Ambient Networks: Mobile Communication

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12 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Ambient Networks: Mobile Communication
Beyond 3G

Anders Gunnar

Swedish Institute of Computer Science

anders.gunnar@sics.se

Guest lecture in the course Distributed Systems

Uppsala University

2006
-
12
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IP based core network

Networked services

IMT
-
2000

UMTS

WLAN

cellular

GSM

Edge networks

Wireline

xDSL

DAB

DVB

Return channel

:

Download

channel

Services and

Applications

New air

interface

Bluetooth, IR,

UWB, Mesh

Sensor, M2M, Dust

The Network Vision

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Ambient Networks Strategic
Objectives


Scalable & Affordable

networking supporting the
dynamics of wireless access



Provide
rich & easy to use

communication services
for all in a
cost effective

manner



Increase
competition

and dynamic
cooperation
of
various players



Allow
incremental market introduction

of new
technologies

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Network Challenges in the
Wireless World


Heterogeneity


Terminal ===========


偁Ps


Vertical ===========


H潲楺潮o慬a污l敲楮i


Network intelligence ==

䕤来


Cellular vs. IP


Multi
-
service,
-

operator,
-

access


Affordability


User in the centre


Trust Model


Always connected



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Outline


The Ambient Networks Concept


Components of the Architecture


Technical Solutions


Node ID Architecture


Project organisation


Project Partners


Timeline



Organisation


Summary

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The Ambient Networks Concept

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Requirements posed on the

AN Architecture

1.
Heterogeneous Networks

2.
Mobility

3.
Composition

4.
Security and Privacy

5.
Backward Compatibility and Migration

6.
Network Robustness and Fault Tolerance

7.
Quality of Service

8.
Multi
-
Domain Support

9.
Accountability

10.
Context Communications

11.
Extensibility of the Network Services Provided

12.
Application Innovation and Usability


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Ambient Control Space

3G

Fixed

LTE

WLAN

4G

Corporate

The Ambient Networks Idea

Ambient Networks:

-

Common Control Services

-

Networks at the edge

-

Auto
-
configuration

-

Scalability

Services

Services

Services



PAN

VAN

Ambient Connectivity

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The Ambient Control Space

Ambient

Connectivity


Security

P2P

Management

Multi
-
Radio

Resource

Management

Agreement

Establishment

Context

Information

Overlay

Support

Layer

Advanced

Mobility

Management

Ambient

Network

Interface

Ambient

Network

Interface

Ambient

Service

Interface

Ambient

Resource

Interface

Ambient Control Space

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Ambient

Connectivity


Naming

Traffic

Engineering

Multi
-
Radio

Resource

Management

Agreement

Establishment

Context

Information

Overlay

Support

Layer

Routing

Group

Information

Ambient

Network

Interface

Ambient

Service

Interface

Ambient

Resource

Interface

Framework Functions


Concurrently operating functions communicate through
messages



Logically centralized
registry

for information aggregation

and dissemination



Conflict

resolution

and consistency

maintenance

Message

Passing

Resource

Registry

Conflict

Resolution

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ARI

Ambient Connectivity

ASI

Ambient Applications

ANI

To other ANs

CIB

------------

Resource

Registry

Comp.

Agreem.

---------

Policy

& AAA

Trigger & Context

Management

Connectivity Mgmt

Generic Link Layer

Network

Management

Security domain

Management

INQA & SLA

Management

Bearer & Overlay


Management

Mobility

Management

Flow Management

& MRRM

Triggers /

Advertisements

Composition Coordination

Composition Agreement Negotiation

Composition

Management

Active Sets

configure Onode

Realisation Architecture


of the Ambient Control Space

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Composition

Concepts


A network composition is the negotiation and the
realization of a cooperation agreement among
diverse Ambient Networks.



Composed Ambient Networks cooperate, and appear
as a single Ambient Network to the outside.



The composition procedure is typically plug&play.

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Composition Networking

Example 1

PAN

PAN

PAN

Ambient Networks composing to
form an ad
-
hoc AN scenario, flat
composition


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Composition Networking

Example 2

PANs compose with a moving
network which provides
connectivity to a cellular
network


PAN

PAN

Cell.

