Fundamental Physics Notes

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1











Fundamental Physics Notes





Joseph E. Johnson, PhD

Professor of Physics

University of South Carolina



July 24, 2007 Version


































© Joseph E. Johnson 2006 All rights Reserved



2


Fundamental Physics

Table of Contents

Joseph E. Johnson, PhD © 2006

1.

Mechanics

1.1.

Newtonian Mechanics

1.1.1.


Introduction






<CJ

-

1
& SV 1

>

1.1.2.

Kinematics in One Dimension




<CJ

-

2
& SV 2
>

1.1.3.

Kinematics in Two & Three Dimensions



<CJ

-

3
& SV

3
>

1.1.4.

Forces & Newtons Laws of Motion




<CJ

-


4
& SV 4
>

1.1.5.

Uniform Circular Motion





<CJ

-

5
& SV 7
>

1.1.6.

Work & Energy






<CJ

-


6
& SV 5
>

1.1.7.

Momentum and Impulse





<CJ

-

7
& SV 6
>

1.2.

Rotational Mechanics & Gravity

1.2.1.

Rotational Kinematics





<CJ



8

& SV 7
>

1.2.2.

Rotational Dynamics





<CJ

-

9
& SV 8
>

1.2.3.

Gravitation






<CJ

-


4.7, 9.3
& SV

7
>

1.3.

Solids, Fluids, & Waves

1.3.1.

Elasticity







<CJ

-

10.1, 10.7, 10.8
& SV

9
>

1.3.2.

Simple Harmonic Motion





<CJ

-

10
& SV 13
>

1.3.3.

Fluids







<CJ

-


11
& SV 9
>

1.3.4.

Mechanical Waves & Sound




<CJ

-


16
& SV 14
>

1.3.5.


Linear Superposition of Waves, Interference, & Music

<CJ

-

17
& SV 13, 14
>

2.

Thermodynamics

2.1.1.

Temperature & Heat





<CJ

-

12
& SV 10
>

2.1.2.

Transfer of Heat






<CJ

-

13
& SV 11
>

2.1.3.

Ideal Gas Law & Kinetic Theory




<CJ

-

14
& SV 10
>

2.1.4.

Thermodynamics







<CJ

-


15
& SV 12
>

3.

Electromagnetic Theory

3.1.

Electricity

3.1.1.

Electric Forces






<CJ

-


18.1
-
18.5

& SV 15

>

3.1.2.

Electric Field






<CJ

-


18.6
-
18.8
& SV 15
>

3.1.3.


Gauss’ Law






<CJ

-

18.9
& SV 15
>

3.1.4.

Electric Potential & Potential Energy



<CJ

-

19.1
-
19.4
&
SV

16
>

3.1.5.

Capacitance






<CJ

-

19..5
-
19.7
& SV

16
>

3.1.6.


Electric Current & Resistance




<CJ

-


20.1
-
20.7
& SV 17
>

3.1.7.

Direct Electrical Currents





<CJ

-


20.8
-
20.15
& SV 18
>

3.2.

Magnetism

3.2.1.

Magnetic Fields






<CJ

-

21.1
-
21.6
& SV

19
>

3.2.2.

Magnetic Field Source
s





<CJ

-

21.7
-
21.10
& SV 19
>

3.2.3.

Faraday’s Law






<CJ

-

22.1
-
22.6
& SV

20
>

3.2.4.

Induction






<CJ

-

22.7
-
22.10
& SV

20
>

3.2.5.

Alternating Electric Currents




<CJ

-


23
& SV 21
>

3.3.

Electromagnetism

3.3.1.

Maxwell’s Equations





<CJ

-

24.1
-
24.3
& SV

21
>

3.3.2.

Solutio
n in a Vacuum


EM Waves



<CJ

-

24.4
-
24.7
& SV 21
>

4.

Light & Optics

4.1.1.


Reflection of Light & Mirrors




<CJ

-

25
& SV

22, 23
>

4.1.2.


Refraction of Light & Lenses




<CJ

-

26
& SV 23, 25
>

4.1.3.


Interference & Wave Nature of Light



<CJ

-


27
& SV 24
>

5.

Rela
tivity

5.1.1.


Special Relativity





<CJ

-

28
& SV 26
>

5.1.2.


General Relativity & Astrophysics



<CJ

-

28.8 & SV

26
>

6.

Quantum Theory


Atomic, Nuclear, & Particle Physics

6.1.1.


Foundations of Quantum
Mechanics


Particles & Waves

<CJ

-

29
& SV 27
>

6.1.2.


Atomic The
ory






<CJ

-

30
& SV

28
>

6.1.3.


Nuclear Theory & Radioactivity



<CJ

-

31
& SV 29
>

6.1.4.


Elementary Particle Theory




<CJ

-

32
& SV 30
>

7.

Mathematics Background






<CJ

-

1 & Appendix >

8.

Some Useful Numerical Value and Relationships

9.

How to b
est process this material as a Physics Course


CJ = Cutnell & Johnson: Physics 7
th

Edition 2007



ISBN 0
-
471
-
66315
-
8

SV =
Serway & Vuille:
Essentials of College Physics 2007

ISBN

0
-
495
-
11129
-
5


3

Preface


These notes have been comp
iled in order to summarize the core concepts, definitions, terms,
equations, and relationships for an introductory Physics course. My objective is to provide the student with
an outline of the very essentials which are to serve as a guide to my lectures a
nd any of the very well written
texts that are available and to keep the focus on the core ideas as it is easy for a student to become
overwhelmed or lost in the more than one thousand page texts and the massive information that is conveyed
in the lectures
. These notes are the skeletal framework upon which one can attach the rest of the material.


I have separated each chapter or topic into a separate page
thus allowing one to print these pages
from the web for personal use with space for taking ones own

notes during lecture and later with the text in
hand. Each chapter or topic is further divided into three areas: (1) Descriptive, (2) Mathematical, and (3)
Advanced. The ‘Descriptive’ part covers the non
-
mathematical parts that might be covered in a c
ourse
such as ‘Physical Science’ or ‘Physics in the Arts’ that is generally devoid of algebra and trigonometry. The
‘Mathematical’ part covers introductory physics at the level of algebra and trig but without calculus. Such a
course is customary for the
health and biological sciences. Such a course naturally includes the descriptive
level as well. Finally the ‘Advanced’ section of a chapter includes calculus at both the introductory and
advanced level (of vector calculus) along with differential equatio
ns and some use of linear algebra and
matrix theory along with both the descriptive and mathematical sections. I have found that almost all
students today in the biological sciences (pre
-
med, pre
-
dental, …) have had calculus and thus I use the
advanced co
ncepts even in the non
-
calculus course

for edification,

but

I do not test them at
that

advanced
level as I do with the physics, chemistry, geology, mathematics, and engineering students

who all take the
Calculus level course
.


I have used red fonts for
equations and green fonts for numerical values and constants. This allows
their rapid recognition. I often use web
-
available software which I have developed for UNITS conversion
as an environment that allows one to mix units in any valid way thus provid
ing an environment for very rapid
computation. Finally, I also am testing an on
-
line (Internet) prompt
-
response system for tests, quizzes,
homework, polls, and demographic data collection. Both the UNITS and Prompt
-
Response System are in
Beta testing dur
ing the Spring of 2007 in conjunction with my teaching of the Physics 202 (second semester)
course. I am likewise developing on
-
line lectures that can be used as a supplement to my regular class
lectures for additional review and for students who missed

the lecture. These video lectures are designed to
capture a chapter in
no more than 30
minutes

as
I have found that I am able to cover a one hour lecture in
that

time if there are no interruptions,
and
no repeated material
. T
h
is
time is devoted to rapid
ly cov
ering just
the core concepts allowing the student to replay the lecture as is necessary. A version of these lectures for
the IPOD is being made available for downloads.

I intend to modify these lecture notes on a continuous basis using the Internet

site for posting. Thus I
can correct typos and make enhancements as are required to the material. I welcome comments and
suggestions
(at
jjohnson@sc.edu
)
to the general framework of these components

Notes, Vid
eo Lectures,
UN
I
TS software, and

the

Question
-
Response software

all of which can be found at
www.asg.sc.edu










Joseph E. Johnson, PhD







Professor of Physics







University of South Carolina







Columb
ia, SC, 29208











August 18
,

2007










4


F
undamental

Physics

Joseph E. Johnson, PhD © 2006


1.

Mechanics

1.1.

Newtonian Mechanics

1.1.1.


Introduction <CJ chap
1

>

1.1.1.1.

Discussion

1.1.1.1.1.

Units

1.1.1.1.1.1.

One Meter = distance that light travels in a vacuum in
1/299,792,458 s

1.1.1.1.1.1.1.

Sca
les of distance: quark
-
quark, atom, virus, human, earth, to sun, galaxy, universe

1.1.1.1.1.2.

One Kilogram = the mass of a platinum
-
iridium cylinder in Paris

(
mass of 1/1000 of m
3

of water
)

1.1.1.1.1.2.1.

Scales of masses: electron, proton, .. human, planet, star, galaxy

1.1.1.1.1.3.

One Second
= the time of
9,192,631,770 vibrations

of Cesium 133 radiation

1.1.1.1.1.3.1.

Scales of time; light across proton, cesium, lifetime of human, age of earth, universe

1.1.1.1.1.4.

Discuss derived units: m/s, kg/m, m
2

,
m
3


1.1.1.1.1.5.

Correct use of units +
-

only of same types, */ any kinds, tran
scendental functions (dimensionless)

1.1.1.1.1.6.

Unit conversion by form
ing unity with which one can * and

/

1.1.1.1.2.

Powers of 10 & Prefixes

1.1.1.1.3.

Use of the Greek Alphabet as additional symbols

1.1.1.1.4.

Numerical Uncertainty

1.1.1.1.4.1.

Rules for addition and multiplication with numerical uncertain
ty

1.1.1.2.

Mathematical

1.1.1.2.1.

Vector

Addition, Subtraction, & multiplication by a constant


Linear Vector Space

1.1.1.2.1.1.

Graphical method

1.1.1.2.1.2.

ijk method

1.1.1.2.1.3.

Component form: (x, y, z) = (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = x
i


1.1.1.2.2.

Products

1.1.1.2.2.1.

Scalar Product
A * B

=
A
x
B
x

+ A
y
B
y

+ A
z
B
z

=
AB cos


a scalar value)


1.1.1.2.2.2.

Cross Product
(
A
x
B)
i


ijk

A
j
B
k

=
AB sin


in magnitude with direction from RHR


1.1.1.2.3.

The dimension of a space is the number of numbers needed to specify a point.

1.1.1.3.

Advanced

1.1.1.3.1.

Vectors Addition, Subtraction, & multiplication by a co
nstant


Linear Vector Space

1.1.1.3.1.1.

Ordered n
-
tupe Method

1.1.1.3.1.2.

Scalar Product AB cos

Metric Space


1.1.1.3.1.3.

Cross Product AB sin

-


ijk

symbol use



5


1.1.2.

Kinematics in One Dimension


<CJ chap
2

>

1.1.2.1.

Discussion

1.1.2.1.1.

Methodology:

1.1.2.1.1.1.

A single mass moves in three dimensions of spac
e over time

1.1.2.1.1.2.

Motion in three dimensions can be understood as three independent one dimensional motions

1.1.2.1.1.3.

The internal behavior of the single mass can be ignored


its position is at the center of mass

1.1.2.1.1.4.

The ‘state of a particle’ is given by the position and vel
ocity at one instant of time in its motion

1.1.2.1.1.4.1.

Velocity is defined as
v =


x /


t with units of m/s

1.1.2.1.1.4.2.

Acceleration

is defined as a =


v /


t

with

units of m/s
2


1.1.2.1.1.4.3.

Graphical view of v and a

1.1.2.1.1.5.

We seek to predict its motion: given position and velocity at one time, find them in the future

1.1.2.1.2.

Simple problems:

1.1.2.1.2.1.

When velocity is const
ant

1.1.2.1.2.2.

When acceleration is constant

1.1.2.2.

Mathematical

1.1.2.2.1.1.

A single mass moves in three dimensions of space over time x(t)

1.1.2.2.1.2.

We seek to predict its motion:

given x(0) and v(0) then what is x(t) and v(t)


1.1.2.2.1.3.

Define average velocity
v = (x(t)


x(0) ) / t


1.1.2.2.1.4.

Define average
acceleration
a = (v(t)

v(0))/ t


1.1.2.2.2.

Simple problems:

1.1.2.2.2.1.

When velocity is constant

v(t) = v(0) and x(t) = x(0) + v(0) t

1.1.2.2.2.2.

When acceleration is constant

v(t) = v(0) + at

and
x(t) = x(0) + v(0) t + ½ a t
2

1.1.2.2.2.3.

Another equation is obtained on eliminating time:
v
(t)
2



v(0)
2

= 2 a d

where d = x(t)

x(0)

1.1.2.2.3.

Constant gravity problems

1.1.2.2.3.1.

a = g = 9.8 m/s
2

or = 32 f/s
2

1.1.2.2.3.2.

v(t) = 0

at top of motion

1.1.2.2.3.3.

a(t) = a = g all the time

1.1.2.2.3.4.

v(0) = v(t)

when the object
rises and then

falls
back
to the same height

that it originally had

1.1.2.2.4.

Terminal

velocity


of a human 140 mi/hr max drag (spread) and 240 mi/hr minimum dra
g

(standing)

1.1.2.2.5.


1.1.2.3.

Advanced

1.1.2.3.1.1.

Define instantaneous velocity
v = dx(t) / dt


1.1.2.3.1.2.

Define
instantaneous

acceleration
a = dv(t) / dt


1.1.2.3.2.

Simple problems



derive:


1.1.2.3.2.1.

When velocity is constant v
(t) = v(0) and x(t) = x(0) + v t

1.1.2.3.2.2.

When acceleration is constant v(t) = v(0) + at and x(t) = x(0) + v(0) t + ½ a t
2

1.1.2.3.2.3.

Another equation is obtained on eliminating time: v(t)
2



v(0)
2

= 2 a d where d = x(t)

x(0)




6


1.1.3.

Kinematics in Two

& Three

Dimensions


<
CJ chap
3

>

1.1.3.1.

Discussion

1.1.3.1.1.

Graphical view of projectile motion in two dimensions

1.1.3.1.1.1.

Vertical motion is as in one dimension with constant a = g

1.1.3.1.1.2.

Horizontal

motion is as though a =0 and v = constant

1.1.3.1.1.3.

Compare to view of one dimensional motion from a moving car or tr
ain

1.1.3.1.2.

Graphical view of motion in a river or with an air current using vectors graphically

1.1.3.2.

Mathematical

1.1.3.2.1.

Projectile motion using vectors
r
(t) = (x(t) , y(t) ) and v(t) = (v
x
(t) , v
y
(t))

1.1.3.2.1.1.

Vertical motion is as in one dimension with constant a = g

1.1.3.2.1.2.

Horizontal

motion is as though a =0 and had v = constant

1.1.3.2.1.3.

Combined motion of vertical & horizontal

1.1.3.2.2.

Graphical view of motion in a river or with an air current using vectors graphically

1.1.3.2.2.1.

Compound motion by adding vectors of person relative to water and water to ground.

1.1.3.2.2.2.

Determine angle of real motion, angle necessary to stay still, time across water etc

1.1.3.2.2.3.

Combined velocity of airplane & wind velocity

1.1.3.3.

Advanced

1.1.3.3.1.

Derivation of
constant a
cceleration

equations using d
v
/dt =
a

(constant)

1.1.3.3.2.

More complex projectile problems

1.1.3.3.2.1.

Projecti
le which goes over a cliff

1.1.3.3.2.2.

Projectile in moving air



7


1.1.4.

Forces & Newton

s Laws of Motion


<CJ chap
4

>

1.1.4.1.

Discussion

1.1.4.1.1.

Mass as a measure of inertia
, the resistance to acceleration.

-

units of kg

1.1.4.1.2.

Forces are vectors

1.1.4.1.3.

Inertial reference frame

1.1.4.1.4.

Newton

s Laws
:

Fo
rce measured in Newtons Nt = kg m/s
2

1.1.4.1.4.1.

First Law: F=0 implies a =0 and
conversely

1.1.4.1.4.2.

Second Law: F= ma

1.1.4.1.4.3.

Third law F
1
-
>2
=
-

F
2
-
>1

1.1.4.1.5.

Fundamental forces:


1.1.4.1.5.1.

Gravitational (all masses and energy


infinite range) 10
-
39


1.1.4.1.5.2.

Weak (involving leptons and neutrinos,

very short range) 10
-
14


1.1.4.1.5.3.

Electromagnetic (involving charged particles and currents


infinite range) 10
-
2

1.1.4.1.5.4.

Nuclear (range of 10
-
15

m: p & n bound by pions) 1

1.1.4.1.5.5.

Strong (quarks bound by gluons) 10

1.1.4.1.6.

Frictional Force (static & dynamic)

1.1.4.1.7.

Centripetal Force

(
from circular motion with only a change in direction)

1.1.4.1.8.

Elastic force (system near equilibrium as with a spring)


Hooke

s law

1.1.4.1.9.

Force of tension

1.1.4.2.

Mathematical

1.1.4.2.1.

Newton

s Laws

1.1.4.2.1.1.

First Law:
F
=0 implies
a

=0 and
conversely

1.1.4.2.1.2.

Second Law:
F
= m
a


(for constant mass

situations)

1.1.4.2.1.2.1.

More accurately

F
=

p
/

t


1.1.4.2.1.3.

Third law
F
1
-
>2
=
-

F
2
-
>1

1.1.4.2.2.

Forces

1.1.4.2.2.1.

Gravitational Force
F
grav

= G m
1

m
2
/ r
2


and Near the earth

s surface
F
grav

= W

= mg


1.1.4.2.2.2.

Electrical & Magnetic Force
F
em

= q E + q v x B


where
F = k q
1

q
2

/ r
2

1.1.4.2.2.3.

Frictional Force (static & dynamic)

F
fric

=



F
normal



1.1.4.2.2.4.

Elastic Force near equilibrium
F
elas

=
-
kx

where x is the distance from equilibrium

1.1.4.2.2.5.

Centripetal force
F
cen
= m v
2

/r

where r is the radius of curvature

1.1.4.2.2.6.

Force of tension

is equal to the force with which the rope is pulling.

1.1.4.2.2.7.

Equilibrium

as
F
total
= 0


1.1.4.2.3.

Resolution of forces & their vector nature

1.1.4.2.3.1.

Atwood’s Machine

1.1.4.2.3.1.1.

Force of tension

1.1.4.2.3.2.

Incline plane

1.1.4.2.3.2.1.

Without friction


one mass

1.1.4.2.3.2.2.

With friction


one mass

1.1.4.2.3.2.3.

With friction and two masses
-

tension

1.1.4.2.3.3.

