Assessment of Lane Recognition Systems

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16 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide1
Assessmentof
LaneRecognitionSystems
Dr. Dirk Dickmanns
Perceptionof the
DrivingEnvironment
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide2
1.Motivation
2.Principle
3.Reference System “GroundView”
4.Evaluation
5.Implementation
6.Extensions
Assessment of Lane Recognition Systems
Overview
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide3
Perceptionisgenerallyunsafe
Motivation
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide4
•up to now: main use in Driver Assistance Systems (DAS)
•future: increasing use in Active Safety (AS)
demanding requirements on perception systems
Active Safety
Motivation
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide5
Requirement
Objective assessment of perception systems for
•development and optimization
•test and validation
•clearance (amount of testing!)
also as regression test in the laboratory
Motivation
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide6
Comparison to “ground truth”
compare the results of the assessed target
systems with the “real world”(ground truth
reference data)
Principle
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide7
for comparison with the ground truth:
•What is perceived (e.g. additionally neighbouring lanes)
•Availability (correct / false negative / false positive)
•Accuracy (and Dependability)
•Number of state changes
•Computational complexity
Quality measures: distance metrics to ground truth
Dependability: (correctly) available and sufficiently accurate
Assessment Criteria
Principle
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide8
GroundTruth How to get the ground truth:
•Human
•Simulation (be careful!)
•Reference system
Principle
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide9
ReferenceSystems
Useof bettersensorsand algorithms:
•additional sensors
•optimisedpositioningof sensors
•betterenvironmentconditions(lighting)
•moreelaboratealgorithms
•morecomputationpower
•offline processingand human interaction
Principle
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide10
Hardware
•2 camerason rooftopracklookingdownwards
•compactCar-PCwithframegrabberund CAN-interface
ReferenceSystem „GroundView“
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide11
•Laser rangefinder: movementof carbody
ReferenceSystem „GroundView“
Hardware
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide12
•Inertialplatformwith
•Laser gyros
•accelerometers
•CarrierPhase Differential GPS
•Reference camera odertarget system looking forward
•Additional reference camera looking rearward
•(Infrared) lighting sidewardsand rearwards
ReferenceSystem „GroundView“
Hardware Extensions
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide13
•Software of FORWISS Passau (Project ElectronicEye)
•Ongoingwork: Flatcalibrationobjectinsteadof cube
IntrinsicCalibration: „Cube“
ReferenceSystem „GroundView“
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide14
•Software of FORWISS Passau (Project ElectronicEye)
ExtrinsicCalibration: „Carpet“
ReferenceSystem „GroundView“
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide15
•LaneRecgnition-Software(Realis) refactoredand
adapted
•InteractivePost Processingof theReferenceData
Line Extraction
ReferenceSystem „GroundView“
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide16
Evaluation
Perception Performance
Availability: Percentage of
•correctly not available (nothing there)
•correctly available
•false negative (item not detected)
•false positive (“ghost”item)
for left and right lane marking and outer lane markers
Not dependable is worse than not available:
False positives are particularly critical
Low number of state changes desired
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide17
Evaluation
Perception Performance
Accuracy of estimated parameters
Offset: tolerance band according to ISO
+/-15 cm at the desired warning position
(large line offsets have lesser requirements)
Other values: yaw angle, curvature, line widths
•mean absolute/relative differences
•root mean square
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide18
DAS/AS Performance
DAS/AS Availability LDWS (TLC/HC):
•Two lines detected
•Speed > 60 km/h
•No blinker or warning light
•No braking, no massive acceleration
•System reaction close to line only
Functional relevance of perception problems
DAS/AS performance can be derived from perception
performance
Evaluation
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide19
Autobahn: 59km, 00:43:27
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Ref. TimesAvail. TimeRel. Time
[%]
Lieferant 1
Lieferant 2
Lieferant 3
Lieferant 4
Example
Evaluation
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide20
Break Down of Results
Road Type: Autobahn, countryroad, city/village
Knownproblematicsituations:
•bad lanemarkings(USA: Bottsdots)
•Rain, snow, back light, shadows
•Tunnels, constructionareas, targrooves
•Double lines, split/merge, widening/narrowing
•Short dashes, longgaps(France)
•checkeredlanemarkings(Sweden)
Evaluation
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide21
Break Down of Results
specificregressiontest datasets
•Attributingof videoclips: Typology
•automatictestruns
also due to huge amount of data:
•Data rate with image processing about 10-100 GB/h
•in total, at least several 100h are desired for DAS, more
for AS, especially of the problematic situations
•Image/video compression 1:10-1:50; artefacts!
•Image data server: several TB
Evaluation
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide22
Implementation
Advantages of Ada 95
•Ada-mindset(beyondcoding)
•Qualityand Safety
•Refactoring
•Developmentprocess
•Reuse of existingsoftware
•Portability
…butloadsof provisos…
BMW Group
Elektronics
Longitudinal Dynamics
2006-June-07
RST-AE 2006
Slide23
Extensions
GroundTruthin Digital Maps
Groundtruth:
•Up to now: discrete(attributesof typology) or
dynamical(datatrack), butalwaysrelatedto a specific
videoclip
•Future: staticdatageo-referencedin digital mapsor
mapextensions
Advantages:
•Groundtruthwill beavailablefornewrecordingsand
sensors
•Good environmentalconditionscanbeusedto gather
groundtruth, canthenbeusedunderhardconditions