Train

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Composition Networking

Example 3

Customers can roam into
networks where operators have
made no agreements before

PAN

PAN

Op 1

Op 2

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AN

bootstrapping

Ambient Network Node (ANN)



Embodies one or more Functional Entities of the ACS



It is required to implement a
basic ACS
, which encompasses a basic set of


Functional Entities

including plug&play management, basic security


(incl. ID management), and continuous connectivity



Exposes a
basic ANI

to allow communication inside the cluster of ANNs

Bootstrapping

Ambient Network (AN)



Embodies all mandatory Functional Entities of the ACS (
a minimum ACS
)



“Composition” is a mandatory Functional Entity, which also contains the


necessary
AN
-
ID

used to identify the legal entities in a Composition Agreement



Exposes a
minimum ANI



An AN is required to implement a
minimum ACS

and a
minimum ANI
, but not


limited to it

Composition

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Composed AN

ID

ANN

Basic ANI

ANN

ANN


ANN

ID

AN

AN

ANI

Bootstrapping/Composition

ANN

ANN


ANN

ID


ANN

ID

Basic ANI

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Composition

Processes and Procedures


The process of Ambient Network Composition can be applied
recursively.


Composed network may compose again.


An Ambient Networks may take part multiple different composed
networks concurrently.



Three basic phases


Attachment


Agreement negotiation


Agreement implementation and maintenance



Procedures of composition identified so far:


Composition creation/ extension


Composition Agreement modification


Decomposition



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The Node ID Architecture


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Goals for the

Node ID Architecture


Working across heterogeneous domains


Treat dynamic changes in a scalable manner


A consistent architecture


Make technologies, address domains and
middleboxes first
-
order components of the
architecture


Support privacy, denial
-
of
-
service protection, and an
always
-
on security model


Strong incentives for migration and deployment


Significant benefits for adopters even during partial
deployment

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Node ID Architecture Overview

IP

Transport

Applications

L2

L1

OLD


Old assumptions
:


Point
-
point connectivity


Trusted environment


No mobility


No multi
-
homing


Best effort

NEW


New assumptions:


Multi
-
point connectivity


Untrusted environment


Mobility


Multi
-
homing


QoS

Node

ID

Transport

Applications

L2

L1

IPvX/L3

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Node ID Arcitecture Details


The key design elements of the node ID
architecture are


Independent LDs


Reliance on self
-
managed, cryptographic NIDs


Hybrid routing (locator+NID)


Router referrals to avoid a single administration


NID
-
based e2e security, privacy, and DoS
-
protection


Integrated local, e2e and network mobility

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Security


Initial handshake (~ HIP) provides an always
-
on
security model; subsequent packets are protected


The handshake also has basic DoS protection


Additionally, nodes can manage their NIDs and NID
routers in a Hi3
-
like manner to provide network
-
based DoS protection


NIDs can be changed on the fly for privacy reasons,
and NID routers provide location privacy

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Assumption 1


The network consists of individual Locator
Domains (LDs)


LD is one routing domain using (a) the same
locator namespace and (b) consistent routing
system


Within an LD nodes can freely communicate,
without relying on external mechanisms


For simplicity think of AN=LD


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Assumption 2


Connectivity between LDs is dynamic


Routing changes, multi
-
homing or mobility events
of nodes or networks

We assume that there exists a stable core and

mobility occurs at the edge

Core network

LD1

LD2

LD3

LD4

LD6

LD7

LD9

LD10

LD5

LD8

LD12

LD13

LD11

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Assumption 3


No distinction between hosts and routers


Traditional hosts can become routers, such as
when a phone becomes the router for a PAN
attached to the phone


Servers that act as forwarding agents for mobility
purposes


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Hybrid Routing


We have routing on the LD internally (e.g. OSPF) as
well as routing on NIDs by the NID routers


This allows us to benefit from internal routing and
scales better


Still, handling NID routing in a completely free form
topology would be challenging


As a result, we assume a core and default routes up;
a tree
-
like structure emerges


Different routing problems in (a) edge trees (b) core



Use a routing hint to reduce routing state:


A hint to somewhere where the location of a Node ID
is known!?


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The Routing Hint

A hint to somewhere where the location of a
Node ID is known!?


Destination = NR3

IPv4 Header

Node ID Header

ESP Payload

Destination NID = A

Destination NR = NR4

...

...