Problems with vector force resolution

1.1.4.2.3.3.1.

Problem with rope
stretched horizontally with weight

1.1.4.3.

Advanced

1.1.4.3.1.

Newton’s second law:
F

= d
p
/dt
= d(m
v
)/dt

or when m= const,
F
=md
v
/dt =m
a

1.1.4.3.1.1.


T
hus
for each direction:
F
x

= d
p
x

/ dt
,
etc.



8


1.1.5.

Uniform Circular Motion


<CJ chap
5

>

1.1.5.1.

Discussion

1.1.5.1.1.

Definition of uniform circular moti
on with velocity v and radius r

1.1.5.1.2.

Centripetal (means directed

toward a center) acceleration

1.1.5.2.

Mathematical

1.1.5.2.1.

Period T of circular motion is defined by v = 2

r / T

1.1.5.2.2.

a
cen

= v
2

/ r

thus F
cen
= m a
cen


1.1.5.2.3.

Problem of balancing friction with centripetal forces of a
car driving around a curve


flat road

1.1.5.2.4.

Same problem of car on a curve but with a road that is angled

1.1.5.2.5.

Problem of
satellites

in circular orbit GmM/r
2
= m v
2
/r thus
v = (GM/r)
1/2

1.1.5.2.6.

Artificial gravity using circular motion

1.1.5.2.7.

Problem of pail of water rotated in a

vertical plane

1.1.5.3.

Advanced



9


1.1.6.

Work & Energy


<CJ chap
6

>

1.1.6.1.

Discussion

1.1.6.1.1.

Work requires energy and are often considered synonymous



1.1.6.1.2.

Energy is conveyed from one system to another exactly by the work done.

1.1.6.1.2.1.

More precisely, an increase in energy is always equal

to (and due to) work that is done

1.1.6.1.3.

Work is defined as the force times the distance moved in the direction of work


push a lawn mover

1.1.6.1.4.

The unit of work is the Joule (J) = 1 Nt acting through 1 m i.e. 1J = 1Nt*1m

1.1.6.1.5.

Work and energy are scalar quantities with

no direction and are not vectors.

1.1.6.1.6.

Types of energy:

1.1.6.1.6.1.

Kinetic


energy of motion

1.1.6.1.6.2.

Potential


energy due to position or configuration

1.1.6.1.6.3.

Chemical


stored for possible energy releasing

chemical reactions of atoms and molecules

1.1.6.1.6.4.

Nuclear


stored for possible ene
rgy releasing
nuclear reactions

1.1.6.1.6.5.

Solar &
radiant



energy from light and more generally electromagnetic radiation

1.1.6.1.6.6.

Heat


energy due to the random motion of molecules and constituents

1.1.6.1.7.

Power is defined as the rate of doing work or expending energy

1.1.6.1.7.1.

Energy is o
ften defined in terms of power times time
,

e.g. KWHR = 1000 J/s *3600 s

1.1.6.1.8.

Conservative and nonconservative forces


path independence of work & reversible

1.1.6.2.

Mathematical

1.1.6.2.1.

W =
F

r
= F

r cos




1.1.6.2.2.

Kinetic Energy KE =

W =
F

r

= m (

v/dt)

r = m v

v
thus
calculus will lead to:
KE = ½ mv
2



1.1.6.2.3.

Gravitational Potential Energy

W =
F
grav

r

=
m g


h or
PE = mgh



1.1.6.2.4.

Elastic Potential Energy

W =
F
elas

r

= kx

x
thus calculus will lead to
PE = ½ kx
2


1.1.6.2.5.



1.1.6.3.

Advanced

1.1.6.3.1.

W =
F
dr


and is conservative if this integral i
s path independent (or zero for any closed curve)


1.1.6.3.2.

Kinetic Energy KE = dW =
F
d
r

= m (dv/dt) dr = m v dv
thus KE = ½ mv
2


1.1.6.3.3.

Gravitational Potential Energy dW =
F
grav
d
r

=
m g dh or PE = mgh

1.1.6.3.4.

Elastic Po
tential Energy dW =
F
elas
d
r

= kx dx
thus PE = ½ kx
2



10


1.1.7.

Momentum and Impulse


<CJ chap
7

>

1.1.7.1.

Discussion

1.1.7.1.1.

Impulse is defined as the change in momentum of an object such as a baseball when hit

1.1.7.1.2.

Thus Impulse is a vector quantity and

is often useful when the force is
a
complicated
function of

time

1.1.7.1.3.

Momentum is conserved in a system that has no outside forces acting upon it.

1.1.7.2.

Mathematical

1.1.7.2.1.

Momentum
p

= m
v


1.1.7.2.1.1.

For any system of particles with momentum pi one has

1.1.7.2.1.1.1.


P

/

t
=



p
i
)

/

t=

ji

F
j on i

+

i

F
ext
i


= 0 +
F
ext

total


because
F
j on

i

=
-

F
i on j


1.1.7.2.1.1.2.

Thus if there is no total external force on a system, the internal forces cancel

1.1.7.2.1.1.3.


and thus the total internal momentum is conserved.

1.1.7.2.2.

Impulse =

p

= <F>

t

= the average force ti
me
s

the time

interval.


1.1.7.2.2.1.

Problem of hit baseball, & of rain verses hail on car roof (twice the impulse due to recoil)

1.1.7.2.3.

Elastic collisions:
Total k
inetic energy after collision is same as before collision

1.1.7.2.3.1.

Problem: 1 dimension


must use cons. of both energy &

momentum to compute v
1

& v
2

after

1.1.7.2.3.2.

Example of superball


bounce is essentially to
equal to the
previous height

1.1.7.2.4.

Partially Inelastic collisions: Some k
inetic energy is lost to heat from
the objects colli
sions

1.1.7.2.4.1.

Example of a bouncing ball


loss of KE is exact
ly measured
by

mgh
via
loss in height


1.1.7.2.5.

Totally inelastic collisions: Objects stick together after collision & the maximum possible loss of KE

1.1.7.2.5.1.

When object stick together there is only one v after collision which is obtained by cons. of mom.

1.1.7.2.5.2.

Ballistic pend
ulum (bullet into a block of wood


velocity is obtained by
height
)

1.1.7.2.5.3.

Two football players

where one tackles the other


1.1.7.2.6.

Center of Mass
R

=

i

m
i

r
i

/ M
where
M =

i
m
i

= total mass of the system

1.1.7.2.6.1.

Recall from above that

P

/

t=



p
i
) /

t=

j
i

F
j on i
+

i

F
ext
i

= 0 +
F
ext

total


1.1.7.2.6.2.

Thus

P

/

t=



m
i
r
i

/

t) /

t =
F
ext

total

=


(M
V
)
/


t = M
V

where
V

= velocity of COM

1.1.7.2.6.3.

It also follows

that
P

= M
V

1.1.7.3.

Advanced

1.1.7.3.1.

Momentum
p

= m
v



1.1.7.3.1.1.

For any system of particles with momentum pi one has

1.1.7.3.1.1.1.

d
P

/dt= d


p
i
) /dt=

ji

F
j on i
+

i

F
ext
i

= 0 +
F
ext

total


because
F
j on

i

=
-

F
i on j


1.1.7.3.1.1.2.

Thus if there is no total external force on a system, the inter
nal forces cancel

1.1.7.3.1.1.3.


and thus the total internal momentum is conserved.

1.1.7.3.2.

Elastic collisions: Kinetic energy after collision is same as before collision

1.1.7.3.2.1.

Problem: 2 dimensional



must use cons. of both energy & momentum to compute v
1

& v
2

after

1.1.7.3.2.2.

Example of b
illiard balls

1.1.7.3.3.

Center of Mass
R

=

i

m
i

r
i

/ M

where
M =

i
m
i

= total mass of the system

1.1.7.3.3.1.

Recall from above that d
P

/dt= d


p
i
) /dt=

j
i

F
j on i
+

i

F
ext
i

= 0 +
F
ext

total


1.1.7.3.3.2.

Thus
d
P

/dt= d

m
i
dr
i

/dt) /dt =
F
ext

total

= d (M
V)
/dt

where
V

= d
R
/dt

=velocity of COM

1.1.7.3.3.3.

It also follows

that
P

= M
V



11


1.2.

Rotational Mechanics

& Gravity

1.2.1.

Rotational Kinematics


<CJ chap
8

>

1.2.1.1.

Discussion

1.2.1.1.1.

Definition of angle in radians

= s / r

where s is the arc length subtended & r is the radius

1.2.1.1.1.1.

Thus

cycle

= 2


r / r = 2


radians = 360 degrees

when consid
ering the arc of an entire circle.

1.2.1.1.1.2.

Circular motion restricts the distance to be a constant
value of
r from a given point

1.2.1.2.

Mathematical

1.2.1.2.1.

Define angular velocity


=


/

t

in units of radians per second or rad/s

1.2.1.2.2.

Define angular acceleration


=


/

t

i
n units of radians per second squared or rad/s
2

1.2.1.2.3.

Since

s = r



it follows that

s/

t = v = r


and

v/

t = a = r



1.2.1.2.4.

If


is constant then it follows that



t

in analogy with v = v
0

+ a t for translational motion

1.2.1.2.5.

Likewise it follows that





t + ½


t
2

in analogy with x = x
0

+ v
0
t + ½ a t
2


1.2.1.2.6.

Combining these equations by eliminating t we obtain








1.2.1.2.7.

Centripetal acceleration
a
c
en

= v
2
/r =
r

2

1.2.1.2.8.

Rolling motion problems:
the tangential velocity is equal to the velocity of
the center of the circle

1.2.1.3.

Advanced

1.2.1.3.1.

Define angular velocity


=
d


/
d
t

in units of radians per second or rad/s

1.2.1.3.2.

Define angular acceleration


=
d


/
d
t

in units of radians per second squared or rad/s
2

1.2.1.3.3.

Since

s = r


it follows that
ds/dt = v
tan

= r



and
dv/dt = a
tan

= r



1.2.1.3.4.

If


is constant then
d


=


d
t thus



t in analogy with v = v
0

+ a t for translational motion

1.2.1.3.5.

Then using
d

/
d
t =


we get




t + ½


t
2

in analogy with x = x
0

+ v
0
t + ½ a t
2


1.2.1.3.6.

Combining these equations b
y eliminating t we obtain








1.2.1.3.7.

Vector nature of circular motion uses the RHR to get the direction
s

of


, and




12


1.2.2.

Rotational Dynamics


<CJ chap
9

>

1.2.2.1.

Discussion

1.2.2.1.1.

Just as forces give acceleration in translational motion, torques give angular

acceleration in rotation

1.2.2.1.1.1.

Thus Torque is to rotations as
F
orce is to translations

1.2.2.1.2.

For solid objects and

systems, we can generally express

the motion in translation & rotation

1.2.2.1.2.1.

The translation is of the center of mass while the rotation is about the center o
f mass or an axis

1.2.2.1.3.

Just as translational equilibrium has a net force of zero, rotational equilibrium means no torque

1.2.2.1.3.1.

So equilibrium problems can be solved
by requiring that the total torque (and force) is zero

1.2.2.2.

Mathematical

1.2.2.2.1.

Torque defined

1.2.2.2.1.1.

Imagine a system w
ith one fixed point (an axis or center) and a force is applied a distance
r

away

1.2.2.2.1.2.

Torque


is⁤i湥搠ds⁴桥⁤is瑡tc攠e漠h攠e潲攠e灰licati潮灯i湴ntim敳⁴攠e潲慬⁦潲攬e⁳i渠



1.2.2.2.1.3.

Thus torque is defined as

r x F

with the right hand rule governing the
direction of


1.2.2.2.1.4.

Units of torque are Newtons x meters = Nm

1.2.2.2.1.5.

Equilibrium is defined by


i
= 0 and

F
i
= 0


1.2.2.2.1.6.

Problem: Opening a door

1.2.2.2.1.7.

Problem: Using a lug wrench or screw driver

1.2.2.2.1.8.

Problem: Force to support the end of a bridge


sum of several torques

1.2.2.2.2.

Center of Gra
vity = Center of mass

with weights replacing masses after multiplication by g


prove:

1.2.2.2.2.1.

How to find the center of gravity of an object
-

hanging it from two points (intersection of verticals)

1.2.2.2.3.

Moment of Inertia defined by
I =

i

m
i
r
i
2

with units of kg m
2

1.2.2.2.3.1.



⁸
= r F
nor

= r ma

(but a = r

) thus


= m r
2



which holds for each particle in a system

1.2.2.2.3.2.

Thus for an ensemble of particles


= (

i
m
i

r
i
2

)


= I



1.2.2.2.3.3.

Problem: Moment of inertia for different objects

1.2.2.2.3.3.1.

Solid Sphere
I=2/5 MR
2

; Hollow Sphere
I=2/3 M
R
2

; Solid Cylinder
I=1/2 MR
2


1.2.2.2.3.3.2.

Rod with axis perp to center
I=1/12 ML
2

; Rod with axis perp to end
I=1/3 ML
2


1.2.2.2.3.4.

Problem: Object rolling down a hill

1.2.2.2.4.

Rotational Work (Energy) W =
F

s

=(F
nor

r)


=


thus
W=


1.2.2.2.4.1.

Rotational Ki
netic Energy KE = ½ m v
2

= ½ m v
2

= ½ m r
2


2

thus
KE = ½ I

2

(units = Joules)

1.2.2.2.4.2.

Problem: energy of rotating object

1.2.2.2.4.3.

Problem: total kinetic energy

KE = ½ m v
2

+ ½ I

2

1.2.2.2.5.

Angular momentum:


= r F
nor

= r

p/

t = r m

v
/

t = r mr

/

t =

(I

)/

t

1.2.2.2.5.1.

Define a
ngular momentum =
L = I

then




L
/

t

and compare to
F
=

p
/

t


1.2.2.3.

Advanced

1.2.2.3.1.

Torque is defined


r x F
with the right hand rule in units of Nm

1.2.2.3.2.

Moment of Inertia defined by I =

i

m
i
r
i
2

with units of kg m
2

1.2.2.3.2.1.



⁸
= r F
nor

= r ma (but a = r

) thus


=
m r
2



which holds for each particle in a system

1.2.2.3.2.2.

Thus for an ensemble of particles


= (

i
m
i

r
i
2

)


thus


= I




1.2.2.3.3.

Rotational Work (Energy)
W =
F

d
s

=
(F
nor

r)


=

d


thus W=


1.2.2.3.4.

Angular momentum:


= r F
nor

= r dp/dt = r md
v
/dt = r mr d

/dt = d (I

)/dt

1.2.2.3.4.1.

Define angular momentum =
L = I


then


⁤
L
/dt

and compare to
F
=

d
p
/dt


13




1.2.3.

Gravitation


<CJ chap
4.7, 9.3

>

1.2.3.1.

Discussion

1.2.3.1.1.

Newton’s law o
f gravitation: Every mass attracts every other mass with a force along lines of centers

1.2.3.1.2.

Cavendish
(1731
-
1810) was the first to measure the constant G giving the strength of the force

1.2.3.1.2.1.

G = 6.673E
-
11 Nm
2
/kg
2


1.2.3.1.3.

In 1916 Einstein’s general theory of gravitation s
howed that even energy (eg light) is also attractive

1.2.3.1.3.1.

Furthermore gravity was shown to be a curvature of space and time that altered mass motion

1.2.3.1.3.2.

With black holes, this curvature is so severe that not even light can escape the attraction

1.2.3.2.

Mathematical

1.2.3.2.1.

Newton

s Law of Gr
avitation:
F
1
-
>2
=
-

G m
1

m
2

/ |
r
2
-
r
1
|
2

directed as an attraction along lines of centers

1.2.3.2.2.

Gravity near the surface of a planet: F = m g where for earth g = 9.8m/s = 32 ft/s (approx values)

1.2.3.2.3.

Thus F
1
-
>2
= G m
1

m
2

/ |r
1
-
r
2
|
2


= m (GM/R
2
) = mg (M
is the mass and R is the radius of the earth)

1.2.3.2.4.

Thus g = GM/R
2

is the acceleration due to gravity.

1.2.3.2.5.

The gravitational field is defined as the force on a unit mass:
F/m = g = GM/R
2


1.2.3.2.5.1.

Show mapping of the gravitational field as the force on a unit mass

1.2.3.3.

Adv
anced

1.2.3.3.1.

Newton

s law of gravitation

on m located at
r
:
F
i
-
>
m

= G

m

i
m
i

(
r
i
-
r
) / |
r
i
-
r
|
3


1.2.3.3.2.

Gravitational Field:
:
g
(
r
)

= G

i
m
i

(
r
i
-
r
) / |
r
i
-
r
|
3

in units of acceleration m/s
2




14


1.3.

Solids, Fluids, & Waves

1.3.1.

Elasticity


<CJ chap
10.1, 10.7, 10.8

>

1.3.1.1.

Disc
ussion

1.3.1.1.1.

When systems are distorted from equilibrium, the restoring force is proportional to the deformation

1.3.1.1.2.

Generally:
Stress is proportional to strain within the elastic limit
:

1.3.1.1.2.1.

Young’s Modulus: Stretch & Compression of solid
: F/A = Stress &

L/L
0

is the st
rain

1.3.1.1.2.2.

Shear modulus: Forces which create a shear of solid
: F/A = Stress &

X/L
0

is the strain


1.3.1.1.2.3.

Bulk modulus:
Pressure

on solids, liquids or gasses
: P=F/A = Stress &

V/V
0

is the strain

1.3.1.2.

Mathematical

1.3.1.2.1.

Hookes Law:
F =
-
k x

where a force F causes a proportiona
l deformation x from equilibrium

1.3.1.2.1.1.

The constant k is called the ‘spring constant’

1.3.1.2.1.2.

The potential energy stored in a deformed system is
PE
deformaiton

= ½ k x
2

(=work to deform)

1.3.1.2.2.

Young’s Modulus:
F = Y A (

L/L
0
)

where Y is the Young’s modulus for that subst
ance

1.3.1.2.2.1.

and where A is the area where the force F is applied, and L
0

is the original length

1.3.1.2.2.2.

Examples of values are
Brass: 9.0E10, Brick 1.4E10, Steel 2.0E11
, Aluminum 6.9E10

1.3.1.2.2.3.

Note that in some substances, Y for tension (pulling) is different from Y for compr
ession

1.3.1.2.3.

Shear modulus:
F = S A (

X/L
0
)

where S is the shear modulus for that substance, F is applied force

1.3.1.2.3.1.


A is the surface area,

X the length of the shear, and L
0

is the length of the applied shear

1.3.1.2.3.2.


Examples of values are:
Brass 3.5E10, Steel 8.1E10, Aluminum 2.4E10


1.3.1.2.4.

Bulk modulus:

P =
-
B (

V/V
0
)

where Pressure P = F / A in units of N/m
2

and B is the Bulk modulus

1.3.1.2.4.1.

and

V is the change in volume while V
0

is the
original
volume

1.3.1.2.4.2.

