Falcon-Barroso

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14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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The



Project


Mapping the Stellar Kinematics of Nearby Galaxies

J. Falc
ó
n
-
Barroso


Collaborators:


M. Balcells, A. Vazdekis, and the
SAURON

Team


PIs:



R. Bacon
(
Lyon
)
, R.L. Davies
(
Oxford
)
, P.T. de Zeeuw
(
Leiden
)


CoIs:



M
.

Bureau
,

M
.

Cappellari,

E
.

Emsellem,

J
.

Falc
ó
n
-
Barroso
,

D
.

Krajnovic,

H
.

Kuntschner,

R
.

McDermid,

R
.
F
.

Peletier



Associates:



R
.

van

den

Bosch,

Y
.

Copin,

K
.

Fathi,

K
.

Ganda,

B
.

Gerken,

J
.

de

Jong,

E
.

Jourdeuil,

B
.

Miller,

G
.

Monnet,

M
.

Sarzi,

T
.

Statler,

G
.

van

de

Ven,

A
.

Weijmans,
...


http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/sauron



The Team

Outline


Integral field kinematic features in early
-
type galaxies


Central disks, KDCs, Kin. Twists, CRCs


Pseudobulges


High spatial resolution stellar kinematics with
OASIS


A detailed study: NGC7332



A
SAURON

look at galaxy bulges


Projects on bulges


Minor
-
axis stellar kinematics (Flat velocity disp. Profiles)



The
SAURON

Bars Project



Conclusions


SAURON Stellar Velocity Fields

Emsellem et al. 2004, MNRAS, in press (astroph/0404034)

Stellar Kin: Central Stellar Disks

(Bureau et al. , Emsellem et al.)

Central Disks:



I: Disky isophotes



V:

Pinched isovelocities


Double
-
hump




:

Max along minor axis


Min along major
-
axis



h
3
:

A
nti
-
correlated with V


Kin. Twists:

(Triaxiality)


V: Kin. twist/misalignment


KDCs:


V: Abrupt kin. twist


Abrupt V change


Peculiarities

Strong/weak:

(NGC4526, 4459)

NGC4526

NGC4459

Stellar Kin.: Kin. Twists and KDCs

Kinematic Twist:

(NGC4477)

KDC:

(NGC4365)

Central Disks:



I: Disky isophotes



V: Pinched isovelocities


Double
-
hump




: Max along minor axis


Min along major
-
axis



h
3
: Anti
-
correlated with V


Kin. Twists:

(Triaxiality)


V
: Kin. twist/misalignment


KDCs:


V
: Abrupt kin. twist


Abrupt V change


Peculiarities

Davies et al. 2001

NGC4477

NGC4365

Stellar Kin.: CRs

Others:

(Crs; NGC3414, 3608)

NGC3414

NGC3608

Stellar Kin.: Others

Others:

(CR; NGC4473, 4550)

NGC4473

NGC4550

Pseudobulges

NGC3384

NGC7457

NGC7457

Flat velocity
dispersion field

NGC3384

Flat velocity
dispersion along the
major axis due to a
central disk

Best candidates for pseudobulges in Pinkney et al. 2003

SAURON and OASIS


SAURON: global kinematics and line
-
strengths


OASIS spatial resolution: zoom
-
in on nucleus


Allows study of orbital structure near central BH

McDermid et al. (2004)

NGC 4382

CD

Central Disks

KT

Kin. Twists

KDC

Kin. Decoupled
cores

CR

Counter
-
rotating
cores

Axi

Axisymmetric
galaxies

EC(/12)

Ellipticals Clusters

5

(9)

6

(9)

2

(3)

1
(1)

3

(6)

EF(/12)

Ellipticals Field

9

(11)

6

(9)

4

(6)

1

(1)

2

(4)

LC(/12)

Lenticulars Clusters

10

(10)

4

(5)

2

(2)

3

(3)

2

(5)

LF(/12)

Lenticulars Field

8

(9)

5

(7)

2

(4)

2

(4)

3

(6)

Total(/48)

32
(39)

21

(30)

10

(15)

7

(9)

10

(21)

Total(%)

67

(81)

44

(63)

21

(31)

15

(19)

21

(44)


Central stellar disks pervasive
(70
-
80%)


KDCs and counterrotation numerous
(>20
-
30%; >15
-
20%)


Non
-

axisymmetries very common
(45
-
60%)


Regular axisymmetric objects not as frequent
(20
-
40%)

Stellar Kin.: Comp. Incidence



Ordinary looking Boxy
-
S0 galaxy


Regular stellar kinematics


(Fisher et al. 1994)



Plateau in the light profile


(Lutticke et al. 2000)



Photometrically detected central disk


(Seifert & Scorza 1996)



Complex gas distribution, showing a
strong counter
-
rotating H


component
and a weak co
-
rotating one.