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Establishing connectivity

LD 3

LD 4

LD 2

LD 1

LD 5

LD 6

CN

A

B

NR 1

NR 2

NR 3

NR 4

NR 5

NR 6

DNS/Naming Resolution X


A.LD1.com


NID_A


NID_NR3

Lookup (default path)

Core NID router lookup service (DHT, table…)

The Node ID architecture so far

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Mobility and

Multi
-
homing


Integrates local mobility, end
-
to
-
end mobility,
and network mobility


Even makes network
-
based multi
-
homing
possible















A

A

B

(a)















A





A

B

(b)

(c)















A

B

A

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Routing Enhancements



Route on LD_ID’s instead of NID’s


Enable use of multiple paths to core


Capability aware routing


Registration vs new routing protocol


Disconnected operation

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Project Organisation


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Project Partners

Ericsson

KTH

SICS

TeliaSonera

NICTA

Univ.of South Wales

Elisa

Ericsson

Nokia

VTT

Telenor

TNO

Budapest University

Ericsson

France Telecom

Nortel

Alcatel

DaimlerChrysler

DoCoMo Eurolab

Ericsson

Fraunhofer FOKUS

Lucent

RWTH Aachen University

Siemens

TU Berlin

Siemens Austria

Critical Software

INESC Porto

BT

Lucent

NEC

Roke Manor Research

UCL

Univ. of Surrey

Vodafone

Telefonica

Univ. of Cantabria

CFR

Siemens Mobile

Univ.of Ottawa

Concordia Univ.

Vodafone

Greece

Siemens ANF Data

AGH University

Ericsson

KTH

SICS

TeliaSonera

NICTA

Univ.of South Wales

Elisa

Ericsson

Nokia

VTT

Telenor

TNO

Budapest University

Ericsson

France Telecom

Nortel

Alcatel

DaimlerChrysler

DoCoMo Eurolab

Ericsson

Fraunhofer FOKUS

Lucent

RWTH Aachen University

Siemens

TU Berlin

Siemens Austria

Critical Software

INESC Porto

BT

Lucent

NEC

Roke Manor Research

UCL

Univ. of Surrey

Vodafone

Telefonica

Univ. of Cantabria

CFR

Siemens Mobile

Univ.of Ottawa

Concordia Univ.

Vodafone

Greece

Siemens ANF Data

AGH University

Financed by the European Commission (50%)

Budget: 20 000 000 EURO

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Timeline of the Project

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Establishing the

Ambient Networks

Concept and its

Feasibility

Technology

Development

System Synthesis

Work

-

Areas

IV:

Prototyping

and Validation

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

I: Concepts

and

Architecture

I: Concepts

and

Architecture

II: Key

II: Key

Technical

Problems

Problems

III: Business

Interfaces and

Commercial

Viability

III: Business

Interfaces and

Commercial

Viability

Establishing the

Ambient Networks

Concept and its


Feasibility

Technology

Development

System Synthesis

Work

-

Areas

IV:

Prototyping

and Validation

Concepts &

Architecture Design

Concepts &

Architecture Design

Architecture:

Scalability,

Evolvability

Architecture,

Standards

Architecture:

Architecture,

Standards

Usability/Networks

Test Cases

Usability/Networks

Prototypes

Business Feasibility

Business Interfaces

Market Dissemination

Optimisation for

Performance

and Deployment

Detailed Specification,

Technical Development,

Performance

Feasibility,

Functions of AN

Control Space

Integration across

WWI,

Validation,

Market

Dissemination

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Structure of Work in Phase 2

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Summary


AN project provides a new networking concept


AN Highlights


Composition


Modular ACS


ASI, ANI, ARI


Phase 2 will provide a comprehensive A N
prototype


This talk is available at :

http://www.sics.se/~aeg/talks/uppsala061205.ppt


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Further Reading

Project web page:

http://www.ambient
-
networks.org

Deliverable:

D 1.5 AN Framework Architecture

Paper:

"A Node Identity Internetworking Architecture",
Bengt Ahlgren, Jari Arkko, Lars Eggert and Jarno
Rajahalme.
9th IEEE Global Internet Symposium

,
Barcelona, Spain, April 28
-
29, 2006.

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Master thesis project




www.sics.se/cna/exjobb.html

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Thank you for your attention!!!