Examples of values are:
Brass 6.7E10, Steel 1.4E11, Water 2.2E9, Ethanol 8.9E8

1.3.1.3.

Advanced

1.3.1.3.1.

The Taylor series
expansion of the potential is
V(x) = V(0) + dV/dx|
x=0

x +1/2 d
2
V/dx
2
|
x=0

x
2



1.3.1.3.1.1.

A solid material
near equilibrium (x=0)
has no force (thus dV/dx|
x=

=0) and we can set V(0)=0

1.3.1.3.1.2.

Thus V(x) = ½ k x
2

in lowest order approximation thus giving F =
-
kx



15


1.3.2.

Simple Harm
onic Motion


<CJ chap
10

>

1.3.2.1.

Discussion

1.3.2.1.1.

Systems distorted from equilibrium and released (without friction), then oscillate about that equilibrium

1.3.2.1.2.

This oscillation has a mathematical form of a sin or cos function and is called simple harmonic motion

1.3.2.2.

Mathema
tical

1.3.2.2.1.

Let a mass m, feel a spring force F=
-
kx where x is the distance from equilibrium. Then:

1.3.2.2.1.1.

ma(t) =
-
kx(t) which has the solution
x(t) = A cos(

t +

)

where

= angular velocity

1.3.2.2.1.2.

For this x(t) to be the solution,


=
must ho
ld


1.3.2.2.1.3.

A is the amplitude of the
oscillation

since cos has a range from
-
1 to +1.

It can assume any value


1.3.2.2.1.4.

The phase of the oscillation =


which can assume any value and is determined by x(t=0)

1.3.2.2.1.5.

A complete cycle occurs by definition in time T and since cos h
as a cycle of 2

, then



=2


1.3.2.2.1.6.

Consequently the period
T =2


This equation is important since it relates T (intuitive) and



1.3.2.2.1.7.

Since the frequency f is the reciprocal of the period,
f = 1/T

, then f =


2



1.3.2.2.2.

The importance of these results are that they d
escribe
ANY system near equilibrium (with

no friction)


1.3.2.2.3.

The derivation of these results requires calculus and the solution of the differential equations.

1.3.2.3.

Advanced

1.3.2.3.1.

S
imple harmonic motion (motion of a mass m near equilibrium) is
given by:
ma(t) =
-
kx(t)

b
v +F
ext

1.3.2.3.1.1.

Put as a differential equation we get:
m d
2
x/dt
2

+ b dx/dt + kx = F
ext

where x = x(t)

1.3.2.3.1.2.

This is one of the most important equations in physics and also is the RCLV circuit equation

1.3.2.3.1.3.

It is a second order (second derivative is highest), linear, inho
mogeneous (F
ext

) differential eq

1.3.2.3.1.4.

The general solution to the inhomogeneous equation (x
gi
(t)) is the general homogeneous (x
g
h
(t))
plus any inhomogeneous solution x
a
i
(t) Thus: x
gi
(t) = x
g
h
(t) + x
a
i
(t)
. We now find each of these.

1.3.2.3.2.

Solution to the general h
omogeneous equation m d
2
x/dt
2

+ b dx/dt + kx = 0 for x
g
h
(t)

1.3.2.3.2.1.

The solution is of the form: x
g
h
(t) = A e

t

which we substitute into the equation to get:

1.3.2.3.2.2.

m

2
A e

t

+ b


A e

t

+ k A e

t

= 0 thus it follows that m

2

+ b


+ k =0 which is a quadratic eq.

1.3.2.3.2.3.

Thus


=
or with
and

then we get

1.3.2.3.2.4.


as the condition for x
g
h
(t) = A e

t

to be the general homogeneous solution.

1.3.2.3.2.5.

There are three types of solutions dependi
ng upon



and


0

:

1.3.2.3.2.5.1.

Overdamped:


>


0


then

1.3.2.3.2.5.2.

Critically damped:


=


0

then

1.3.2.3.2.5.3.

Underdamped:


<

0


then defining
we get

where A and


replace
A & B as the constants

1.3.2.3.2.5.4.

Description of each solution & degenerate case

1.3.2.3.2.6.

Inhomogeneous force that is constant: F = F
0

is solved by adding F
0
/k to solution

x
g
h
(t)

1.3.2.3.2.7.

Inhomogeneous oscillatory force
F = F
0

e
i

1
t


can be solved with

x
a
i
(t) = X

e
i

1
t

& solve for
X:

1.3.2.3.2.7.1.

Upon substitution we get

[m(i

1
)
2

+b(i

1
) +k]Xe
i

1
t
=
F
0

e
i

1
t

1.3.2.3.2.7.2.

Solving for X we get X = (F
0
/m) / (
[ (i

1
)
2

+(b/m)(i

1
) +k/m] thus using


&

0

we get:

1.3.2.3.2.7.3.

X =
(F
0
/m) / (
(

0
2

-

1
2
)+i2

1
) where we must put the complex number in normal form:

1.3.2.3.2.7.4.

(u+iv)
-
1

= (u
-
i
v)/

(u
2
+v
2
)
-
1/2
which we put into the form Re
i


with R = (u
2
+v
2
)
-
1/2

and

1.3.2.3.2.7.5.


thus
R = ((

0
2

-

1
2
)
2
+ (2

1
)
2
)
-
1/2







tan
-
1

(
-
v/u) =


tan
-
1

(
2

1
/
(

1
2

-

0
2
)
)

where

the ‘
-
‘ sign was put on the lower term
.



This
gives the f
inal result that







x
ai
(t) = R e
i

1
t +
i





Resonance can be easily seen as maximizing the amplitude R when

0

=

1




This occurs when the applied force is at the same frequency as the natural frequency

0



Likewise
one can see the phase shift


between the response x
a
i
(t) and the applied force.



The general solution is then the sum of these two solutions
x
gi
(t) = x
gh
(t) + x
ai
(t).



The homogeneous solution x
g
h
(t) is called the transient as the term e
-

t

decays with ti
me.



The inhomogeneous solution is called the steady
-
state solution as it persists in time.



Generality of the application of these results:



As shown here, we have derived the response of
a mechanical system near equilibrium



But the same solution
also
applie
s exactly to planetary motion



It also provides the general solution to an RLC circuit with a sinusoidal applied voltage.



Thus these methods are of the greatest importance in physics.


16

1.3.3.

Fluids


<CJ chap
11

>

1.3.3.1.

Discussion

1.3.3.1.1.

Fluid Flow:

1.3.3.1.1.1.

Steady Flow : the velocit
y is constant at each point in the fluid

1.3.3.1.1.2.

Unsteady Flow: the velocity changes at a given point with time

1.3.3.1.1.3.

Turbulent Flow: the v
elocity changes randomly and

erratically in both magnitude & direction

1.3.3.1.1.4.

Compressible
: density of the fluid changes as pressure ch
anges

1.3.3.1.1.5.

Incompressible: the density of the fluid (essentially all liquids) is constant when pressure changes

1.3.3.1.1.6.

Viscous Flow: Flow is impeded by loss of energy resisting the flow

1.3.3.1.1.7.

Nonviscous Flow: Flow is smooth and non
-
resistive with no (or little) energy loss


1.3.3.1.1.8.

Ideal Fluid = a Nonviscous incompressible fluid (water is a fair example)

1.3.3.1.1.9.

Streamline Flow = The streamlines (trajectories of flow) are steady, constant velocity at one point

1.3.3.2.

Mathematical

1.3.3.2.1.

Mass Density per unit volume of a substance is defined by


= m/V

with units of kg/m
3


1.3.3.2.1.1.

Examples of mass density:
Brass 8470; Gold 19,300; Lead 11,300; Mercury 13600; Water 1,000

1.3.3.2.1.2.

Also
Wood 550; Ice 917; Aluminum 2,700; Air 1.29; Helium 0.18; Hydrogen 0.09; Oxygen 1.43

1.3.3.2.2.

Specific Gravity = Density of substance / Densit
y of water at 4 degC (ie 1,000 kg/m
3
)

1.3.3.2.3.

Pressure is defined by
P = F/A

with units of Pascal = Pa= N/m
2


1.3.3.2.3.1.

Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1.013E5 Pa

1.3.3.2.3.2.

Pressure in a fluid
P = P
surface

+

gh

(derive by P
sur

A +


hA) g = P A then divide by A)

1.3.3.2.3.3.

Pressure gauges (water & Hg columns supported)

1.3.3.2.3.4.

Gauge pressure in a manometer: height is proportional to the difference of pressures

1.3.3.2.3.5.

Pascal’s principle: the change

in pressure applied to an enclose
d fluid is transmitted to all parts

1.3.3.2.3.5.1.

F
1
/ A
1

= F
2

/ A
2

can be used to lift a heavy object (car) as a hydraulic lift


1.3.3.2.4.

Archimedes’ (287
-
212 BCE) Principle:
F
buoyant

= W
fluid displaced



1.3.3.2.5.

Equation of Continuity relates the mass flow rate at two points i
n the fluid

1.3.3.2.5.1.

Is equivalent to the conservation of mass

1.3.3.2.5.2.


1
A
1
v
1

=

2
A
2
v
2

(ie is conserved from one point to another)


1.3.3.2.6.

Bernoulli’s (1700
-
1782) Equation
governs the steady nonviscous incompressible fluid flow

1.3.3.2.6.1.

Is equivalent to conservation of energy

1.3.3.2.6.2.

P
1
+1/2

v
1
2

+

gy
1

= P
2
+1/2

v
2
2

+

gy
2

(ie is conserved from o
ne point to another)

1.3.3.2.7.

Viscous Flow describes the Force needed to move a layer of viscous fluid at constant velocity

1.3.3.2.7.1.

F=

Av / y

where


= the coefficient of viscosity with units of Pa s
(also 1 poise = 0.1 Pa s)


1.3.3.2.7.1.1.

where A is the area of the fluid, v is its ve
locity, and y is distance from immovable plane

1.3.3.2.7.2.

Poiseuille’s law gives the volume flow rate Q in a pipe of radius R, length L, and pressures P
1
, P
2

1.3.3.2.7.2.1.

Q =
dV/dt =

R
4

(P
2


P
1
) /(8

L)


1.3.3.3.

Advanced



17


1.3.4.

Mechanical Waves

& Sound


<CJ chap
16

>

1.3.4.1.

Dis
cussion

1.3.4.1.1.

A wave is a
traveling disturbance in a medium

that carries energy but not mass

1.3.4.1.2.

Fourier’s theorem

All wave disturbances are (linear) combinations of sin & cos waves of different freq

1.3.4.1.3.

Core concepts concerning waves:

1.3.4.1.3.1.

The period, T,

is the time requir
ed for one full cycle of the wave

1.3.4.1.3.2.

The frequency, f, is the number of compete cycles per unit time (second): Hertz = Hz =Cycles/s

1.3.4.1.3.3.

The a
mplitude, A, of the wave is the maximum displacement from equilibrium

1.3.4.1.3.4.

The wavelength,



is the (shortest) length in meters between two identical parts of the wave

1.3.4.1.3.5.

The phase,

, of the wave is the angle in radians that the wave is displaced in the sin or cos

1.3.4.1.3.6.

The angular velocity


= 2


f


1.3.4.1.3.7.

The wave number
k = 2



1.3.4.1.4.

Objective (physically me
asurable) aspects of sound verses Subjective (perceived by human senses)

1.3.4.1.4.1.

Intensity of the wave (in Watts / m
2
)
verses Loudness
(
measured
in decibels)

1.3.4.1.4.2.

Frequency (Hz) verses the perceived frequency or Pitch

1.3.4.1.4.3.

Harmonic Structure (
composition

of overtones or har
monics) verses the Quality

1.3.4.1.5.

Standards:

1.3.4.1.5.1.

Musical frequency:
A above middle C is 440 Hz and is the standard of western music

1.3.4.1.5.2.

The standard for acoustics and sound for human hearing is
1,000 Hz = 1KHz

1.3.4.1.5.3.

The normal maximum range
of

human hearing is
20Hz to 20KHz

1.3.4.1.5.4.

Velocity of sound is
331 m/s at 0 C and increases by 0.6 m/s for each degree C

1.3.4.1.5.5.

V of sound in substances m/s:
Steel 5,960; Glass 5,640; Water 1,482; Helium 965

1.3.4.1.6.

Very Important: The human body responds to sound intensity, frequency, light intensity, heat,
pre
ssure and other stimulations as the log of the stimulus. This allows a person to have a vast range of
sensing without overloading the senses at high values and still be extremely sensitive to low values.

1.3.4.1.6.1.

For example sound intensity is measured in log I/I
0

and the piano scale is
the
log of the frequency

1.3.4.1.6.2.

It is perhaps a deep concept that information is measured as the logarithm of a probability

1.3.4.1.6.3.

Perhaps

life forms take the sensory log to automatically measure the maximum information

1.3.4.2.

Mathematical

1.3.4.2.1.

Important equ
ation:
f


= v

for any wave where f= frequency,


wave length, v = wave velocity

1.3.4.2.2.

Also fundamental

is the relationship:
f = 1/T



1.3.4.2.2.1.

Example of a radio wave: f = 102 MHz, c = 3E8 m/s thus


= 1.02E8/3E8 = 0.34 m

1.3.4.2.2.2.

Example of a sound wave: f = A 440 Hz, v
sound

= 1100 f
t/s thus


=
2.5 ft

1.3.4.2.3.

Velocity of a wave on a string =

v
string

= (F / (m/l))
1/2

where (m/l) = the mass per unit length

1.3.4.2.4.

Equation for wave motion:
y(x,t) = A cos(

t


kx +

)

1.3.4.2.5.

Loudness is
measured

in decibels (dB)


= 10 log(I/I
0
)

where I = intensity in w/m
2
,

1.3.4.2.5.1.

I
0

= 10
-
12

w/m
2

is the threshold of human hearing

1.3.4.2.5.2.

An increase o
f 10 dB is perceived as twice the loudness

1.3.4.2.6.

Doppler shift in frequency results when a source is moving v
s

or the observer is moving at v
o

1.3.4.2.6.1.

Observer moves toward source:
f
0

= f
s

(1
-
v
0
/v)/(1+v
s
/v)
& a
way from source
f
0

= f
s

(1+v
0
/v)/(1
-
v
s
/v)


1.3.4.3.

Advanced



18


1.3.5.


Linear Superposition of Waves, Interference, & Music

<CJ chap
17

>


1.3.5.1.

Discussion

1.3.5.1.1.

Linear Superposition: The total wave amplitude at a point is the sum of the separate arriving waves

1.3.5.1.1.1.

Constructi
ve Interference: When both waves ar
e additive & become greater than

separately

1.3.5.1.1.2.

Destructive Interference: When the two waves are of opposite signs and thus partly cancel

1.3.5.1.1.3.

If a wave proceeds by two paths, the phase difference due to path length can lead to in
terference

1.3.5.1.2.

Direction of wave vibration relative to motion distinguishes two types of waves:

1.3.5.1.2.1.

T
ransverse waves: where the medium

vibrates perpendicular to the velocity

1.3.5.1.2.1.1.

e.g. EM waves including light as E & M are orthogonal to v & surface water waves

1.3.5.1.2.2.

Longitud
inal waves: where the media vibrates parallel to the velocity

1.3.5.1.2.2.1.

e.g. sound (compression) waves

1.3.5.1.2.3.

Torsion waves, a third type, are

very rare and consists of a twisting wave about v

1.3.5.2.

Mathematical

1.3.5.2.1.

Interference occurs
between a wave and itself dependent upon the
paths taken

x :

1.3.5.2.1.1.

Constructive interference:

x = n

where n =


1.3.5.2.1.2.

Destructive interference:



x = (n+1/2)

where n =


1.3.5.2.2.

Interference of a single slit of width D: Angle to respective maxima is
sin

/D

(=1.22

/D circular)

1.3.5.2.3.

Interferenc
e of two nearby frequencies f
1

& f
2

results in the average frequency modulated by beats:

1.3.5.2.3.1.

One hears
½(f
1

+ f
2
) * ½ (f
1

-

f
2
)

= average
frequency * beats with frequency

½ (f
1

-

f
2
)

1.3.5.2.3.1.1.

These ‘beats’ are really modulations (oscillations) in the amplitude of the a
verage freq.


1.3.5.2.3.2.

Since the ‘frequency’ ½ (f
1

-

f
2
) has two maxima per cycle, one gets a beat period of
T=1/(f
1

-

f
2
)

1.3.5.2.4.

String
(and air column)
vibrations

1.3.5.2.4.1.

Stretched strings of length L can sustain vibrations that have an integer number of half waves in L

1.3.5.2.4.2.

Thus

with a node at each end (the attached point cannot move) we get n(


L

1.3.5.2.4.3.

Thus the f
requencies for each integer n are

given by:
f
n

= v/


= n v/(2L) = n f
1

thus multiples of f
1


1.3.5.2.4.4.

Air columns that are closed at both ends have nodes there and thus obey t
he same equation.

1.3.5.2.4.5.

If an air column is open at one end, one has an antinode thus one must have (n
odd
/4)


= L


1.3.5.2.4.6.

Thus
: f
n

= v/


= n
odd

v/(4L) = n
odd

f
1

where n
odd

= 1, 3, 5, 7, ….

1.3.5.2.4.7.

These values of n refer to the ‘n
th
’ harmonic or to the (n
-
1
)
th

overtone w
here n=1 is fundamental

1.3.5.2.4.8.

Thus the 5
th

harmonic is 4
th

overtone; and the 1
st

harmonic is the fundamental.

1.3.5.2.5.

Musical
Frequencies
:

1.3.5.2.5.1.

Two notes sound ‘consonant’

when their frequencies are simple

integer multiples (Pythagoras)

1.3.5.2.5.2.

Unison (same note) is 1/1, an octave

is 2/1, a fifth is 3/2; and a fourth is ¾ in order of consonance

1.3.5.2.5.3.

When a string is plucked or air column sounded the frequencies = integers times the fundamental

1.3.5.2.5.4.

Pythagoras tuned early instruments by going up a fifth, down a fourth, up a fifth, etc

1.3.5.2.5.5.

An im
proved method was invented by JS Bach called equitempered tuning (all half steps equal)

1.3.5.2.5.6.

Since there are 12 half steps in an octave in western music, each half step goes up by a factor


1.3.5.2.5.7.

Thus the notes are f
1
,


f
1,


2

f
1, ….

12

f
1
which must = 2

f
1

(an

o
ctave
)

thus




1.3.5.2.5.8.

This is the ratio o
f

two adjacent notes a half step apart in music.

1.3.5.2.5.9.

The standard that fixes all the notes is A
440

= 440 Hz which is the A above middle C

1.3.5.3.

Advanced

1.3.5.3.1.

Just discernable differences in frequency.
At 1,000 Hz & hi
gher one can discern a 0.5% freq change

1.3.5.3.1.1.

