Chapter 1 - UiTM Pahang

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Your Interactive Guide
to the Digital World

Discovering


Computers 2012

Chapter 1

Basic Introduction to Computers

Objectives Overview

Explain why computer
literacy is vital to success
in today’s world

Define the term,
computer, and describe
the relationship
between data and
information

Describe the five
components of a
computer

Discuss the advantages
and disadvantages that
users experience when
working with computers

Define the term,
network, and identify
benefits of sharing
resources on a network

Discuss the uses of the
Internet and World Wide
Web

Discuss the special
information
requirements of an
enterprise
-
sized
corporation

Identify information
systems and software
used in the functional
units of an enterprise

Describe and list general
purpose and integrated
information systems
used throughout an
enterprise

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See Page 3

for Detailed Objectives

Objectives Overview

Distinguish between system
software and application
software

Differentiate among types,
sizes, and functions of
computers in each category

Describe the role of each
element in an information
system

Explain how home users,
small office/home office
users, mobile users, power
users, and enterprise users
each interact with
computers

Discuss how society uses
computers in education,
finance, government, health
care, science, publishing,
travel, and manufacturing

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1

3

See Page 3

for Detailed Objectives

A World of Computers


Computers are everywhere

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Pages 4
-

5

Figure 1
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1

What Is Enterprise Computing?


Enterprise computing

involves the use of computers in networks,
such as LANs and WANs, or a series of interconnected networks
that encompass a variety of different operating systems, protocols,
and network architectures

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What Is Enterprise Computing?


Types of enterprises include:

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Retail

Manufacturing

Service

Wholesale

Government

Educational

Transportation

What Is Enterprise Computing?


Most traditional enterprises are organized in a
hierarchical manner

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723

Figure 14
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What Is Enterprise Computing?


In an enterprise, users typically fall into one of
four categories:

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Figure 14
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Executive
Management

Middle
Management

Operational Management

Nonmanagement

Employees

What Is Enterprise Computing?


Enterprise information

is the information
gathered in the ongoing operations of an
enterprise
-
sized organization


Business intelligence


Business process management


Business process automation

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What Is Enterprise Computing?


Managers

coordinate resources by performing
four activities

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Figure 14
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4

Planning

Organizing

Leading

Controlling

Information Systems in the Enterprise


An
information system

is a set of hardware,
software, data, people, and procedures that work
together to produce information

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Figure 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise


Functional units within an enterprise might
include:

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Enterprise

Accounting
and Finance

Human
Resources

Engineering or
Product
Development

Manufacturing

Marketing

Sales

Distribution

Customer
Service

Information
Technology

Information Systems in the Enterprise


Accounting software manages everyday transactions


Billing software helps the company reconcile purchases
with customer payments


Financial software helps managers budget, forecast, and
analyze

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728

Figure 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise


A
human resources
information system

(
HRIS
)
manages one or more
human resources functions


Employee relationship
management systems
manage communication
between employees and
the business

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Figure 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise


Computer
-
aided design

(
CAD
) uses a computer and
special software to aid in engineering, drafting, and
design


Computer
-
aided engineering

(
CAE
) uses computers to
test product designs

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729

Figure 14
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9

Information Systems in the Enterprise


Computer
-
aided
manufacturing
(
CAM
) is
the use of computers to
control production
equipment


Computer
-
integrated
manufacturing

(
CIM
) uses
computers to integrate
the many different
operations of the
manufacturing process

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Figure 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise

Material Requirements
Planning

(
MRP
) uses
software to help monitor and
control processes related to
production

Manufacturing Resource
Planning II
(
MRP II
) is an
extension of MRP and also
includes software that helps
in scheduling

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730

Information Systems in the Enterprise

A quality control system helps an
organization maintain or improve the
quality of its products or services

A marketing information system serves
as a central repository for the tasks of
a marketing department

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Information Systems in the Enterprise


Sales force automation
(
SFA
) software equips
traveling salespeople with the electronic tools
they need to be more productive

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731

Figure 14
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12

Information Systems in the Enterprise


Distribution systems perform the following
functions:

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Provide forecasting
for inventory
control

Manage and track
shipping of
products

Provide information
and analysis on
inventory in a
warehouse

Information Systems in the Enterprise


Customer interaction management

(
CIM
)
software manages the day
-
to
-
day interactions
with customers

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Figure 14
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Information Systems in the Enterprise


The information technology (IT) department makes
technology decisions for the enterprise


Whether to build or buy new information systems


When a computer or information system has outlived its useful
life


Web site management programs collect data designed to
help organizations make informed decisions regarding
their Web presence

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Information Systems in the Enterprise


General purpose information systems generally
fall into one of five categories

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Office
Information
System

Transaction
Processing
System

Management
Information
System

Decision
Support
System

Expert System

Information Systems in the Enterprise


Batch processing vs. online transaction processing

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Information Systems in the Enterprise

Management Information System

Decision Support System

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735

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15


14
-
16

Information Systems in the Enterprise

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Information Systems in the Enterprise

Integrated Information Systems

Customer relationship
management

manages
information about
customers,
interactions with
customers, past
purchases, and
interests

Enterprise resource
planning

provides
centralized, integrated
software to help
manage and
coordinate ongoing
activities

Content management
systems

are
information systems
that combine
databases, software,
and procedures

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739

Information Systems in the Enterprise

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18

Information Systems in the Enterprise

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19

What Is a Computer?