(Plana & Boulesteix 1996)



Flat H


line
-
strength along major axis


(Bender & Paquet 1999)

A



Case Study: NGC7332

(Falc
ó
n
-
Barroso et al. 2004)

NGC7332

NGC7339

A



Case Study: NGC7332


SAURON FoV

I
-
band major axis light profile

(Peletier & Balcells 1997)




Stellar Kinematics



A Kinematically Decoupled Core



Double
-
peak velocity dispersion



Kinematic Evidence of the Central Disk



Cylindrical Rotation

A



Case Study: NGC7332




Double
-
hump rotation curve

Major
-
Axis



Complex gas distribution in general with


some signs of ordered motion.



Off
-
plane gas clumps



Ionized
Gas Kinematics

A



Case Study: NGC7332




Absorption
Line Strength

Raw

Clean

A



Case Study: NGC7332




Age+Metallicity

Interpretation of the Results:




The presence of a bar



Boxy bulge



Plateau in the light profile



Cylindrical Rotation



Double
-
hump rotation curve



Velocity dispersion profile with a central minimum and a plateau at moderate radii



Strong h
3



V anti
-
correlation (revealing the central disk)



Homogeneous stellar populations (being 4
-
6 Gyr everywhere in the galaxy)





The origin of the gas



A tidal interaction with the neighbour galaxy NGC7339





Evolutionary Scenarios



The bar has certainly affected the evolution of NGC7332



It is also quite possible that interactions played a role in the shaping of NGC7332

A



Case Study: NGC7332


A look at galaxy bulges


Ongoing projects on bulges


24
Sa

bulges (as part of the main survey)


11
S0
-
Sbc

bulges from the Balcells & Peletier
sample


22
Sb
-
Sm

bulges (M. Carollo & R.F. Peletier)

The Balcells & Peletier Sample



A sample of highly inclined (i>50º) nearby
galaxies to look at pure bulges with no disk
contamination.




Photometry of 45 nearby bulges



(Balcells & Peletier 1994)


(Andredakis et al. 1995)


(Peletier & Balcells 1997)


(Balcells et al. 2003, 2004a, 2004b)




Stellar Populations of 19 bulges


(Peletier et al. 1999)


(Falcón
-
Barroso et al. 2002)


(Falcón
-
Barroso et al. 2003a)




Kinematics of 19 nearby bulges



(Falcón
-
Barroso et al. 2003b)


Long Slit spectroscopy (minor axis) of 19 bulges
from the Balcells & Peletier sample



ISIS at WHT (La Palma)



Ca II triplet region



SSP models from Vazdekis et al. 2003 used as
templates for kinematics

Minor
-
Axis Stellar Kinematics in bulges

(Falcón
-
Barroso et al 2003b)


Minor Axis Rotation

Minor
-
Axis Stellar Kinematics in bulges


Rotation in the inner parts


Velocity Dispersion Profiles



Centrally Peaked Profs.




Classical bulges




Large Vel. Disp. Gradient

(


<<0)



Flat Profiles




Bulges dominated by rotation


(Pseudobulges?, Kormendy 1993)




Small Vel. Disp. Gradient


(


~
0)

Minor
-
Axis Stellar Kinematics in bulges


Velocity dispersion gradients

No correlations were found
with bulge luminosity, central
velocity dispersion or S
é
rsic
index
n


Barred or box
-
peanut bulges

Non
-
Barred bulges

Minor
-
Axis Stellar Kinematics in bulges


2 strong barred galaxies observed (Aug 2003)


NGC936


NGC6951

The Bar Project

(
Jourdeuil

et al.)


Scientific Goals


2
D

application

of

the

Tremaine
-
Weinberg

method

to

measure

pattern

speeds

and

quantify

uncertainties

in

1
D

data


Detailed

study

of

the

orbital

structure

using

N
-
body

simulations


Link

between

the

orbital

structure

and

the

stellar

populations

Conclusions


Stellar kinematics exhibits rich variety:


(central disks pervasive; KDCs/CRs numerous; non
-
axisymmetry common)


Number of KDCs/CRs likely to increase with higher spatial resolution (i.e.
OASIS
)



NGC7332 shows evidence for hosting a bar + signatures for recent interactions
(with neighbour galaxy NGC7339?)



Big
SAURON

effort on spiral bulges (3 complementary samples are being studied)


Long slit minor axis stellar kinematics, on the Balcells & Peletier sample, show a wide
range of velocity dispersion profiles


Both, flattened bulges and galaxies with brighter face
-
on disk central surface brightness
showing shallower velocity dispersion profiles



A specific
SAURON

project on barred galaxies has started with the main goal of
studying in detail the orbital distribution its link with stellar populations