A ‘
cent’ = 1/100 of a half step
. One can discern a frequency difference of
about 5 cents
.


1.3.5.3.1.2.

Just as an half note ratio is 2
1/12

, the cent is the ratio
2
1/1200

= 1.00057779


1.3.5.3.2.

Just discernable differences in loudness
,
although varying with freq etc, is about
1.0 dB

1.3.5.3.3.

Differences between the equitempered frequencies and ‘just’ or ‘perfe
ct ratios of intervals

1.3.5.3.4.

Reverberation Time = Time for the sound intensity level to reduce to
1E
-
6 (60dB)

of original value

1.3.5.3.4.1.

T(s) = 0.049 V/A

where V (ft
3
) = volume of the room and A = area of an absorbing ‘hole’ (ft
2
)

1.3.5.3.4.2.


The perfectly absorbing hole area,
A =

a
i

S
i

where a
i

is the
absorption

coef. of an area of S
i

ft
2

1.3.5.3.4.3.

Approximate T values in sec are:
Speech 0.4 to 0.8; music 1 to 1.6, etc


1.3.5.3.4.4.

Absor
ption values at 1kHz are
a
i =
Marble 0.01; Plate glass 0.04; Plywood on studs 0.10;

1.3.5.3.4.4.1.

Carpet 0.37; Plaster 0.10; Acoustical plaster 0.78; Each person 7.0; Empty cloth seat 5.0

1.3.5.3.5.

Perfect frequency ratios & the Equitempered value:
Fifth (3/2 , 1.49831), Fourt
h (4/3, 1.33484),

1.3.5.3.5.1.

Maj Third (5/4, 1.25992), Min Third (6/5, 1.18921), Maj Six (5/3, 1.68179), Min Six (8/5, 1.58740
)





19


2.

Thermodynamics

2.1.1.

Temperature & Heat


<CJ chap
12

>

2.1.1.1.

Discussion

2.1.1.1.1.

Temperature: a measure of the average random energy in a substance
. Uni
ts: temperature scales

2.1.1.1.1.1.

Fahrenheit

scale:
0
F: freezing sea water, 100
F: for human body, then 32
F: freezing water

2.1.1.1.1.2.

Celsius scale:
0
C: freezing wate
r, 100
C: for boiling water then
-
273.15 = absolute zero

2.1.1.1.1.3.

Kelvin scale: by definition
K = 273.15+
C
.

2.1.1.1.1.4.

All scales are defined in terms of
K where
0
K is absolute zero & 273.16
K = water triple point


2.1.1.1.2.

Thermometers

2.1.1.1.2.1.

Use the ‘linear’ expansion of a substance such as mercury with temperature

2.1.1.1.2.2.

Optimal thermometer is the constant volume gas thermometer of
an ‘ideal gas’

2.1.1.1.3.

Heat is random (mostly kinetic) energy in a substance


the energy that flows due to temperature diff.

2.1.1.1.3.1.

Units of heat are in Joules (J)

2.1.1.1.3.2.

1 Calorie = amt of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 C

2.1.1.1.3.2.1.

The Calorie (upper case) = 1
000 calories which pertain to a gram of water not kg

2.1.1.1.3.2.2.

It is the Calorie or Kilocalorie that we eat when we eat food (energy)

2.1.1.1.3.3.

1 BTU = amt of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water 1 F

2.1.1.1.3.4.



2.1.1.2.

Mathematical

2.1.1.2.1.

Temperature conversion:
F = 32 +C*9/
5, C = (F
-
32)*5/9, K = C + 273.15

2.1.1.2.2.

Linear t
hermal expansion of a solid
: Change

L in length L
0

due to a change


in temperature is

2.1.1.2.2.1.


L =

L
0


T

where


is the coefficient of linear expansion in 1/C

2.1.1.2.2.2.

Examples: Brass 19E
-
6; Gold 14E
-
6; Glass 8.5E
-
6; Aluminum 23E
-
6

2.1.1.2.3.

Volumetric Expansion of a solid or liquid: Change

V

in length
V
0

due to a change


in temperature


2.1.1.2.3.1.


V =


V
0


T
where



is the coefficient
of volume

expansion in 1/C

2.1.1.2.4.

Heat raises the temperature of a substance (except during a phase change)

by :

2.1.1.2.4.1.

Q = c m

T

where c is the specific heat of the substance

2.1.1.2.4.2.

Examples of c

(
J/(kg C): Water 4186; Mercury 139; Aluminum 900; Glass 840; Lead 128;

2.1.1.2.5.

The heat Q required for
a phase change

is

Q = m L

where m = mass and L is the latent heat

2.1.1.2.5.1.

Latent heat of fusion, L
f
, refers to melting or freezing (J/kg)

2.1.1.2.5.2.

Latent heat of vaporizatio
n, L
v
, refers to boiling or condensation (J/kg)

2.1.1.2.5.3.

L
f

& L
v

in

(J/kg): Water 33.5E4, 22.6E5; Gold 6.28E4,
17.2E5; Nitrogen 2.60E4, 2.00E5


2.1.1.2.5.4.

T
melt

& T
boil

in Celcius: Water 0, 100; Gold 1063, 2808; Nitrogen
-
210.0,
-
195.8

2.1.1.3.

Advanced



20


2.1.2.

Transfer of Heat


<CJ c
hap
13

>

2.1.2.1.

Discussion

2.1.2.1.1.

Convection: the process of conveying heat from one point to another by the movement of fluid

2.1.2.1.1.1.

Distinguish n
atural convection or forced convection

2.1.2.1.1.2.

The formulas for convection are extremely complex and nonlinear as they are fluid flows

2.1.2.1.1.3.

So

at this level we do not attempt to discuss the mathematical aspects of convection

2.1.2.1.2.

Conduction: heat is transferred through a material without motion of the material itself

2.1.2.1.2.1.


Distinguish thermal conductors from thermal insulators

2.1.2.1.2.2.

The formulas for conduction

in solids is simple and of great importance

2.1.2.1.3.

Radiation: the process by which electromagnetic radiation (cavity radiation) is emitted

2.1.2.1.3.1.

The profile of emitted radiation is dependent upon the temperature of the object

2.1.2.1.3.2.

We are familiar with substances that em
it infrared (heat) because they are hot

2.1.2.1.3.3.

We are also familiar with much hotter objects that glow red hot, or white or even blue.

2.1.2.1.3.4.

The formula

for radiation is also relatively simple but unusual as we will see below.

2.1.2.2.

Mathematical

2.1.2.2.1.

Conduction heat/time

Q/

t = k A

T / L

where k= thermal conductivity, A=area, L=thickness T=temp

2.1.2.2.1.1.

Thus:

Q/

t = A

T / (L/k) = A

T / R

where
R = L/k

is called the R factor (combines k & L)

2.1.2.2.1.2.

R factors are additive for building materials and with units of BTU/hr for

Q/

t, and

A in ft
2
, T
F

2.1.2.2.1.3.

Values are:
R = 1 glass, 2 double pane; R=11 for 3.5” wall insul, R=19 for 6” floor/attic insul

2.1.2.2.1.4.

and R= about 3.4 for uninsulated walls, floors, and ceilings

.




2.1.2.2.1.5.

Problems involving building materials all
ow the R factors to simply add to obtain the total.

2.1.2.2.2.

Radiation (Stefan Boltzman law):

Q/

t =


A T
4

where

is
emissivity

(1 black, 0 shiny metal)

2.1.2.2.2.1.


=
Stefan Boltzman constant = 5.67E
-
8 (J/(s m
2

K
4
)),

and A is the area in m
2

2.1.2.3.

Advanced



21


2.1.3.

Ideal Gas Law & Kinetic Theory


<CJ chap
14

>

2.1.3.1.

Discussion

2.1.3.1.1.

Atomic Mass Unit = 1.6605E
-
27 kg = 1/12 of

the mass of
12
C
(as this is the best reference)

2.1.3.1.2.

Mole = the number of entities equal to the number of atoms in 12 grams of
12
C

2.1.3.1.2.1.

Mole = Avogadro’s number =
N
A

= 6.022E23

2.1.3.1.2.2.

Thus Avogadro’s

number of entities (ie one mole) of a chemical is its molecular mass i
n grams

2.1.3.1.2.3.

Thus 18 grams of H
2
0 is one mole and contains N
A

molecules

2.1.3.1.3.

Ideal gas is a gas of low density, point particles with no internal freedoms, and elastic collisions

2.1.3.2.

Mathematical

2.1.3.2.1.

Ideal gas law
P V = n R T

(P=Pressure, V=Volume, n= number of moles, T = t
emp. in
K )

2.1.3.2.1.1.

and R is the
Universal Gas Constant 8.31 J/(mole*K)


2.1.3.2.1.2.

Equivalently one can write
PV = (n* N
A

) (R/ N
A
) T = N k T

where N = Number of molecules and

2.1.3.2.1.3.


k = R/ N
A

the Boltzman constant = 1.38E
-
23 J/K

2.1.3.2.1.4.

Boyles l
aw (constant T) gives P
1
V
1

= P
2
V
2
used to compare a gas ‘before and after’ follows

2.1.3.2.1.5.

Charles law (constant P) gives V
1

/T
1

= V
2
/T
2


2.1.3.2.2.

Using kinetic theory one can show that PV = (2/3) N <KE> thus when combined with the ideal gas law

2.1.3.2.2.1.


we get that the averag
e kinetic energy is
<KE> = (3/2) k T

thereby interpreting temperature

2.1.3.2.2.2.

Also the internal energy
U = N <KE> thus U = (3/2) N k T = (3/2) n R T

for a monoatomic gas

2.1.3.2.3.

Diffusion


Fick’s Law of Diffusion

m/

t = (D A

C)
/ L
= mass per time diffusing in a so
lvent

2.1.3.2.3.1.

where

C is the concentration difference, in a channel of length A and cross section area A

2.1.3.2.3.2.

The diffusion constant D for water vapor in air is
2.4E
-
5 m
2
/s

2.1.3.3.

Advanced

2.1.3.3.1.

Derive <KE> = (3/2) k T from basic kinetic theory



22


2.1.4.

Thermodynamics


<CJ chap
15

>

2.1.4.1.

Discussion

2.1.4.1.1.

Laws of thermodynamics:

2.1.4.1.1.1.

0
th

law: Two systems in equilibrium with a third system will be in equilibrium with each other

2.1.4.1.1.2.

1
st

law: The change in internal energy is equal to the heat gained minus the work done

2.1.4.1.1.2.1.

This is the law of conservation of
energy including heat in the equation

2.1.4.1.1.3.

2
nd

law:

Heat flows spontaneously from a higher T to one of lower T, never conversely

2.1.4.1.1.3.1.

or: The total entropy (disorder) always increases for an irreversible process and

2.1.4.1.1.3.1.1.

entropy is constant for a reversible process.

2.1.4.1.1.4.

3
rd

law:

It is not possible to lower system temperature to absolute zero in a finite number of steps

2.1.4.1.2.

Types of processes named

2.1.4.1.2.1.

Isobaric means that pressure is kept constant (

P = 0)

2.1.4.1.2.2.

Isothermal means that temperature is kept constant (



2.1.4.1.2.3.

Isochoric (or i
sovolumetric
)

means that the volume is kept constant (

V = 0)

2.1.4.1.2.4.

Adiabatic process is one in which there is no change (flow) of heat (

Q = 0)

2.1.4.2.

Mathematical

2.1.4.2.1.

1
st

Law of thermodynamics: The change in internal energy =


U =

Q
-


W

where

2.1.4.2.1.1.


Q is the heat inp
ut into the system and

W is the work done by the system

2.1.4.2.2.

For an isobaric process (

P = 0), the work done is

W = P

V

2.1.4.2.3.

For an isothermal quasi
-
static ideal gas process
W = n R T ln(V
f
/V
i
)

2.1.4.2.4.

For an adiabatic
(

Q = 0)

quasi
-
static process
W = (3/2) n R (T
i
-

T
f
)

for n moles of a monoatomic gas

2.1.4.2.5.

Also for an adiabatic ideal gas:
P V
i


= P V
f

where


= c
p

/ c
v

2.1.4.2.6.

Specific heat capacities: Recall

Q = C

T where C is the specific heat:

2.1.4.2.6.1.

C
P

= (5/2) R

for a monatomic ideal gas at constant pressure

and
C
v

= (3/2
) R
at constant volume

2.1.4.2.6.2.

C
P

= (7/2) R

for a diatomic ideal gas at constant pressure and
C
v

= (5/2) R

at constant volume

2.1.4.2.6.3.

For any type of ideal gas
C
P
-

C
P

= R


2.1.4.2.7.

Heat Engines take in heat Q and output useful work W with an efficiency


= W/Q

2.1.4.2.7.1.

but since Q
h

= W

+ Q
c

then


= W/Q
h

= 1
-

Q
c
/Q
h


(all terms are positive magnitudes)


2.1.4.2.7.2.

For a Carnot engine:
Q
c
/Q
h

= T
c
/T
h

thus

carnot

=

1
-

T
c
/T
h


2.1.4.2.8.

Coefficient

of Performance (COP) for refrigerators and heat pumps:

2.1.4.2.8.1.

COP
ref
= Q
c

/ W

and
COP
hp

= Q
h

/ W

2.1.4.2.9.

Entr
opy changes

S in which heat enters or leaves a system reversible at constant T is given by:

2.1.4.2.9.1.


S =

Q/T


2.1.4.2.9.2.

Entropy is a measure of the system disorder

2.1.4.3.

Advanced


23



3.

Electromagnetic Theory


3.1.

Electric
ity


3.1.1.

Electric Forces

<CJ chap
18.1
-
18.5

>

3.1.1.1.

Discussion


3.1.1.1.1.

W
e are all familiar with static electricity, lightning, and electrical currents from an early age.

3.1.1.1.2.

Today we are familiar with the sources of charge: electrons, protons, ions, and atomic structure.

3.1.1.1.2.1.

What is electrical charge? We do not really know


it is an

intrinsic property like mass.

3.1.1.1.3.

Electric c
harges

are +

&

-

L
ike
charges
(
++ and
-

-
)

repel while

opposites (
+
-
)

attract.

3.1.1.1.3.1.

Benjamin Franklin
(1706
-
1790) defined charge & related
it
to lightning

3.1.1.1.4.

Charges are
quantized

in integer multiples of the basic cha
rge
e = 1.6E
-
19 C

3.1.1.1.4.1.

Robert Milliken proved
this
in 1909

and measured the charge on the electron e
-

3.1.1.1.5.

Electric charge is measured in units of
Coulombs



3.1.1.1.6.

The total electric c
harge
in a closed domain is
conserved


3.1.1.1.7.

Conductors

allow charges to move freely
. O
ther ma
terials are called
insulators
.

3.1.1.1.8.

Coulomb

s law
discovered

1785

By Charles Coulomb
using a torsion balance to determine F
c

3.1.1.1.9.

Electric Induction

Charging


a conductor atta
ched to the ground is ‘grounded

/ Contact charging

3.1.1.1.10.

Linear Superposition:
electrical (and

magnetic) forces are (vectorially) additive from individual forces


3.1.1.2.

Mathematical

3.1.1.2.1.

Coulomb

s Law

for forces between charges:

3.1.1.2.1.1.

F
1
-
2

= k
e
q
1

q
2

/ r
2


where
k
e

= 9E9 = 1/
(
4

0
)

exactly = 8.9875 E9


3.1.1.2.1.2.

The constant

0

is the permittivity of the vacuum

3.1.1.2.1.3.

Force F

is measured in Newtons

3.1.1.2.1.4.

Charge per unit volume

=

Q/V
, per unit area


=

Q/A,

& per length


=

Q/l


3.1.1.2.2.

Problems
with

two charges

3.1.1.2.3.

Vector problems

with multiple charges


3.1.1.3.

Advanced

3.1.1.3.1.

Vector Statement of Coulomb’s Law

3.1.1.3.1.1.

F
1
-
>
2

= k
e
q
1

q
2

(
r
2
-
r
1
)

/
|
r
2
-
r
1
|
3



where
F

a
nd
r

are vectors

3.1.1.3.2.

Generally the force on a charge q from other charges is
F
q
(r)

=
q

I

q
i
(
r
-
r
i
) / |
r
-
r
i
|
3


thus:

3.1.1.3.3.

E
(r) =


i

q
i
(
r
-
r
i
) / |
r
-
r
i
|
3

=
F
q
(r) /q


3.1.1.3.4.

E has units of Newtons / Coulomb (there is no special name for this unit)

3.1.1.3.5.

Vector problems


24


3.1.2.

E
lectric Field

<CJ chap
18.6
-
18.8

>

3.1.2.1.

Discussion

3.1.2.1.1.

Force at a distance was difficult for people to accept


thus the electric field,
E
, was ‘invented’

3.1.2.1.2.

The e
lectric field

at a point is the force a unit charge would experience
.

3.1.2.1.3.

E
(x,y,z,t) is a vector field.


3.1.2.1.4.

Electric field lines display E . (E was at first an imaginary concept.)

3.1.2.1.5.

They can never cross. They begin at + and end at


charges.

3.1.2.1.6.

E is zero inside a conducting material and excess resides on the surface.

3.1.2.1.7.

E just outside a conductor is always perpendi
cular to the conductor’s surface.

3.1.2.1.8.

Charge accumulates where the surface has the smallest radius of curvature.

3.1.2.1.9.

The electric field
outside
of a charged sphere shell is as though all charge is at
its
center

3.1.2.1.10.

The electric field of a charged spherical shell is
zero
(
inside the sphere
)

-

shielding

3.1.2.1.11.

Electric dipole is

a pair of equal but opposite

charges separated by a
short
distance

3.1.2.1.11.1.

Some molecules are dipolar

such as water

3.1.2.1.11.2.

The electric field of a dipole is similar to that of a magnetic dipole (magnet)

3.1.2.1.12.

The elect
ric field inside a parallel plate capacitor is uniform & often used as a source of an E field.


3.1.2.2.

Mathematical

3.1.2.2.1.

Electric field equations

3.1.2.2.2.


E

=
F
/q
=kq
0
/r
2


thus
F

= q
E

3.1.2.2.3.

The electric field of a dipole (+
-
),
and the electric fields of the pairs

( + +) or (
-

-
)


3.1.2.2.4.

Motion of a charged particle in a constant E field. m
a

= q
E
,
use

constant a


formulas

3.1.2.2.5.

Electric dipole moment
p

is defined as
p

= Q
d

where +Q and

Q are a distance d apart

3.1.2.2.5.1.

The electric dip
o
le
p

is a vector pointing along d from the negative to the

positive charge

3.1.2.2.5.2.

An electric dipole feels a torque in an electric field of


p

x
E

where


is⁡v散瑯爠

㌮⸲⸲⸳

A渠nl散瑲ic摩p潬攠e渠n⁦iel搠⁨s慮⁥湥gy
唠
-

p


E

where U is a scalar


3.1.2.3.

