluated during an M&E review
mechanisms


All MDAs were trained on how to develop anti corruption
action plans, complaints handling mechanisms, Client Service
Charter and how to fill out the quarterly reports for submission
to GGCU.


Currently Prison Department has started training its officers on
issues of ethics and the PCCA.


The Police Force is also planning to establish ICs at all levels.

NACSAP II Achievements


Goal 2:
MDAs

Progress under Goal 2:


Development of M&E framework to ensure regular
integrity monitoring meetings is currently under
progress with assistance of the M&E consultant.


PPRA is to hire consultant to train MDAs on PPA


Challenges and way forward:


Ensure that the MDAs are producing regular reports
with the establishment of M&E System;


Speed up implementation with delayed funding from
UNDP

NACSAP II Achievements Goal 3: LGAs


Integrity Committees (ICs) have been formed in 132 of the
133 LGAs with the initial 4 members per IC.


To date only 104 members of 532 have been trained (in
Corruption and ethic infrastructure and on their role and
responsibility) representing a 20% coverage;


So far it is noted that only 11 LGAs have all the required 4
members trained, 3 LGAs have at least 3 members trained,
17 LGAs have at least 2 members trained, 17 LGAs have at
least 1 member trained, and 84 LGAs have no member
trained.


So far only 15 LGA ICs met at least once since formation
while a few managed to meet more than once. (A total of 24
IC meetings held since formation and 118 ICs have never
met).

…NACSAP II Achievements


Goal 3:
LGAs


On reporting only 4 integrity committee wrote at least 1
quarterly report and the rest did not.


It is noted that only 40 LGAs (30%) have managed to
introduce the client service charter.


It is also noted that only 19 LGAs have prepared anti
-
corruption action plans for use in their fight against
corruption.



It is pleasing to note that all the LGAs have suggestion
boxes as away of having a complaints handling system.
However, no any LGA has managed to introduce hot line
system nor whistle
-
blowing system. The NACSAP
Secretariat will work with LGAs to ensure that this is done.

…NACSAP II Achievements
-

Goal 3:
LGAs


It is also pleasing to note that about 85 LGAs
allocated a total of TSS 2,247,441,327.00 for
good governance activities in their respective
council budgets.

Challenges and way forward:


Keep IC working and delivering.


Most figures are below expectation because
the implementation of this goal delayed due
to various reasons including Local
Government elections; late disbursement of
funds from UNDP.

NACSAP II Achievements


Goal 4

Goal 4:
Mainstream and empower Private Sector into anti
corruption. Achievements:


A total of 36 members from 13 identified business and corporate
associations from DSM, Coastal region, Tanga, Kilimanjaro, Arusha
and Manyara were trained on
Corruption and ethics infrastructure

and
The role of Private sector in implementing NACSAP II.



A total of 96 women entrepreneurs (members of Tanzania Women
Chamber of Commerce) from across the country were sensitized on
The NACSAP II

and
The role of Private sector in implementing
NACSAP II.

The funding for this activity was covered by ILO
exhibition activities (NACSAP took advantage)


A total of 47 members from 19 identified business and corporate
associations across Tanzania were trained on
Corruption and
Corporate governance
. (Cost sharing arrangement with TPSF)

…NACSAP II Achievements

Goal 4: Challenges and the way forward
.


Due to delayed disbursement of funds most activities
earmarked for the second quarter (March to June 09) were
not carried out. Consequently most activities were carried
over to the final quarters of the year (July to Dec 2009).


The on
-
going M&E consultancy will produce its final report in
February 2010.


Yet to organize a workshop, special Radio and TV programmes
to create awareness on corporate social responsibility.


Start preparation for the establishment of the Integrity Pact
for businesses and corporate associations.

NACSAP II Achievements

Goal 5: Mainstream and empower CSOs and Non State Actors
into anti corruption processes.
Achievements so far:


27 representatives of CSOs were trained on Ethics, corruption
and Roles of ICs. 90% of expected participants attended. (19%
were female)


42 religious leaders from various FBOs were trained on ethics,
corruption and roles of ICs


Civil Society Organizations had formed Civil Society Coalition
on Anti
-
corruption held at VETA
-
MOROGORO ON 02
ND

TO
03
RD

NOVEMBER 2009,


30 CSOs participated.

…NACSAP II Achievements

Goal 5: Mainstream and empower CSOs
Challenges:


Need to organize the NGOs into a unique anti
-
corruption network;


Need to link CSOs with the LGAs


Need to develop a reporting systems and
commitment since CSOs have own reporting
obligations

NACSAP II Achievements

Goal 6:

Raise public awareness of anticorruption.