A
computer

is an electronic device, operating
under the control of instructions stored in its own
memory

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Page 6

Collects
data


(input)

Processing

Produces
information

(output)

Information Processing Cycle

What Is a Computer?

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The Components of a Computer


A computer contains many electric, electronic, and
mechanical components known as
hardware

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Allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer

Input Device


Hardware component that conveys information to one or more people

Output Device


Case that contains the electronic components of the computer that
are used to process data

System Unit


Records (writes) and/or retrieves (reads) items to and from storage
media

Storage Device


Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and
information to and from one or more computers or mobile devices

Communications
Device

The Components of a Computer

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Advantages and Disadvantages

of Using Computers

Advantages of

Using Computers

Disadvantages of

Using Computers

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Speed

Reliability

Consistency

Storage

Communications

Health Risks

Violation of Privacy

Public Safety

Impact on Labor Force

Impact on Environment

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10

Advantages and Disadvantages

of Using Computers


Green computing

involves reducing the electricity
consumed and environmental waste generated when
using a computer


Strategies include:


Recycling


Regulating manufacturing processes


Extending the life of computers


Immediately donating or properly disposing of replaced computers

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Page 10

Networks and the Internet


A
network

is a
collection of computers
and devices connected
together, often
wirelessly, via
communications
devices and
transmission media

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Networks and the Internet


The
Internet
is a worldwide collection of networks that
connects millions of businesses, government agencies,
educational institutions, and individuals

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Networks and the Internet


People use the Internet for a variety of reasons:

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Communicate

Research and
Access Information

Shop

Bank and Invest

Online Trading

Entertainment

Download Videos

Share Information

Web Application

Networks and the Internet


A
social networking Web site

encourages
members to share their interests, ideas, stories,
photos, music, and videos with other registered
users

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Computer Software


Software
, also called a
program
, tells the
computer what tasks to perform and how to
perform them

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System Software


Operating system


Utility program

Application Software

Computer Software


Installing

is the process of setting up software to
work with the computer, printer, and other
hardware

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Computer Software


A programmer develops
software or writes the
instructions that direct
the computer to
process data into
information

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Categories of Computers

Embedded computers

Supercomputers

Mainframes

Servers

Game consoles

Mobile computers and mobile devices

Personal computers

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Personal Computers


A
personal computer

can perform all of its input,
processing, output, and storage activities by itself


Two popular architectures are the PC and the
Apple


Desktop computer

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Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices

Personal computer you
can carry from place to
place

Examples include
notebook computers
,
laptop computers
,
netbooks
, ultra
-
thins,
and
Tablet PCs

Mobile
Computer

Computing device small
enough to hold in your
hand

Examples include
smart
phones
and
PDAs
,
e
-
book readers
,
handheld
computers
,
portable
media players
, and
digital cameras

Mobile
Device

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Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices

Notebook computer

Tablet PC

Smart phones and PDAs

E
-
book reader

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Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices

Handheld computer

Portable media player

Digital camera

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Game Consoles


A
game console

is a
mobile computing
device designed for
single
-
player or
multiplayer video
games

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Figure 1
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Servers


A
server

controls access
to the hardware,
software, and other
resources on a network


Provides a centralized
storage area for
programs, data, and
information

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Mainframes


A
mainframe

is a large,
expensive, powerful
computer that can
handle hundreds or
thousands of connected
users simultaneously

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Supercomputers


A
supercomputer

is the fastest, most powerful
computer


Fastest supercomputers are capable of processing
more than one quadrillion instructions in a single
second

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Embedded Computers


An
embedded computer

is a special
-
purpose
computer that functions as a component in a
larger product

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Consumer
Electronics


Mobile and digital
telephones


Digital televisions


Cameras


Video recorders


DVD players and
recorders


Answering
machines

Home Automation
Devices


Thermostats


Sprinkling systems


Security
monitoring systems


Appliances


Lights

Automobiles


Antilock brakes


Engine control
modules


Airbag controller


Cruise control

Process Controllers
and Robotics


Remote monitoring
systems


Power monitors


Machine
controllers


Medical devices

Computer Devices
and Office Machines


Keyboards


Printers


Faxes


Copiers

Embedded Computers

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Elements of an Information System

Hardware

Software

Data

People

Procedures

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Elements of an Information System

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Examples of Computer Usage

Home User


Personal financial
management


Web access


Communications


Entertainment

Small Office/Home
Office User


Look up information


Send and receive e
-
mail
messages


Make telephone calls

Mobile User


Connect to other computers
on a network or the Internet


Transfer information


Play video games


Listen to music


Watch movies


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Examples of Computer Usage

Power User


Work with multimedia


Use industry
-
specific
software

Enterprise User


Communicate among
employees


Process high volumes
of transactions


Blog

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Computer Applications in Society

Education

Finance

Government

Health Care

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39

Computer Applications in Society

Science

Publishing

Travel

Manufacturing

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43

Video: Computer History in a Barn

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CLICK TO START

Summary

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Special computing
requirements present
in an enterprise
-
sized
organization

Various types of
users within an
organization

Large information
systems

Summary

62

Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1

Basic computer
concepts

Components of a
computer

Networks, the Internet,
and computer software

Many different
categories of
computers, computer
users, and computer
applications in society

Your Interactive Guide
to the Digital World

Discovering


Computers 2012

Chapter 1

Basic Introduction to Computers

Chapter 1 Complete