Advanced

3.1.2.3.1.

Vector expression of the electr
ic field

3.1.2.3.2.

E(r)

= k

q
1
(
r
-
r
1
)

/
|
r
-
r
1
|
3



where

E
and
r

are vectors

3.1.2.3.3.

Generally the
Electric field from
charge
s

q
i

is
E
q
(r)

=

i

q
i
(
r
-
r
i
) / |
r
-
r
i
|
3




3.1.2.3.4.

Vector problems


25


3.1.3.


Gauss’ Law

<CJ chap
18.9

>

3.1.3.1.

Discussion

3.1.3.1.1.

Gauss’ law
can be used to compute the electri
c field in symmetric cases.

3.1.3.1.2.

For a conductor:

3.1.3.1.3.

The electric fi
eld is zero everywhere inside a conductor

thus conductors can be used to shield

3.1.3.1.4.

Any excess charge resides on the surface of the conductor

3.1.3.1.5.

On an
irregular

shaped conductor, charge accumulates whe
re the radius of curvature is the smallest.


3.1.3.2.

Mathematical

3.1.3.2.1.

Derivations from
Gauss’

law


3.1.3.2.1.1.

Plane:
E =


/(2

0
)




3.1.3.2.1.2.

Line charge:
E=

0
r)


3.1.3.2.1.3.

Inside a parallel plate capacitor:

E =


/(

0
)

and is uniform



3.1.3.2.1.4.

E =

0

= Also just outside a conductor


3.1.3.3.

Advanced

3.1.3.3.1.

Gauss’ Law
:

3.1.3.3.1.1.

The electric flux






d


瑨牯畧栠h⁣l潳敤⁳畲慣e
†††


= q
inside

/

0

3.1.3.3.1.2.


Thus




d

q
inside

/

0


3.1.3.3.2.

Derive Gauss’ law from
Coulomb’s


26


3.1.4.

E
lectric Potential & Pot
ential Energy

<CJ chap
19.1
-
19.4

>

3.1.4.1.

Discussion

3.1.4.1.1.

The potential energy of a system of charges is the work necessary to assemble them from infinity

3.1.4.1.1.1.

The potential energy, U, is a scalar and is measured in units of Joules

3.1.4.1.2.

The electric potential V(r), is the work

needed to bring a unit charge to
a

point from infinity

3.1.4.1.2.1.

V(r) is also a scalar and is measured in units of Volts = Joule / Coulomb

3.1.4.1.2.2.

The plotting of the equal potential lines V(r) = constant for a system displays contours of V

3.1.4.1.2.3.

These contours are always exac
tly perpendicular to the electric field
E

lines everywhere

3.1.4.1.2.4.

In fact E is equal to (the negative of ) the gradient (rate and direction of maximum change) of V

3.1.4.1.2.5.

Constant V(r) curves are good visual representations of the electrostatic environment, as is
E


3.1.4.1.2.6.

It
is most common to consider changes in V (voltage differences) rather than absolute values


3.1.4.2.

Mathematical
:

3.1.4.2.1.

Potential Energy

=
U
= k q
1

q
2

/
|
r
1
-

r
2
|

= Work needed to bring
q
1

&
q
2

from an infinite distance

3.1.4.2.1.1.


The units of potential energy here are Joules
. Note that U is a scalar not a vector.

3.1.4.2.1.2.

The potential energy of several charges, q
i

is given by

U = ½ k

q
i

q
j

/ |r
i
-
r
j
|


3.1.4.2.1.2.1.

N
ote the ½ arises from double counting in the summation over i and j

3.1.4.2.2.

Electric Potential

=
V
(
r
)

=
U
/q
0

= the work needed to bring

a unit charge
q
0

from infinity to the point
r

3.1.4.2.2.1.

Thus

V
(
r
)
= k q / r
at
r

due to a charge q at the origin


3.1.4.2.2.2.

The units of electric potential are given in
Volts = Joules / Coulomb

(or V=J/Q)


3.1.4.2.2.3.

Usually, we look at voltage differences such as the potential di
fference between battery terminals.

3.1.4.2.3.

Equipotential lines (curves that follow equal potential values) are perpendicular everywhere to
E


3.1.4.2.3.1.

These equipotential curves can be compared to isotherms (temperature) or isobars (pressure).


3.1.4.3.

Advanced:

3.1.4.3.1.

Potential Energ
y

= Work =

d
U

= F
d
r
=
-
q
1
E

d
r


=
-
k
q
1

q
2
dr
12

/ r
12
2



3.1.4.3.1.1.

Thus
U

= k q
1

q
2

/ r
12


where

r
12

=
|
r
1
-
r
2
|


and

when the integral goes from
infinity up

to r
12


3.1.4.3.1.2.

The units of potential energy U are in Joules and U is a scalar as it is a dot product

3.1.4.3.2.

Electric Potential

=
V =
U
/q

or
for a single charge at the origin,

V
(r)

= k q / r


3.1.4.3.2.1.

The units of V are in Volts (V) where
V=J/Q


3.1.4.3.2.2.

Since

V =
-
E

d
r

then it follows that
E
x

=
-

and generally that
E

=
-
V

3.1.4.3.2.3.

One recalls that


27


3.1.5.

Capacitance


<CJ chap
19..5
-
19.7

>


3.1.5.1.

Discussion

3.1.5.1.1.

Given any two neutral conductors that are separated, say A and B, then carry a charge Q from A to B

3.1.5.1.1.1.

A potential difference of V volts between A and B will result from this action.

3.1.5.1.1.2.

If 2Q, 3Q etc is moved from A to B then 2V, 3V etc will be t
he resulting voltage

difference.

3.1.5.1.1.3.

This constant ratio of Q/V depends upon the geometry and is defined as the capacitance C =Q/V

3.1.5.1.2.

Capacitors were the earliest methods of storing charge, voltage, and electrical energy.

3.1.5.1.3.

The unit of capacitance is the Farad (F)
= Coulomb/Volt (Q/V)


3.1.5.2.

Mathematical

3.1.5.2.1.

C = Q / V

<Farad (F) =
Coulomb

/ Volt >

3.1.5.2.2.

Of a parallel plate capacitor
C = q/V =

A / (Ed) =

A / ((

0
)d) or C =

0
A/d

3.1.5.2.3.

Combinations of capacitors:

3.1.5.2.3.1.

In parallel
C
total

= C
1

+ C
2

+ …. C
n

3.1.5.2.3.2.

In series
1/C
total

=
1/C
1

+ 1/C
2

+ …. 1/C
n

3.1.5.2.4.

Energy stored in a capacitor
W = ½ Q V

= ½ C V
2


3.1.5.2.5.

Dielectric material

3.1.5.2.5.1.

If a
dielectric material

is placed in a capacitor then
V
=V
0
/



3.1.5.2.5.2.

Where


=


/

0

dielectric constant


= 1 for vacuum or air, 3.7 paper, 80 water


3.1.5.2.5.3.

It foll
ows that
C =


C
0



3.1.5.3.

Advanced


3.1.5.3.1.

Capacitance values for simple geometries
:

3.1.5.3.1.1.

A charged sphere of radius R:
C = 4

o

R



3.1.5.3.1.2.

Parallel plates of area A and separation d :
C =

o

A /d


3.1.5.3.1.3.

Cylindrical capacitor of length l and inner & outer radii a & b :
C = l

/ [2 k ln (b/a)]

3.1.5.3.1.4.

Spherical capacitor of inner and outer radii a & b:
C = ab /[k (b
-
a)]



28


3.1.6.


Electric Current & Resistance

<CJ chap
20
.1
-
20.7

>

3.1.6.1.

Discussion

3.1.6.1.1.

Electrical current is defined as the amount of charge in Coulombs that flows per second past a poin
t

3.1.6.1.1.1.

The unit of electrical current is the
Ampere = Coulomb / Second or A =C/s

3.1.6.1.1.2.

Electrical current flows because of a potential difference between two points in a material

3.1.6.1.2.

There is resistance to all flow of electrical current except in superconductors.

3.1.6.1.2.1.

One f
inds that the ratio of the voltage, to the current that flows, is a constant called the resistance

3.1.6.1.2.2.

Electrical resistance is measured in
Ohms = Volts / Ampere

= V/A






3.1.6.2.

Mathematical

3.1.6.2.1.

Electric current =
I
=

Q /

t

<Ampere (A) = Coulomb / second>

3.1.6.2.2.

Ohm’s law:
R = V/I
<Ohm = Volt / Ampere> is generally constant thus V = IR

3.1.6.2.3.

Resistors in series & parallel:

3.1.6.2.3.1.

Resistors in series:
R
series

= R
1

+ R
2

+ R
3

+


3.1.6.2.3.2.

Resistors in parallel:
1
/R
parallel

= 1/R
1

+ 1/R
2

+ 1/R
3

+ …

3.1.6.2.4.

Resistively


:
R =


l / A

where


is characteristic of

a given material

3.1.6.2.4.1.


silver

= 1.
59
E
-
8

copper

= 1.72E
-
8

aluminum

=
2.82
E
-
8



iron

= 9.7E
-
8

3.1.6.2.4.2.


carbon

= 3.5E
-
5

wood

= 3E10

glass
= 10
10

to 10
14


3.1.6.2.4.3.



depends upon temperature





(1 +

-
T
0
) )

3.1.6.2.4.4.



= 1/


= electrical conductivity of a substance

3.1.6.2.5.

Power Loss
P = IV = I
2
R



3.1.6.3.

Advanced

3.1.6.3.1.

Electric current

I = dQ/dt
= n q v A

3.1.6.3.2.

Electric current density
j =

I / A = n
q

v




3.1.6.3.3.

Ohms law with current density
j =


E

where


= conductivity


29


3.1.7.

Direct Electrical Currents

<CJ chap
20.8
-
20.15

>

3.1.7.1.

Discussion

3.1.7.1.1.

Kirchhoff’s Laws:

3.1.7.1.1.1.

Sum of currents entering a junction must equal the sum leaving the junction (node)

3.1.7.1.1.2.

Sum of voltages across each element in any closed loop must be zero.

3.1.7.1.2.

Discu
ss:

3.1.7.1.2.1.

Voltmeter

3.1.7.1.2.2.

Galvanometer

3.1.7.1.2.3.

Ammeter

3.1.7.1.3.

Discuss household wiring 110V and 220V, circuit breakers, …


3.1.7.2.

Mathematical

3.1.7.2.1.

RCV circuit

:


= RC

is the time constant of the circuit

3.1.7.2.1.1.

If charging from a voltage
V

applied at t=0 then
q(t) = Q
0
(1
-
e
-
t/RC
)

and
i(t) = (
V
/R
)e
-
t/RC


3.1.7.2.1.1.1.

where
Q
0

= CV


3.1.7.2.1.2.

If discharging a charged capacitor from t=0 then
q(t) = Q
0
e
-
t/RC

and
i(t) = I
0
e
-
t/RC


3.1.7.2.1.2.1.

where Q
0

= initial charge on the capacitor, and
I
0

= Q/RC


3.1.7.3.

Advanced

3.1.7.3.1.

Solve the differential equations for the RCV circuit to derive the equati
ons above

3.1.7.3.2.

Practice with complex circuit diagrams

3.1.7.3.3.

Take the resistance, r, of the battery into account in circuits

3.1.7.3.4.

Discuss the use of the Wheatstone bridge to measure an unknown resistor


30


3.2.

Magnetism

3.2.1.

Magnetic Fields

<CJ chap
21.1
-
21.6

>

3.2.1.1.

Discussion

3.2.1.1.1.

Ge
neral discussion of magnetism, N & S poles, magnetic field lines, earths magnetic field, direction N

3.2.1.1.2.

Motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field


Right Hand Rule

3.2.1.1.2.1.

Cosmic rays to earth go to poles

thus protecting the earth from this radiation

3.2.1.1.3.

The unit
s of the magnetic field are the Tesla = Nt/(C m/s). One Tesla is a very intense magnetic field

3.2.1.1.3.1.

The Gauss is defined by 1 T = 10
4

G
auss
. The
earth

s magnetic field is about ½ G
auss
.


3.2.1.1.4.

This force on a current segment in a magnetic field opens up the possibil
ity of the motor


3.2.1.2.

Mathematical

3.2.1.2.1.

Magnetic Force on a moving charge is
F

= q
v

x
B

= q v B sin



3.2.1.2.2.

Magnetic force on a current segment

F

= I

r

x
B


3.2.1.2.3.

Magnetic dipole moment defined:


⁉
A

where I = current in a loop of area A

3.2.1.2.3.1.

Torque


渠n慧湥tic

dip潬攠


in⁡m慧湥tic⁦i敬搠Bis†






B


3.2.1.2.3.2.

The potential energy of a magnetic dipole in a magnetic field is
U =
-




B

3.2.1.2.4.

Radius & Period of the path of a charged particle in a magnetic field
r = mv/qB T=2

m/qB



3.2.1.3.

Advanced


3.2.1.3.1.

Mag
netic force on a current segment
d
F

= I d
r

x
B


where I = the current in amps

3.2.1.3.1.1.

Derivation:
d
F

= dq (d
r
/dt) x
B

then divide dq by dt to get current I leaving d
r



31


3.2.2.

Magnetic Field Sources

<CJ chap
21.7
-
21.10

>

3.2.2.1.

Discussion

3.2.2.1.1.

The Right Hand Rule (RHR): determi
nes the x product, and the direction of B around currents

3.2.2.1.2.

Magnetism in matter
arises

from the currents in matter and magnetic moments of particles

3.2.2.1.2.1.

The
magnetic moment of a loop
of current is the ‘fundamental magnet’

3.2.2.1.2.2.

Use the RHR to get the N and S poles fo
r such a loop.

3.2.2.1.3.



3.2.2.2.

Mathematical

3.2.2.2.1.

Biot
-
Savart law:

Magnetic fields arise from the motion of electric charge, i.e. electric currents


3.2.2.2.1.1.


B

= (

o
/4

) I

s

x
r
unit
/ r
2

where I = current,

s

= length of wire,

B

= mag.
F
ield

3.2.2.2.1.2.

(

o
/4

) = k
m

= 1E
-
7

exactly thus defini
ng the value of

o
, the permeability of free space

3.2.2.2.1.3.

The unit vector
r
uni
t

points from the current segment

s

to the point r where
B

is to be found

3.2.2.2.2.

B

=

o

I /(2

a)

gives the magnetic field a distance ‘a’ from an infinite straight wire

3.2.2.2.3.

B =

o

I R
2

/(2 x
2

+ R
2
)
3/2

=
B f
ield
on the axis a
distance x from a circular loop of current I, Radius R,

3.2.2.2.4.

F/s =

o

I
1

I
2

/(2

a)

= force between two long parallel wires a distance ‘a’ apart with currents I
1


and I
2

3.2.2.2.4.1.

Defines the Ampere if the force per m = 2E
-
7 results from equa
l currents I
1


and I
2

of both 1 Amp

3.2.2.2.5.

Ampere’s law: B x distance around a closed loop =

o
I

3.2.2.2.6.

B =

o

n I

= B field in a solenoid with
n = N /
l

(# of turns per length)



3.2.2.3.

Advanced

3.2.2.3.1.

Biot
-
Savart law:
d
B

= (

o
/4

) I d
s

x
r
unit
/ r
2

where I = current, d
s

= leng
th of wire,

B

= mag.
F
ield

3.2.2.3.2.

Gauss Law for Magnetism

B


d


‰

⁴桥慧湥tic⁦l畸⁴潵杨慮y⁣l潳敤⁳畲慣攠e

3.2.2.3.3.

Ampere’s law:

B


d
s

=

o
I

3.2.2.3.4.

Ampere’s law modified
by Maxwell displacement current


B


d
s

=

o
I

+

o

o

d(
E
d

⽤


3.2.2.3.4.1.

Using a cylindrical surface around a wire ending in a cap
acitor then EA = Q/

o


3.2.2.3.4.2.

thus

o
d

/dt = dQ/dt = I
Maxwell

& using this I
Maxwell

in addition to the I in Amperes law gives result

3.2.2.3.5.

The Magnetization vector, M, = magnetic moment per unit volume and

3.2.2.3.5.1.

Thus
B

=
B
0

+
B
m

=
B
0

+

o
M =

o

(H + M)


3.2.2.3.5.2.

For p
aramagnetic and diamagnetic substances,
M =


H

where



= the magnetic susceptibility

3.2.2.3.5.2.1.

with

m

=

o

(1 +

)

substances are classified as

3.2.2.3.5.2.2.

paramagnetic

m

>

0

, diamagnetic

m

<


0

, and ferromagnetic

m

>>

0


32


3.2.3.


Faraday’s Law

<CJ chap
22.1
-
22.6

>

3.2.3.1.

Discussion

3.2.3.1.1.

Faraday’s discovery of induction allows for the creation of a voltage by moving a loop in a B field

3.2.3.1.1.1.

Either the flux can change due to the motion or orientation of the wire or loop or

3.2.3.1.1.2.

The flux can change due to a changing magnetic field or ev
en the motion of the source magnet


3.2.3.2.

Mathematical

3.2.3.2.1.

Faraday

s law of induction:
V

=
-



/

t and



=

B

A

the magnetic flux through an open surface

3.2.3.2.2.

Lenz’s law: the induced EMF will create a magnetic flux to oppose the change in magnetic flux

3.2.3.2.3.

EMF from the motion of a conductor in a B field:
V =
-
B s v

for a
conductor of length s moving at v


3.2.3.3.

Advanced

3.2.3.3.1.

Faradays law
V =
-

d


/dt and


=

B
d


the magnetic flux through an open surface



But V (induced emf) around a closed circuit is
V =
E
ds

=
-

d/dt
B
d



33


3.2.4.

Induction

<CJ chap
22.7
-
22.10

>

3.2.4.1.

Discussion

3.2.4.1.1.

Induction also allows for the concept of a transformer which can increase or decrease AC voltage



3.2.4.2.

Math
ematical

3.2.4.2.1.

Self
-
Inductance: the induced voltage is
V
L

=
-

N d



dt =
-

L dI/dt


3.2.4.2.1.1.

The unit of inductance is the Henry (H)

3.2.4.2.2.

The equation for a transformer is
V
1

/ N
1

= V
2

/ N
2


3.2.4.2.2.1.

Since the transformer power input must equal power output we also have

V
1
I
1

= V
2
I
2


3.2.4.2.3.

RLV Circuits:
I(t) = (V/R) (1
-
e
-
t/

) where


= L/R

is the time constant of the RL circuit

3.2.4.2.4.

Energy stored in the magnetic field:
U = ½ L I
2


3.2.4.3.

Advanced

3.2.4.3.1.

Solve the RLV circuit: V

R
I

L dI/dt =0
which is an
inhomogeneous

first order differ
ential equation




34


3.2.5.