The
achievements so far:


A total of 232,227 Educational materials have been distributed to the
general populace including newsletters and leaflets;


PCCB organized (7) TV and Radio (76) programmes as part of
awareness campaign and sending out specific messages;


Several press conferences (1) and press releases (13) were held on
specific issues;


The media has also been instrumental in publishing corrupt activities
in various forms (print, electronic etc);


The CSOs have also assisted PCCB in the distribution of
educational materials especially during the LG elections;


The PCCB website has also been instrumental in sending out
messages to the general public.
www.pccb.go.tz

NACSAP II Achievements

Goal 7:

NACSAP, Legislature and Judiciary

The
achievements so far:


109 Parliamentarians from APNAC

TZ Chapter trained on ethics,
roles of ICs and Corruption (33% were women)


Trained 11 judges of the Court of Appeal and High Court and
other judicial officers


NACSAP II Achievements

Goal 8: Enhance the capacity of PCCB, GGCU and Director of
Public Prosecution to deal with corruption, manage and
implement NACSAP.

Activities accomplished:


11 members of the NSC trained in Ethics, Corruption and roles
of Ics.


M&E training for 3 PCCB and 3 GGCU staff;


Continuous building of organizational capacity for the PCCB,
GGCU, and DPP (including logistical support);


Capacity of PCCB, GGCU, and DPP for data collection, analysis,
and reporting on corruption: the M&E Consultancy in
progress.


Support periodic National Diagnosis Studies of Governance
and Corruption (one survey completed


later presentation).

Progress of NACSAP II Implementation

Major General/overall key challenges and the way
forward


Cooperation with other key stakeholders/players
for this common purpose is deficient;


Need for expeditious responses from Mutual
Legal Assistance responses;


Lack of clear focus and understanding by some
players within NASCSAP implementation
spectrum;




NATIONAL GOVERNANCE AND CORRUPTION
SURVEY


The survey was done by FACEIT


Financial assistance from DANIDA



Purpose of the Survey
:


Solicit information from citizens, public officials and
chiefs of enterprises and fostering public awareness
about national governance and corruption issues,


Provide an empirical benchmark and basis for
monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of
government’s governance and anti


corruption
programmes over time.

Key findings


Understanding of Corruption: Most people understand
corruption as Demand for Unofficial Payment (92.5%); as
compared to demand for sex (29.4%) or abuse of power (25.9%)


Causes of corruption: Most people feel that the main causes of
corruption are greed/selfishness, (96%) followed by moral
indecency (92%) to Lack of control and accountability of public
officials (88%)


Perception: Most people agree that corruption is beneficial
provided you do not get caught (57%); some feel that following
laid down procedures in too costly and time wasting (51%) and a
few feel that bribery is practically necessary for getting things
done (31.1%). (There is still need to improve service delivery and
improve awareness).


Initiation of corruption: Most people feel the service provider
initiates corruption (76.3%) while 15.6% feel that individuals
decides to offer a payment on own accord

...Key findings


Reporting: 66.8% of people think that people who report
corruption end up suffering most (fear of reporting is
eminent) and 73% feel that they can not receive protection
after reporting corruption, while 50% believe that there is
no need to report since nothing will be done on the culprit.


In the same vain 66.7% even if reported, the case cannot be
proved while 50% think that they do not want to betray
anyone.


Circumstances: 39% encountered a situation where they
were supposed to give something in which


86% were asked to give money


7% property


6% sexual favours


50.3% of private sector bosses were found in situation of
corrupting, while 49.7 % said no.





...Key findings


Extent of corruption (worst institutions)

1.
Most corrupt is Traffic police (66.4%)

2.
Then Police Force (64.7)

3.
Then Judiciary (59%)

4.
Health institutions (39.5)%

5.
Local Land Tribunal (26.7%)

6.
TRA (25%)2

...Key findings


Effective (very) Institutions to fight corruption;

1.
FBOs (50.1%)

2.
PCCB (46.6%)

3.
Media/Press (44.1%)

4.
Police Force (29.4%)



Ineffective Institutions to fight corruption

1.
Traffic Police (59.3%)

2.
Opposition Parties (22.8%)

3.
Members of Parliament (21.2%)

4.
Academics and teachers (12.9%)





Procurement Process


Views of enterprises if Procurement tenders are
awarded in a clear and efficient manner:


50.2% say it is rarely done;


18.2% is never done;


22.6% sometimes and


9% is always done

Monitoring and Evaluation [M & E]


What is monitoring: Monitoring is a continuing function that uses the
systematic collection of data on specified indicators to provide evidence of
progress and achievement of objectives.


The objective of M&E in NACSAP is to ensure that progress in the
anticorruption initiatives of the country is periodically measured using
reliable and accurate performance indicators in order to enhance public
confidence in the country’s accountability systems.