Alternating Electric Currents

<CJ chap
23

>

3.2.5.1.

Discussion


3.2.5.2.

Mathematical


3.2.5.3.

Advanced

3.2.5.3.1.

Solve the general RCLV circuit:

L d
2
q/dt
2

+ R dq/dt


+ (1/C) q = V
0


Use
q(t) = q
0

e

t

Find


3.2.5.3.2.

Define


=
-
R/2L

0
2

= 1/LC then


=
-




3.2.5.3.3.

Three cases

result from the square root:


3.2.5.3.3.1.

Over damped




then
q(t) = A e

t
-
t

+ B e

t
-
t



3.2.5.3.3.2.

Critically damped



then
q(t) = A e

t

+

B t e

t

(degenerate case)

3.2.5.3.3.3.

Under
damped



then
q(t) = A e

t
+

1
t

+ B e

t
-

1
t

where


2

=


2

-


2


35


3.3.

Electromagnetism

3.3.1.

Maxwell’s Equations

<CJ chap
24.1
-
24.3

>

3.3.1.1.

Discussion


3.3.1.2.

Mathematical


3.3.1.3.

Advanced

3.3.1.3.1.

Lorentz force equation:

F

= q
E

+ q
v

x
B

( = d
p

/dt by Newton

s equation of motion)

3.3.1.3.2.

Maxwell

s Equations

3.3.1.3.2.1.

Gauss’ law of electricity




d

q
inside

/

0

or

where


is

the charge
density

3.3.1.3.2.2.

Gauss’ law of magnetism

B


d


‰




3.3.1.3.2.3.

Faraday’s law of induction
E
ds

=
-

d/dt
B
d


or

3.3.1.3.2.4.

Ampere’s law modified by Maxwell

B


d
s

=

o
I +

o

o

d
/dt
(
E
d


潲
睨敲攠⁩s⁴桥⁣畲敮琠te湳ity

3.3.1.3.2.5.

The differential forms use the following two equations:

3.3.1.3.2.5.1.


and

3.3.1.3.2.5.2.

Greens Theorem:


36


3.3.2.

Solution in a Vacuum


EM Waves

<CJ chap
24.4
-
24.7

>

3.3.2.1.

Discussion

3.3.2.1.1.

Maxwell solved his equations in a vacuum


meaning no charges or currents on the RHS

3.3.2.1.2.

He found solutions:


3.3.2.1.2.1.

With oscillating E & B perpendicular fields at any frequency, and any amplitude such that
E = cB

3.3.2.1.2.2.

The oscillations move at exactly the
speed of light,
c = (

0


0
)
-
1
\
2

with E & B perpendicular to c

3.3.2.1.3.

The waves carry both energy and momenta and are transverse with the E direction giving polarization

3.3.2.1.3.1.

Polarization can also be circular (left or right handed) corresponding to the spin of the photon

3.3.2.1.4.

The Doppler effec
t
applies to EM waves (like to sound) and raises frequencies of oncoming waves


3.3.2.2.

Mathematical

3.3.2.2.1.

The wave is given by
E(x,t) = E
0
cos (

t + kx

+

)

where



is the phase in radians and

3.3.2.2.1.1.


The angular frequency


is the angular velocity & related to the period
T (=1/f)

by

T = 2


3.3.2.2.1.2.

The wave number k is related to the wave length of a full wave by
k


=
2



3.3.2.2.1.3.

And
E
0

is the amplitude of the wave

restricted

to
E
0

= c B
0

3.3.2.2.1.4.

Likewise,
B(x,t) = B
0
cos (

t + kx

+

)
with the same values and such that

f =

/k = c

3.3.2.2.2.

Energy

and momenta densities of the wave:

3.3.2.2.2.1.

The energy density is given generally by
u = (½)e
0

E
2

+ (1/(2

0
)) B
2


3.3.2.2.2.1.1.

but one must insert the root mean square value for the oscillating fields as
E
rms

= E
0
/(2)
1/2


3.3.2.2.2.1.2.

and likewise for the B field

3.3.2.2.2.1.3.

The energy and moment
a are equally distributed in the E and B fields.

3.3.2.2.2.2.

The intensity of the EM wave is the
power/m
2

= S = c u

where u is the energy density above

3.3.2.2.3.

Doppler effect is given when
v
rel
<< c by
f
o

= f
s

(1

v
rel
/c)

where
refers to approach or recede


3.3.2.3.

Advanced



37


4.

Light & Optics

4.1.1.


Reflection of Light & Mirrors

<CJ chap
25

>

4.1.1.1.

Discussion

4.1.1.1.1.

Flat Mirrors

4.1.1.1.1.1.

Law of reflection is that the angle (to the n
ormal) of reflection equals

the angle of incidence

4.1.1.1.1.2.

The left and right
handiness is reversed in a mirror (eg with handwriting)

4.1.1.1.1.3.

A reflected image is as far behind a mirror as the object is in front
,

and is upright

4.1.1.1.2.


Spherical Mirrors

4.1.1.1.2.1.

Using a
normal to the surface, one can s
how

that the focal length
is half of the radius of the
mirror

4.1.1.1.2.2.

The focal length is here defined as the position of a focused image from infinity

4.1.1.1.2.3.

Likewise for a a reflection in either a convex or concave mirror focal length is half the radius

4.1.1.1.2.4.

Note that not all rays from infinity focus exactly there but only thos
e near the center

4.1.1.1.2.5.

Note ray tracing to form an image of an object in convex & concave mirrors (Example)

4.1.1.1.2.6.

A concave mirror gives enlarged, upright, virtual images in front of the mirror

4.1.1.1.2.7.

A convex mirror gives a smaller
, upright, virtual image behind the mirror

4.1.1.2.

Mathematical

4.1.1.2.1.

Law of reflection is that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection

i
=

r

4.1.1.2.2.

The focal length of both convex and concave mirrors is given by
f = R/2

where R is the radius

4.1.1.2.3.

Let d
o

and d
i

be the distances of the object and image to the mirror then
1/d
o

+ 1/d
i

= 1/f

4.1.1.2.4.

And the magnification is
m =
-

d
i

/d
o

(if negative then image is

inverted, if positive then upright)

4.1.1.3.

Advanced





38


4.1.2.


Refraction of Light & Lenses

<CJ chap
26

>

4.1.2.1.

Discussion

4.1.2.1.1.

The Index of Refraction is ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed in the
material

4.1.2.1.1.1.

Examples are
diamond 2.419, Crown glass 1.523
, Benzene 1.501, Water 1.333, Air 1.000293

4.1.2.1.1.2.

Refraction of different substances gives prism effect to lead crystal etc

4.1.2.1.2.

Total internal reflection


view from beneath water


how a fish sees the fisherman

4.1.2.1.3.

Total internal reflection used in fiber optics and pri
sms for binoculars (glass has index of ref = 42 deg)

4.1.2.1.4.

Brewster

s angle: the angle for a substance that polarizes the reflected light with

reflect
=

refract


4.1.2.1.5.

Dispersion of light:

4.1.2.1.5.1.

Prisms


note red is least diverted (and on the pointed side of prism)

4.1.2.1.5.2.

Rainbo
ws: sunlight enters and is internally reflected in water drops: red is bent least (rainbow top)

4.1.2.1.6.

Farsightedness (hyperopic)
(use
converging
lens)
and nearsightedness (myopic)

(use
diverging
lens
)


4.1.2.1.7.

Lenses in combination (see diagrams)

4.1.2.1.8.

Lens aberrations: spher
ical and chromatic aberration

4.1.2.2.

Mathematical

4.1.2.2.1.

Refraction:

4.1.2.2.1.1.

Index of refraction
n = c/v

where v is the

speed of light in the material

(always n >= 1)

4.1.2.2.1.2.

Snell’s law of refraction
n
1

sin

1

= n
2

sin

2

(light passing from media 1 to 2 angles rel. to normal)

4.1.2.2.2.

Total internal reflection

4.1.2.2.2.1.

Use Snell

s law with

2

= 90 deg. To get

c

= sin
-
1
(n
2

/n
1
)

4.1.2.2.3.

Brewster’s

Law:

reflect
=

refract

occurs when
tan

B

= n
2

/n
1

and the reflected light is polarized

4.1.2.2.4.

Lenses

4.1.2.2.4.1.

Converging lens

formula
1/d
o

+ 1/d
i

= 1/f

with magnification
m

=

h
i

/h
o


=
-

d
i

/d
o

4.1.2.2.4.2.

Sign conventions:

4.1.2.2.4.2.1.

f is + for converging lens,
-

for diverging lense

4.1.2.2.4.2.2.

d
o

is + if object is to the left of the lens (real object) and


if to the right (virtual

object)

4.1.2.2.4.2.3.

d
i

is + for a (real) image formed to the right of the lens by real object, and


to the left

4.1.2.2.4.2.4.

m is + for an image that is upright with respect to the object, and


for inverted

4.1.2.2.4.3.


Magnifying glass magnification
m ap
p
rox
.
= (1/f


1/d
i
) N

where N =

dist. of near point to eye

4.1.2.2.4.4.

Telescope
m ap
p
rox
.=
-
f
o
/f
e

where f
o

& f
e


are the focal lengths of the objective and eyepiece lens



4.1.2.2.4.5.

Microscope
m ap
p
rox
.
=
-
(L
-
f
e
)N/ (f
o
f
e
)
where L is the dist
.

between the lenses & N is near

point

4.1.2.3.

Advanced



39


4.1.3.


Interference

& Wave Nature of Light

<CJ chap
27

>

4.1.3.1.

Discussion

4.1.3.1.1.

Principle of linear superposition: resultant disturbance is the sum of
individual

disturbances

4.1.3.1.2.

Interference is constructive if waves are
in phase, destructive if out of phase


4.1.3.1.3.

Thin film interference descri
bed as with gasoline on water

4.1.3.1.4.

Diffraction through a slit: resolving power is when the first dark band falls on the central bright band

4.1.3.1.5.

Diffraction grating


used to diffract light and create a spectroscope

4.1.3.2.

Mathematical

4.1.3.2.1.

Young’s double slit experiment:
sin


= m(

d)

constructive with m = 0, 1, 2; destructive m = 1/2 , 3/2..

4.1.3.2.2.

Thin film

film

=

vacuum
/n

and

4.1.3.2.2.1.

thus difference of distance = 2thickness + ½

film

(due to reflection)


film

, 3/2

film


4.1.3.2.2.2.

then subtracting ½

film

from each side
one gets 2 t = 0
, 1

film

, 2

film

, 3

film



4.1.3.2.2.3.

then solving for t one gets
t = m

film

/2

where m = 0, 1, 2, 3, …

4.1.3.2.3.

Diffraction through a single slit gives:
sin


= m


/W

where m = 1, 2, …, W=width, for destructive
int
e
r
ference

4.1.3.2.3.1.



min

= 1.22

/D

for the minimum resolutio
n between two objects using an aperture D

4.1.3.2.3.2.

Diffraction grating maxima are sin


= m

/d m = 1, 2, 3 where d is the slit separation

4.1.3.2.3.2.1.

red is dispersed by the greatest angle and violet the least

4.1.3.3.

Advanced



40


5.

Relativity


5.1.1.


Special Relativity

<CJ chap
28

>

5.1.1.1.

Discussion

5.1.1.1.1.

Constancy of c, the velocity of light, to all observers presents a conflict between Newton & Maxwell

5.1.1.1.1.1.

Maxwell EM equations predict that c = (

0

0
)
-
1/2

= 3E8 m/s in vacuum to all frames & observers

5.1.1.1.1.1.1.

Michelson & Morley proved this was true using t
he earths motion: Explain

5.1.1.1.1.1.2.

Attempts to explain c=const. with ‘ether’ theories etc were flawed.

5.1.1.1.1.2.

Newtonian space time is related by
x’=x
-
Vt & t’=t

which implies
v’ = v


V

ie velocities add

5.1.1.1.1.2.1.

This is confirmed by our intuition and everyday experience


Examp
les of cars:

5.1.1.1.2.

Einstein assumed three postulates and allowed for a more general relationship for x & t

5.1.1.1.2.1.

Assumption 1: The laws of physics are identical in
inertially

related (constant v) frames

5.1.1.1.2.2.

Assumption 2: The speed of light in vacuum is a constant.

5.1.1.1.2.3.

Ass
umption 3: The relationship between x & t in two frames is linear for the 4 dimensions

5.1.1.1.3.

Einstein showed that space (len
gth) and time are not each

invariant but transform as
a
4 dim.

v
ector

5.1.1.1.3.1.

This 4
-
vector of space
-
time described an event for one observer & re
lated it to another observer

5.1.1.2.

Mathematical

5.1.1.2.1.

Lorentz Contraction:
One can then show that length is contracted by
L = L
0

(1
-
v
2
/c
2
)
1/2



5.1.1.2.1.1.

where L is the observed length and L
0

is the length in its own rest frame

5.1.1.2.2.

Time Dilation: One can also show that time is ex
panded by
t = t
0

/(1
-
v
2
/c
2
)
1/2


5.1.1.2.2.1.

where t is the observed length and t
0

is the length in its own rest frame

5.1.1.2.2.2.

These effects are only about 1% when one gets to a tenth of the speed of light: v/c =1/10

5.1.1.2.2.3.

Below that relativity is essentially negligible. Yet effe
cts explode near v=c.

5.1.1.2.3.

The old formula for
KE =
p
2
/(2m)

is now replaced by:
(E/c)
2

-

P
x
,
2

-

P
y
2

-

P
z
2

=
m
2
c
2

= E
2
/c
2

-

P
2

5.1.1.2.3.1.

Now using E
2
/c
2

-

P
2

=
m
2
c
2

to solve for E we get

5.1.1.2.3.2.

which is the famous Einstein equation

5.1.1.2.4.

In relativity neithe
r mass nor energy is separately conserved but only their combination
via E=mc
2

5.1.1.2.5.

The negative sign was ignored for 20 years until it was shown to correspond to ‘antimatter’

5.1.1.2.5.1.

Antimatter is identical to matter except of op
posite charge and it annihilates

corres
ponding matter

5.1.1.2.6.

Next we solve
E
2
/c
2

-

P
2

=
m
2
c
2

for m (choose units with c=1):
giving 3 cases:

5.1.1.2.6.1.

E>p giving m >0 and v<c This is ordinary matter and must move slower than c

5.1.1.2.6.2.

E=p giving m = 0 and v=c
These massless particles, such as photons, always have v=c

5.1.1.2.6.3.

E<p giving m imaginary and thus v>c are called tachyons and must move faster than light

5.1.1.2.6.4.

Imaginary mass particles (tachyons) have never been observed nor has negative mass

5.1.1.2.6.5.


5.1.1.3.

Advanced

5.1.1.3.1.

The Lorentz tran
sformation derived:
x’ = L

x

where
x = (ct, x, y, z) = (x
0
, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = x



5.1.1.3.1.1.

This set of four ‘coordinates’ of an event, is a 4 dimensional vector under L

5.1.1.3.1.2.

A sphere of light, ct=r must be seen the same by all observers thus c
2
t
2
-
r
2

=
invariant


5.1.1.3.1.3.

Compute this in two dimensions to get (x’
0
,

x’
1
) = (L
0
0
, L
0
1
,/ L
1
0
, L
1
1
) (x
0
,

x
1
)
then

5.1.1.3.1.4.

One obtains
(L
0
0
, L
0
1
,/ L
1
0
, L
1
1
) = (ch

, sh


/ sh

, ch


)

where
th

= v/c


5.1.1.3.1.4.1.

because of
ch
2


sh
2


= 1

(compare to
cos
2


+ sin
2


= 1
)

5.1.1.3.1.4.2.



5.1.1.3.2.

The scalar product, defining the metric properties of the space is
A
B = g


A

B


where

5.1.1.3.3.

T
he metric for this invariant is g

is d
efined by
g


= (+1,
-
1,
-
1,
-
1)
and g




off diagonal

5.1.1.3.4.

Thus
d

2

=
g

dx


dx


is invariant and is called the proper time
:
d

2

= c
2

dt


-

d
r
2



5.1.1.3.4.1.1.

because it gives the invariant
time interval on a clock on the particle that is moving

5.1.1.3.4.2.

As time is part of a 4 vector, we cannot effectively use it to take derivatives and must use

5.1.1.3.4.2.1.

d



thus giving a 4
-
vector velocity of v


= c dx


/d


(note that ‘c’ give it dimensions of vel)

5.1.1.3.4.2.2.

and one ca
n verify that the invariant lengt
h of this vector is always c

:

g

v

v


c
2


5.1.1.3.5.

The 4
-
vector momentum is thus defined as mass times velocity:
p


= m v


then

g

p

p


m
2
c
2


5.1.1.3.5.1.

Thus
e
nergy
&

momentum form a 4 vector: (E/c, P
x
, P
y
, P
z
) =P


and transform
li
ke
dx



5.1.1.3.6.

When g

p

p


m
2
c
2

is written out it becomes: (E/c)
2

-

P
x
,
2

-

P
y
2

-

P
z
2

=
m
2
c
2

= E
2
/c
2

-

P
2

5.1.1.3.6.1.

This is the relativistic equation relating energy, momentum and mass that replaces E= p
2
/(2m)

5.1.1.3.6.2.

Now using E
2
/c
2

-

P
2

=
m
2
c
2

to solve for E we get

5.1.1.3.6.2.1.


which is the famous Einstein equation


41



5.1.2.


General Relativity & Astrophysics

<CJ chap
28.8 & not in text

>

5.1.2.1.

Discussion

5.1.2.1.1.

Special relativity addresses observers moving with relative constant velocity only

5.1.2.1.2.

General relativity deals with cases

where one observer is accelerated relative to the other

5.1.2.1.3.

Rotating platform: Einstein
argued

that a rotating platform gives a non
-
Euclidian (curved) geometry

5.1.2.1.3.1.

As one moves outward, the Lorentz contraction shortens circumferences to ever smaller values

5.1.2.1.3.2.

Also
as one moves outward, clocks slow down because of time dilation

5.1.2.1.3.3.

Far from the center, where v is alm
ost equal to c, the circumference

is near 0
&

time stands still

5.1.2.1.3.4.

So space and time in accelerated frames is unquestionably curved (not ‘flat’)

5.1.2.1.4.

Elevator exper
iment: Einstein compared an accelerated elevator to the same one in gravity

with a=g

5.1.2.1.4.1.

No experiment with regular matter would distinguish g from a as all mass has the same g

5.1.2.1.4.2.

Yet light is not bent by gravity (as per Newtons equation) but light ‘appears’ bent

with acceleration

5.1.2.1.4.3.

Einstein argued that by symmetry, light should be bent the same amount by g as by a

5.1.2.1.4.4.

This violates the Newton formula for gravity as light has a mass of zero

5.1.2.1.4.5.

His prediction that light from a distant star is bent by the sun was verified

5.1.2.1.5.

Gr
avity (and acceleration) is thus seen as a warped space time where masses follow geodesics

5.1.2.1.6.

The integration of Einstein’s theory is still not reconciled with modern theories of other forces

5.1.2.2.

Mathematical

5.1.2.2.1.

A rotating platform circumference

is shortened by th
e Lorentz contraction: C = C
0

(1
-
v
2
/c
2
)
1/2


5.1.2.2.1.1.

and one can compute at what point the circumference begins to get smaller and at v=c is zero

5.1.2.2.2.

At larger distances from the center, time dilation effects slow time by t = t
0

/(1
-
v
2
/c
2
)
1/2


5.1.2.2.2.1.

where t is the observed

length and t
0

is the length in its own rest frame

5.1.2.2.3.

In both equations, v = r


where


is the angular velocity of the platform

5.1.2.3.

Advanced

5.1.2.3.1.

The mathematical theory of curved spaces is called
Riemannian

geometry or differential geometry

5.1.2.3.2.

The fundamental concept is the metric
g

which i
s used to define scalar product
s

thus length & angl
e

5.1.2.3.3.

Particles (as well as light) follow the shortest distances (called geodesics) in such curved spaces

5.1.2.3.4.

Einstein’s theory thus relates g

for the space to T


which is the energy momentum tensor density



42


6.

Quantum Theory


Atomic, Nuclear, & Particle Ph
ysics

6.1.1.


Foundations of Quantum Mechanics


Particles & Waves

<CJ chap
29

>

6.1.1.1.

Discussion

6.1.1.1.1.

Cavity radiation refers to EM radiation from a hole inside a substance
-
also called blackbody radiation

6.1.1.1.1.1.

Is dependent upon the temperature and independent of the substa
nce making the cavity

6.1.1.1.1.2.

Cavity radiation was found to have a wavelength spectra that could not be explained by theory

6.1.1.1.1.3.

Plan
c
k (1900) proposed that the walls consist of oscillators that emit & absorb only certain quanta

6.1.1.1.1.4.


where
E
em

= n h f

where n = 1,2,.. f =

the frequency of radiation, and
h is a constant 6.626E
-
34

6.1.1.1.2.

Photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from a metal when radiated by ultraviolet light

6.1.1.1.2.1.

Problem 1: The energy of the electrons is independent of the light intensity but depends only on f

6.1.1.1.2.2.

Problem 2: Below a given f of light, no electrons are emitted no matter how intense the light is

6.1.1.1.2.3.

Problem 3: The effect of emission is immediate no matter how low the intensity

6.1.1.1.2.4.

These problems were counter to the Maxwell theory of EM radiation as was cavity

radiation

6.1.1.1.3.

Ei
nstein explained both phenomena

and founded quantum theory postulating photons that
E
em

=hf

6.1.1.1.3.1.

Thus light consisted of these ‘quanta’ of pure massless energy also with momenta
P=h/



6.1.1.1.3.2.

Thus the view of EM radiation as oscillating E and B fields is

only an approximation to photons

6.1.1.1.4.

Arthur Compton in 1923 scattered photons from electrons and showed that


-


= (h/mc)(1
-
cos

)

6.1.1.1.4.1.

This confirmed the Einstein photon hypothesis experimentally

6.1.1.1.5.

Louis De Broglie in 1923 proposed that the same photon equations
E
e
m

=hf, p=h/


apply to matter

6.1.1.1.5.1.

Thus given a particles energy E and momentum p, one can compute an associated f &



6.1.1.1.5.2.

In 1927, Davisson & Germer & Thompson confirmed wave interference effects scattering e
-


6.1.1.1.5.3.

This scattering of e
-

from a crystal gave interferenc
e patterns only possible for a wave like X rays

6.1.1.1.6.

In 1925, Erwin Schrödinger proposed his equation for the ‘motion’ of this ‘matter wave’

(x,y,z,t)

6.1.1.1.7.

In 1925 Werner Heisenberg also proposed an alternate formulation for


in terms of matrix theory

6.1.1.1.8.

In 1926 P.A
.M. Dirac presented a unifying mathematical theory that showed these theories equivalent

6.1.1.1.9.

Heisenberg later showed that


contains information on both the particles position and momenta BUT

6.1.1.1.9.1.

to know more about the position one looses knowledge of the momenta
and
conversely

as:

6.1.1.1.9.2.

Heisenberg uncertainty principle gives the product of these uncertainties as

x

p >= h/4



6.1.1.1.9.3.

Also one has an equivalent equation for energy and time:

t


E

>= h/4


6.1.1.1.9.4.

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle has deep implications for what is simu
ltaneously knowable

6.1.1.2.

Mathematical

6.1.1.2.1.

A particle of mass m, in a box of length L must have an integer number of half waves

6.1.1.2.1.1.

Thus
n


/ 2 = L

thus


= 2 L / n thus
p
n

= h/


= n h / 2L

resulting in a discrete set of momenta

6.1.1.2.1.2.

Using E = P
2
/(2m) we get
E
n

= n
2

h
2
/(8m L
2
)


giving the discrete energies of a particle in a box

6.1.1.3.

Advanced



43


6.1.2.


Atomic Theory

<CJ chap
30

>

6.1.2.1.

Discussion

6.1.2.1.1.

The Thompson model of the atom held that positive charge was spread out like a pudding.

6.1.2.1.2.

In 1911 Rutherford scattered


particles from gol
d foil and showed the nuclear size was ~1E
-
15m

6.1.2.1.3.

This raised the problem of why the electron did not spiral into the center with infinite radiation

6.1.2.1.4.

Atomic spectra was observed at discrete frequencies rather than continuous emissions

6.1.2.1.4.1.

This implied discrete o
rbits for the electron but what equations would make this work

6.1.2.1.5.

In 1913 Bohr proposed his model of the atom with quantized orbits and discrete transitions

6.1.2.1.6.

The Bohr model assume
s

that angular momentum is quantized.

6.1.2.1.7.

The Pauli exclusion principle prevents

two electrons from being in the same shell simultaneously

6.1.2.1.8.

Einstein predicted that if an excited atom is hit with a photon of the decaying energy then ..

6.1.2.1.8.1.

rather than being absorbed, the photon will stimulate the emission of another photon in phase

6.1.2.1.8.2.

This pr
inciple is the basis for the operation of a laser

6.1.2.1.8.3.

LASER means Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

6.1.2.1.9.

X Rays were discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen by hitting electrons on a metal target

6.1.2.2.

Mathematical

6.1.2.2.1.

Atomic spectra was observed to obey:
1/

= R(1/n
1
2



1/n
2
2
)

with terminology of:

6.1.2.2.1.1.


n
1

= 1 Lyman series , n
1

= 2, Balmer series, n
1

= 3

Paschen series …

6.1.2.2.1.2.

Bohr’s model of quantized orbits assumed a quantized angular momentum of
L
n
=n h/(2

),

n= 1,2

6.1.2.2.1.2.1.

This assumption in addition to the classical equ
ations gave workable orbits:

6.1.2.2.1.2.2.

One balances Coulomb force with centripetal force:
mv
2
/r = kZe
2
/r

where Z=# protons

6.1.2.2.1.2.3.

Using these two equations, the radius must be
r
n

= h
2

n
2

/ (4

2
kme
2
Z)
=5.29E
-
11 n
2
/Z

6.1.2.2.1.2.4.

The elect
r
on

s energy is KE+PE = E = (1/2) mv
2


kZe
2
/r

6.1.2.2.1.2.5.


Thus
E
n

= 2

2
mk
2
e
4
/h
2
)(Z
2
/n
2
) =
-
13.6 eV Z
2
/n
2

=
-
2.18E
-
18 J Z
2
/n
2


6.1.2.2.1.2.5.1.

Note that the factor 13.6 eV is the ionization energy of hydrogen (Z=1 & n=1)

6.1.2.2.1.2.6.

Since 1/


f/c = E/hc then
1/

2

2
mk
2
e
4
/
(
ch
3
) (Z
2
/n
2
)

6.1.2.2.1.3.

De

Broglie: If the electron ‘wave’ had to mee
t constructively with itself then
Cir. = 2

r = n


n h/p


6.1.2.2.1.3.1.

Consequently we get quantized angular momentum as r

p =
L =
n (h/ 2

)

6.1.2.2.2.

The Schrödinger equation solution to the hydrogen atom gives the following energy levels:

6.1.2.2.2.1.

The principle quantum number, n = 1,

2, 3, …..

6.1.2.2.2.1.1.

The principle quantum numbers 1, 2, 3,..are denoted by the shell names: K, L, M

6.1.2.2.2.2.

The orbital angular momentum

l

has the values 0, 1, 2, 3, … (n
-
1)

where
L =
(
(
l( l+1))
1/2
)h/2


6.1.2.2.2.2.1.

The orbital angular quantum numbers 0, 1, 2, ..are denoted by the
letters s, p, d, f, g, h,

6.1.2.2.2.3.

There is also a ‘magnetic quantum number’ that has the values



l
,
-

l
+1, …
l
-
1,
l



6.1.2.2.2.3.1.

The magnetic quantum number was seen when levels were split with a magnetic field

6.1.2.2.2.3.2.

It is known to correspond to the z component of the angular mom
entum L
z

6.1.2.2.2.4.

A final splitting of the energy levels occurred due to the z component of the spin of the electron

6.1.2.2.2.5.

The associated counting of levels now exactly counts for the number of electrons in each orbit

6.1.2.2.2.5.1.

The maximum number of electrons in a shell are 2(
2

l
+1)

6.1.2.2.2.5.2.

The denotation of electrons in a shell is say: 2p
5

thus n=2,
l

=1, and with 5 electrons

6.1.2.2.2.5.3.

Thus the configuration of Carbon (6
electrons
) is 1s
2

2s
2

2p
2



6.1.2.2.3.

Pauli Exclusion Principle: No two identical fermions can occupy the same state at the same time

6.1.2.2.3.1.

A

Fermion

is an elementary particle with a spin of ½, 3/2, 5/2, 7/2, … times h/(2

)

6.1.2.2.3.1.1.

Electrons, protons, neutrons, neutrinos, muons, … are all Fermions

6.1.2.2.3.2.

A Boson is an elementary particle with a spin of 0, 1, 2, 3, … times h/(2

) e.g. a photon, pion…

6.1.2.2.3.2.1.

Bosons actually ‘prefer’ to be in the same state rather than being prevented

6.1.2.2.3.3.

Without the

exclusion principle, all electrons would go to the atoms lowest state & not fill shells

6.1.2.2.3.3.1.

Then without a tendency to fill shells, there would be no chemical bonding,

& no biology

6.1.2.2.3.3.2.


6.1.2.3.

Advanced



44


6.1.3.


Nuclear Theory & Radioactivity




<CJ chap
31

>

6.1.3.1.

Discuss
ion

(
)

6.1.3.1.1.

Nucleons are protons or neutrons


the particles that make up the nucleus of the atom

6.1.3.1.1.1.

The neutron was discovered in 1932 by Chadwick with a mass slightly larger than the proton

6.1.3.1.1.2.

The atomic number, Z =the number of protons,

and A the mass number = the number of nucleons

6.1.3.1.1.2.1.

A nucleus is written as
where X is the chemical element corresponding to Z

6.1.3.1.1.2.2.

Isotopes are nuclei with the same number of protons but differing numbers of neutrons

6.1.3.1.1.2.3.

The nuclear forces f
elt by both the p and n are essentially identical

6.1.3.1.1.2.4.

The binding energy is the amount of energy needed to separate the nucleons

6.1.3.1.1.2.5.

The mass defect is the binding energy expressed in mass equivalence via E = mc
2


6.1.3.1.1.2.6.

The binding energy per nucleon is greatest in mi
d
-
range of A (Fe) and less in Li and U

6.1.3.1.1.3.

Nuclear reactions:

6.1.3.1.1.3.1.

Rutherford (1919) observed the first ‘transmutation of an element’ with


+ N
-
> O + H

6.1.3.1.1.4.

Radioactivity is the decay or disintegration of an unstable nucleus

6.1.3.1.1.4.1.


decay: The emission of an alpha particl
e or He nucleus (2p+2n)


easy to stop

6.1.3.1.1.4.1.1.

Example of

decay

-
>

+

+ 4.3 MeV of energy

6.1.3.1.1.4.2.


decay: The emission of an electron (or positron) via n
-
> p + e
-

+
-

not hard to stop

6.1.3.1.1.4.2.1.

Example of


decay

-
>

+


6.1.3.1.1.4.3.


6.1.3.1.1.4.4.



decay:
The emission of a high energy photon releasing energy


needs lead to stop

6.1.3.1.1.4.5.

n decay:

The emission of a

neutron directly from the nucleus

6.1.3.1.1.4.6.

Half
-
life is the time required for half of a substance to undergo disintegration

6.1.3.1.1.4.7.

Radioactive dating:
Carbon 14 has a half life of 5730 years


6.1.3.1.1.4.8.

The Becquerel (Bq) is the unit of radioactivity = 1 disintegration per sec

6.1.3.1.1.4.8.1.

The
Currie (Ci) is another unit of activity:
1 Ci = 3.70E10 Bq = 1 gr

of pure radium

6.1.3.1.1.5.

Biological Effects of Radiation

6.1.3.1.1.5.1.

Ionizing radiation (charges particles or



knocks electrons from atoms & damages cells

6.1.3.1.1.5.1.1.

The SI unit
of ionizing radiation
is the Coulomb per kg or C/kg

6.1.3.1.1.5.1.2.

The Roentgen
(R) = 2.58E
-
4 C/kg

is a more common historical unit

6.1.3.1.1.5.2.

Yet this measures only the ionization effect and not the effect on tissue for
which we use:

6.1.3.1.1.5.2.1.

Absorbed Dose = (Energy absorbed) / (Mass absorbing) unit = Grey (Gy)=J/kg

6.1.3.1.1.5.2.2.

Radiation Absorbed Dose (RAD) = 0.01 Gy is another common unit

6.1.3.1.1.5.3.

To compare the damage of absorbing different kinds of radiation we define:

6.1.3.1.1.5.3.1.

Relative Biological Effectiv
eness (RBE) = (Dose of 200KeV X
-
rays Effect) / (Dose )

6.1.3.1.1.5.3.2.

Then Biologically Equivalent Dose (rems) = Absorbed Dose (in rads) x RBE

6.1.3.1.1.5.3.2.1.

rem stands for roentgen equivalent man

6.1.3.1.1.5.3.2.2.

Humans receive an average dose of
360 mrem/yr from all sources


6.1.3.1.1.5.3.2.3.

(cosmic rays 28, earth 2
8, internal 39, Radon 200, Medical/dental 43,..

6.1.3.1.1.5.3.2.4.

The general population should not get more than 500 mrem / yr

6.1.3.1.1.5.3.2.5.

Workers should not get more than
5 rem / year (eg dental assistant)


6.1.3.2.

Mathematical

6.1.3.2.1.

The approximate radius of the nucleus is
r = 1.2E
-
15 A
1/3


6.1.3.2.2.

Radioactive
disintegration

obeys
N = N
0

e
-

t

thus N/N
0

=1/2 = e
-

T1/2


6.1.3.2.3.

Taking ln of both sides we get ln ½ = ln (
-

T1/2


) thus
T
1/2

= ln2/


thus relating


to T
1/2


6.1.3.3.

Advanced

6.1.3.3.1.

Radioactive decay obeys:
dN(t) =
-

N
0

dt

with the solution:
N = N
0

e
-

t




45


6.1.4.


Elementary Particle Theory

<CJ chap
32

>

6.1.4.1.

Discussion

6.1.4.1.1.

Nuclear fission:


6.1.4.1.1.1.

when heavy nuclei are split into two more stable nuclei with energy release


6.1.4.1.2.

Nuclear
fusion
:


6.1.4.1.2.1.


when light nuclei are combined at temperatures in the sun to m
ake heaver ones

6.1.4.1.3.

Nuclei can be plotted in two dimensions on an A vs Z plot or an N vs Z plot showing all nuclei

6.1.4.1.3.1.

Either plot shows every possible nucleus and is very effective in visualizing decays

6.1.4.1.4.

Elementary Particles: are classified into a number of catego
ries, spin value, interaction strength…:

6.1.4.1.4.1.

Spin: Fermions have half integer spins (½, 3/2, 5/2 ..)

, Bosons integer spins (0,1,2..)


6.1.4.1.4.2.

Strongly interacting particles are called Hadrons (participate in the
nuclear or strong force)

6.1.4.1.4.2.1.

Hadrons that are
Fermions are called Baryons

e.g. p, n,






6.1.4.1.4.2.2.

Hadrons that are
Bosons are called Mesons
e.g.


K,



6.1.4.1.4.3.

Leptons (6) are Fermions that are not Hadrons (have no strong interactions) eg e,





e









6.1.4.1.4.4.

Quarks (6): are the more fundamental particles that compose all of the Hadrons:

u, c, s, c, b, t


6.1.4.1.4.5.

Gauge particles intermediate the forces: Gravity g
raviton
, EM

, Weak Z, W , Strong g
luon

6.1.4.1.5.

Particles can be specified in classes by their quantum numbers (charge, strangeness, isospin, …)

6.1.4.1.5.1.

Particles so plotted in these quantum number spa
ces have patterns as representations of groups

6.1.4.1.5.2.

These group theory patterns have given a basic order to the more than 300 elementary particles

6.1.4.1.5.3.

The model for this group theory is called the standard model with the following general idea:

6.1.4.1.5.3.1.

All hadrons are comp
osites made of quarks (eg p = (d+u+u), n = (d+d+u),


=(d+anti u)

6.1.4.1.5.3.2.

The 6 leptons and 6 quarks have very parallel interactions for EM and Weak interactions

6.1.4.1.6.

Cosmology is the study of the structure and evolution of the universe

6.1.4.1.6.1.

Hubble discovered that distant galaxies are all moving away from each other

6.1.4.1.6.1.1.

Thus
the universe is expanding, and furthermore this expansion is accelerating

6.1.4.1.6.1.2.

The expansion should slow due to gravity but dark energy is causing the increase

6.1.4.1.6.1.3.

The big bang is estimated to have occurred about 13.6E9 years ago

6.1.4.1.6.1.4.

The cosmic background radiation is
today at a temperature of about 2.7 K

6.1.4.1.6.2.

There are approximately 1E
11 stars in our galaxy (the Milkey Way)

6.1.4.1.6.2.1.

There are approximately 1E11 galaxies in our universe



6.1.4.2.

Mathematical

6.1.4.2.1.

Cosmology:

6.1.4.2.1.1.

Hubble’s law of expansion:
v = H d

where H is
the Hubble parameter 0.0
22 m/(s ly)



6.1.4.3.

Advanced


46


7.

Mathematics Background

<CJ chap
1 & Appendix

>

7.1.