This will be achieved by:


Tracking and recording the on
-
going implementation of national anti
-
corruption efforts to continuously assess progress;


Build on lessons learned from the on
-
going implementation of
national anti
-
corruption efforts in order to take timely remedial
measures and actions in the process;


Ensure accountability and assess the overall efficiency, effectiveness,
impact and sustainability of anti
-
corruption initiatives;



Rationale for M & E in NACSAP



NACSAP
II as a national plan that aims to help set up,
organize, and mainstream a sustainable response
against corruption across all
sectors needs robust
reporting requirements


There is need to track, record and build on lessons
learned from the on
-
going implementation of
national anti
-
corruption efforts.


This
could only be achieved through the
establishment of
a comprehensive
M&E
Framework,
hence the consultancy on M&E.

Anticipated Benefits of M & E



M&E results to provide accurate and reliable
information on the status of corruption and anti
-
corruption efforts in Tanzania


M&E results to support recommendations for a more
effective and efficient implementation of efforts to
curb corruption.


Support the evaluation of the effectiveness of national
prevention initiatives within the NACSAP framework.


Help ensure transparency and accountability of
NACSAP II activities.


Key players: PCCB, UNDP, GGCU, NACSAP II & Swedish
Embassy (DPs)

The current M & E Efforts in combating
corruption



The National Steering : Review and approve annual work
-
plans and
budgets;


NACSAP Secretariat: Develop plans and produce progress reports;


GGCU: relate to MDAs and consolidate quarterly reports;


National Anti
-
corruption forum: Annual discussion of anticorruption
issues by all integrity organizations and stakeholders;


NACSAP
Implementing partners: Not yet producing consistent
reports to NACSAP.


NACSAP
Coordinators: Coordinating activities at regional levels
focusing on
LGAs


The reports that reach the NACSAP Secretariat are not received
directly from the originating offices.

Observations and recommendations on the
current M & E set up



Other
NACSAP goals especially CSOs, LGAs, Judiciary and
DPP have not yet developed direct reporting systems. Need
bridge gap.


It takes too long for the GGCU to receive reports from
MDAs
(Capacity
building & improved systems;


There is need
to
simplify
Reporting formats and develop
new ones where unavailable;


Need to isolate
indicators of progress that can be reported
directly to NACSAP II Secretariat for the tracking of project
specific achievement of progress;


Need to build capacity of Local Governments, GGCU, CSOs,
Private Sector on Monitoring and Evaluation

NACSAP M & E Framework: Basic
components



Introduction to M&E: Definitions, NACSAP
Objectives, goals and
activities and Objectives
and scope of the M and
E;


NACSAP
Performance monitoring indicators that will measure
progress in anti
-
corruption initiatives in each goal and beyond;


Definition of Sources
of information on each performance
indicator (matrix
) including responsibilities for data collection
and analysis


Mode/methods of collecting information for each indicator
(matrix);


Established Baselines and targets for each indicator (matrix);


Data Management and Progress Reporting (matrix and guide);


Mechanisms for feedback and follow
-
up actions (matrix and
guide); and


Guides for undertaking Periodic Evaluations and Surveys


M & E Overview



Reports

Action



NACSAP Implementers
(PCCB, CSOs, MDAs, LGAs,
Private Sector, DPP

Feedback, learning, impact, repositioning

Feedback, learning, repositioning


The NACSAP
M&E
FW

(GGCU)


Data

Outputs

Indicators

For LGAs the following will be monitored




Number of projects being implemented, visited and assessed in
the region by type and source of funding (and if in line with the
schedule/bills of quantities),


Sound procurement management with the Council Tender
Boards (ratings of the procurement assessment criteria)


Existence and functionality of the Council Integrity Committees;
Client Service Charter; complaints handling and hotline systems;
and Code of conduct/ethics;


Timely production of accurate reports capturing (cases handled,
status of cases (number of cases under processing), trainings
conducted, IEC materials distributed, research focus areas
covered, follow up actions of previous reports);


Performance and activeness of CSOs in conducting PETS; and


General reduction in corruption by districts (refer to the recent
outcomes of the corruption survey).

General Conclusion


The statistics available shows that the fight against corruption
is on course in the country.


Tanzania is making a remarkable progress in fighting
corruption.


Tanzania is the only African Country that has completed the
UNICAC review mechanism, (for more information, the
report can be accessed on
www.pccb.go.tz
)


The fight against corruption requires the cooperation of all
stakeholders such as DPs, Private Sector, Parliament, CSOs,
the media, Judiciary, the Executive and others.


No Single entity/sector can claim to have overcome
corruption without the cooperation from other
entities/sectors.


The culture of impunity must be fought and be replaced by
the culture of integrity.


Change of the mind
-
set is key to inculcate the
new culture of integrity.


Corruption is everywhere and no single
country is spared by the scourge.


MLA and International cooperation remains
one of the biggest challenges in finalizing
grand corruption cases.

…General Conclusion



Thank you
for your attention!