The Number Systems:

Originate in the acts of counting and measuring then arithmetic operations:

7.1.1.

The number system: Be able to perform all +
-

* / ^ operations with all types:

7.1.2.

Integ
ers

7.1.2.1.

Positive integers

/ whole numbers
(counting)

1, 2, 3,… Know +
-

* / a
b
= a^b

7.1.2.2.

Negative integers (inverse addition)
-
1,
-
2,
-
3…
(
from
inverse addition)

3 + x =0 or x =
-
3

7.1.2.3.

Zero


for a long time this was not a number
, It was not apparent that
a
symbol

for nothing

was needed

7.1.3.

Rational numbers
/ fractions
= a/b (ratios o
f integers from inverse

multiplication
) a * x =1 or x=1/a

7.1.4.

Irrational numbers
/ non
-
repeating decimals
(from inverse exponentiation) a
b

such as (2)
1/2

7.1.5.

Complex numbers (a
lso from inverse exponentiation

with negative numbers
)

(
-
1)
1/2

= i

7.1.5.1.

imaginary numbers and complex values = a + ib

7.1.5.2.

With infinity, the complex numbers close under all operations.

7.1.6.

Infinity: Cantor


concept of 1 to 1 matching



multiple levels of infinit
y

7.1.6.1.

Infinity of counting 1,2,3,… Note same value as even integers

7.1.6.1.1.

Same as the infinity of rational numbers a/b

7.1.6.2.

Infinity of real numbers

7.1.6.3.

Infinity of functions

7.1.7.


‘Scientific
notation (
numbers
)
’: 1.23456E3 = 1.23456*10
3

= 1234.56

likewise 4.56E
-
2 = 0.0456

7.1.8.



Binary numbers: 10111.0011 or even in scientific notation as 1.1001E101

7.1.8.1.

Other number bases are often taken as 8 or 16 symbols.

7.1.9.


‘Uncertain numbers’ (numerical uncertainty or fuzzy numbers) 1.23 = 1.23???...

Problems:

7.1.10.

‘Order of magnitude numbers’
2E32 or maybe just 1E32 and calculations.

Problems:



7.2.

Data & Metadata:

7.2.1.


Data is meaningless by itself except as an abstract number.

7.2.2.


We generally need a form like < metadata | data > where metadata contains the units & a description.

7.2.2.1.

For example < | 68
.3> is simply a numerical value without metadata on its meaning

7.2.2.2.

While <Jack’s mass |kg| > is metadata without a value

7.2.2.3.

Then <Jacks mass|kg|68.3> is both metadata (including units) and the data.

7.2.3.


Data usually takes the form of a scientific number but can als
o be symbolic such as e,

, i,




7.3.

Units


Originate as the foundational metadata as the number of basic entities (the units):

7.3.1.

The value for a physical quantity is normally a quantity (real number) of fundamental ‘units’ that constitute the
quantity suc
h as 12 ft, 4 m, 13.5 s, or 9.8 m/s
2


7.3.2.

The ‘fundamental’ units:
length
(meter = m),
time

(second = s),
mass

(kilogram = kg).

7.3.2.1.

Kilogram: The mass of a specific platinum
-
iridium alloy cylinder in Paris.

7.3.2.1.1.

The kilogram was initially defined as the mass of 10
-
3

M
3

of water

7.3.2.2.

Second: 9,192,631,700 oscillations of radiation from cesium 133 (
the current definition
since 1967)

7.3.2.2.1.

Before 1960 was 1/86,400 of average solar day

(60 s / min, 60 min/hr, 24 hr /day)

7.3.2.3.

Meter: The distance light travels in 1/299,792,458 s (
the cu
rrent definition
since 1983)

7.3.2.3.1.

Originally 10
-
7 of the distance from the equator to the north pole. (1799)

7.3.2.3.2.

Until 1960, the distance between two lines on a platinum iridium bar in Paris

7.3.2.3.3.

In 1960 was defined as the 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of Krypton 86 light

7.3.3.

E
nglish Units: foot, inch, hand, yard, cubit, fathom, mile, acre, (also, day, hour, min..)

7.3.4.

Additional units are needed to measure: electrical current (Ampere = A), temperature (degrees Kelvin = K), and
brightness (candela = cd).

7.3.5.

Dimensional analysis: only
add & subtract units of the same type (apples to apples).

7.3.6.


Examples of lengths, masses, times, velocity of light (3E8 m/s) & sound (1100 ft / sec)



47


7.4.

Special Terms & Prefixes:

7.4.1.

Prefixes
:

7.4.1.1.

Kilo

10
3
, Mega

10
6
,
Giga

10
9
, Tera

10
12
, Peta

10
15
, Exa

10
18

, Zetta
10
21
, Yotta 10
24


7.4.1.2.

Milli

10
-
3
, Micro

10
-
6

Nano

10
-
9

Pico 10
-
12

Femto 10
-
15

, Atto 10
-
18
, Zepto 10
-
21
, Yocto 10
-
24


7.4.1.3.

Hecto 10
2
, Deka 10
1

, Deci 10
-
1

,
Centi

10
-
2
,

7.4.2.

The Greek alphabet


useful to know and recognize

7.4.2.1.









7.5.

Supporting concepts in Logic



Origin in the special operations of logical & rational thought:


7.5.1.

Special notations

7.5.1.1.

There exists


7.5.1.2.

Therefore

7.5.1.3.

Member of



7.5.1.4.

Such that


7.5.1.5.

Implies


7.5.1.6.

For all


7.5.1.7.

Isomorphic

1
-
1

7.5.1.8.

Infinity

7.5.1.9.

Equality = and not equal


7.5.1.10.

Equal by definition or identical to


7.5.1.11.

Greater than >, less than <

and also greater than or equal to >=

7.5.1.12.


Includes


7.5.1.13.

Logic
& Set Theory

7.5.1.13.1.

El
ements 1, 0 or T, F

7.5.1.13.2.

Operations AND, OR, NOT, NOR NAND, EQV, (16
operations
)

7.5.1.13.3.

And

7.5.1.13.4.

Or

7.5.1.13.5.

Not


7.5.1.13.6.

Union

7.5.1.13.7.

Intersection

7.5.1.13.8.

Set


{s}

7.5.1.13.9.

Null Set



7.6.

Basic Algebra



Origin in expressing relationships among quantities represented by symbols.

7.6.1.


Generally we then take the relationships and derive simp
ler equivalent relationships

7.6.2.


Equations: Solve by doing the same thing to both sides of an equation

7.6.3.


Powers add x
a

* x
b

= x
(a+b)

(x
a
)
b

= x
(a*b)

7.6.4.


Factoring x
2



y
2

= (x+y)*(x
-
y)

7.6.5.


Quadratic Equation solutions ax
2

+bx +c =0

solution: x =

7.6.6.


Linear equations: y = mx+b gives b as intersection at x=0 and m=slope

7.6.7.


Simultaneous equations
-

solution is intersection

7.6.8.


Logarithms log a + log b = log (a*b) and log a
-

log b = log (a/b)

7.6.8.1.

y = log
a
x implies x = a
y

7.6.8.2.

b
log
a
(x)

=
log
a
(x
b
)

7.6.8.3.

log
a

b = log
e

b / log
e

a

this allows one to convert log from one base to another

7.6.9.


S
ocioeconomic variables (population, electric use)

7.6.9.1.

A
re
generally
exponential

in time and thus their logarithms are linear in time

7.6.9.2.


R
atios of socioeconomic

variables are relatively constant

7.6.9.3.

Income and net worth are generally log normal (their logarithms are a normal distribution)



7.7.

Geometry



Origin in characterizing geometrical shapes in 2 and 3 dimensions


7.7.1.

Angular degrees & radians


s/r

7.7.2.

Area & volume

7.7.2.1.

Rectangle & rectangular solids, parallelogram area

7.7.2.2.

Triangle

A = ½ base * height

7.7.2.3.

Circle C=2


r A=


r
2

Sphere A = 4


r
2

V = (4/3)


r
3


7.7.2.4.

Cylinder


r
2

* height


48


7.8.

Trigonometry



Origin is in the ratios of sides of s
imilar triangles (which have identical angles)

7.8.1.


Right triangles are the most fundamental

shapes

and a
ll others can be made from these

7.8.2.


Basic triangle x y r: sin

y/r , cos

x/r , tan

y/x = sin


/
cos



7.8.2.1.

The problem is then to relate the
se ratios (say for r = 1) to


as a fraction of a circle (or better yet in radians)

7.8.3.


sin
2


+
cos
2



review trig identities

7.8.4.


Unit circle / complex numbers:
e
i
x
x
+
i sin
x



z = u + iv = re
i


+
i r
sin




7.9.


Series expansions



Originate in solutions to equations for transcendental values

7.9.1.


e
x

= 1 + x + x
2
/2! + x
3
/3! + x
4
/4! …..

7.9.2.


log(1+x) = x


x
2
/2 +

x
3
/3
-


7.9.3.



sin




3
/3! +


5
/5! and cos


= 1
-


2
/2! +

4
/4!

7.9.4.


or sin x


e
ix



e
-
i
x
)

/2i cos x =

e
ix

+ e
-
i
x
)

/2 and cos
2
x + sin
2
x = 1

7.9.5.


sh
(
x
) = sinh(x)



e
x



e
-
x
)/2 ch
(
x
)

= cosh(x)
=

e
x

+ e
-
x
)/2 give the hyperbolic functions ch
2
x
-

sh
2
x = 1

7.9.6.


Binomial series (a + b)
n

= a
n

+ n a
(n
-
1)
b + n(n
-
1) a
(
n
-
2)

b
2
/2! +

(note divide by the larger of a or b to make b small


7.9.7.


Taylor series
f(x) = f
|
(x0)
+ f’
|
(x0)
(x
-
x
0
) +

(1/2!) f”
|
(x0)

(x
-
x
0
)
2






7.10.

Calculus


Originates in the limits of ratios of infinitesimal quantities and sums of infinitesimal quantit
ies

7.10.1.

Define velocity v(t) and acceleration a(t) from position r(t). (1 dim & 3 dim)

7.10.2.

Use constant a = a
0

to get standard equations for esp
.

a = g
=
acceleration of gravity

on earth at the surface



7.11.

Scalars, Vectors, Matrices, Tensors

Linear Algebra & Matrix

Theory

7.11.1.

Scalar: Specified by a single real number: time, temperature, mass, volume, energy

7.11.2.

Vector: An ordered n
-
tupe of real numbers: (x, y, z) or (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) eg (1,
-
5,0)

7.11.2.1.

The dimensionality of a space is the number of numbers needed to specify a point.

7.11.2.2.

A
vector in that space has exactly that many ordered numbers in its specification

7.11.2.3.

Examples are position, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum

7.11.2.4.

The components of a vector must transform exactly like the coordinates under a transformation.

7.11.3.

Matrix: A two dim
ensional array of numbers C
ij

where i is the row and j is the column

7.11.3.1.

A matrix is often used to perform a linear transformation on a vector

7.11.3.2.

Also used
to solve a set of simultaneous linear equations. <example of rotations>

7.11.3.3.

Commutation of matrices


a matri
x as a linear operator [A,B] = AB


BA

7.11.4.

A scalar is a tensor of rank 0, a vector is a tensor of rank 1, a matrix is a tensor of rank 2

7.11.5.

Operations with vectors:

7.11.5.1.

Graphical (as used in high school)

7.11.5.2.

i, j, k unit vectors as used in some engineering texts (do not

use this notation)

7.11.5.3.

r = (x, y, z) or (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) or simply as x
i

or for example (3,
-
2, 5)

7.11.5.4.

Linear Vector Space (LVS):
Addition, subtraction,

&

multiplication by a scalar <examples>

7.11.5.5.

Metric Space

(LVS with a scalar product):
Scalar product
A


B

= |A| |B| cos



7.11.5.5.1.

Note that this contains the Pythagorean theorem

7.11.5.5.2.

Thus
A


B

= A
x

B
x

+ A
y

B
y

+ A
z

B
z


= g


A

B


where generally the metric can be functions of x

7.11.6.

More Advanced foundations of vector notation

for LVS (Linear Vector Spaces)

7.11.6.1.

V
ectors are denoted | a, b, c …> for the space and < a, b, c …| for the dual space.

7.11.6.1.1.

A finite or infinite dimensional
LVS

is spanned by an orthonormal set | i > where i ranges over indices

7.11.6.1.2.

The scalar product is then given by < i | j > =

ij

or perhaps wi
th a metric g as < i |g| j >

7.11.6.1.3.

The decomposition of unity is given by 1 =


| i > < Ii > where


represents a sum or integral over i

7.11.6.2.

Abstract operations such as | x > = L | y > can be put into a given basis by the decomposition of unity as

7.11.6.2.1.

< j | x > = < j

| L


| i > < Ii > | y > which gives the familiar form: x
j

=

i

L
ji

y
i


7.11.6.3.

A LVS with a commutator defined is a
Lie Algebra
: [L
i
, L
j
] = c
ijk

L
k


7.11.6.3.1.1.

(where c is
antisymmetric

and obeys the Jacobi identity)

7.11.6.3.2.

A Lie algebra generates the transformations of a
L
ie (continuous group
) via G(s) = e
sL

(s = real #)



49

8
.
Some Useful Values

Energy & Power Related Concepts

Energy Units


1 Joule = F*d= Newton * Meter


1 K Calorie = 4186

J


= heat necessary to raise the temp of 1 Kg of H2O by 1 deg C



1 calorie


= hea
t necessary to raise the temp of 1 gram of H20 by 1 deg C


1 BTU

= 1055

J


= heat necessary to raise the temp of 1 lb H20 by 1 deg F


1 KWHR = 3.6 E6 J


= 1 Kilo Watt of power times 1 hour


1 Therm = 1E5 BTU


= heat content of 100 ft3 of natural gas


1
Kilo Ton = 1
E
12 cal


= energy in one thousand tons of TNT


1
Barrel

Oil = 5.6E6 BTU

= energy of crude oil per
barrel


1 KG of chemical fuel =
1E7


5E7 J

energy range of chemical processes (bread 1100KC/lb to Nat Gas)


1 KG of nuclear fuel = 1E14

= f
usion or
fission

process


1 KG of matter
-
antimatter = 1E17 = total matter antimatter annihilation


1 kitchen match = 1 BTU



1 ev = 1.6E
-
19 J


= energy from 1 electron falling between 1 Volt potential difference


Power Units


1 Watt = 1 J / s


1 HP = 745
.7 W



= power from 1 horse


1 person’s energy per day

= 2000KC/day = about 100W


1 person’s maximum power

= 100 W
continuous
, 400 W peak


Solar power per area



1.4 KW / m
2



= Max value above atmosphere



1KW / m
2



= Max at equator at noon on a clear

day



200 W / m
2



= US & SC year round Average (day, night, rain sun)



1.7E17 W / whole earth


= total solar power to the earth


Wood gives 2 tons/acre / year


= 0.2 W /m
2

thus is 1% efficient


Average US person total energy very approximately is 18

KW / person




Person walking 260 BTU/mile


Person on bike

80 BTU/mile



Automobile

10,000 BTU/mile if 1 occupant only



Efficiency
(approximate values)


Agriculture



Primitive use is 0.2 to 0.5 C to get 1 C



Modern use

is
15 C to get 1 C


Heat Pump

(eg in SC)


200%


Oil or NG furnace


85%


Passive Solar



45%


Active Solar Cells to Elec.

10%


Incandescent Light


3%


Fluorescent light


15%


Notes:


Doubling Time:


% * t = 72



Population


US



300 Million

(October 2007)


The Earth


6
.5

Billio
n

(2007
)


State of SC


4 Million



50

9. How to Best Process This Material as a Physics Course:


This course is not a ‘tech school’ course but a demanding and hopefully enriching major university course developing a broad
base of
technical knowledge and ins
ights, coupled with new methods of thinking. Specifically we seek:

1. To learn the foundational laws of nature and science that underlie, not just Physics, but by virtue of being foundational,

underlie also
Chemistry, Biology, Geology, Engineering, Biol
ogy, Medicine, Health Science, and other scientific fields.

2. To learn specifically the fundamental concepts, their definitions, their experimental and theoretical relationships among
one another
(equations) and fundamental values and associated constan
ts and units.

3. To become experienced in estimation, numerical uncertainty, order of magnitude estimation, and problem solving.

4. To learn how ‘science’ operates: the interplay of theory and experiment and the linking of a model, with confirmation of e
xisting data
and prediction of new data.

5. To experience mathematics as a tool of theoretical modeling, prediction, measurement


ie with mathematics as a language.

6. To learn how to think analytically and synthetically: what to question and how, and h
ow to identify what should be generally
accepted and thus questioned less often. To build ability and an associated confidence in reasoning in new domains.

7. To learn a sense of history, and the role of science and technology in the historical evolution
of man and civilization.

8. To understand how the human view of nature comprises a limited domain: m, a, v, x, t, g, color/freq, sound etc. Especially

how our
senses translate stimulus and register its logarithm.

8.

Specifically we seek to understand this u
nderlying theoretical structure along with its successes and current limitations in a holistic
manner.



Recommendation of how to learn the most with the least effort:

1. Preview material prior to each class: We will follow the text and
the syllabus

and specifically
the typed lecture notes available on the
Web


Print this and bring it to class each time.

Prior to each class, preview the material for the next class even if just for 10 minutes.
That way, you know what is in the book and my typed not
es, and what things are important about those concepts. One will get an
overview of the material to be covered and this makes it far easier to rapidly assimilate the lecture and to take notes that
complement
(and do not reproduce) the text.

2. Attend a
ll classes for the entire period: I am not impressed with the taking of voluminous notes, but rather the student who listens,

absorbs, and assimilates the lecture. Your notes should indicate where the concentration areas, important concepts, things t
o be
ignored,
and what will be on the tests.
Really listen with full attention
.

3. After class but that same day, create a nice set of notes: With your class notes in front of you, your text open to the c
lass material,
with your memory of your pre
-
class readi
ng of the text, the class notes on the web site, and the knowledge learned in class, then make a
set of clear neat notes that condenses the class lecture and the text. Use the class web site to keep up to date and print ou
t older pertinent
exams etc.

4. R
eview these condensed notes prior to each exam: Use the condensed notes to review for the exam along with the text. Practice
taking the older tests where pertinent. It is always best to study with other students and share information and to explain
concep
ts to
others. It is a fact that if you explain something and teach someone else, you will learn more in the process than they do,
so never
hesitate to help others. In the process of teaching, you will formulate the concepts and relationships more clearly
.

5. After each of the four tests, classify your errors into types such as (a) arithmetic or algebraic mistake in calculation,
(b) forgot
formula, (c) could not convert the word explanation or setting into a mathematical setting, (d) carelessness (eg ma
rking the wrong
question or alternative.

6. Never miss class if possible


attendance is required. Never cut a test if possible all tests are required.