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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Project


Hot


Superconductors


The economy based on new knowledge, will create a basis of industrial revolution
in XXI

centur
y
. The penetration into
a
secret of

hot


superconductivity will allow to put in pawn one of
stones in the base of this revolut
ion. We

have

made

the

first

successful

step

in

this

direction
.

In

1998
the mechanism of the room superconductivity was discovered and patented. In

December

2004
the

room

superconductivity

was

obtained experimentally by scientists of Californian
University

(
http://superconductors.org/roomnano.htm)
.
This discovery causes a sensation in the
scientific world, since the room superconductivity results in revolution in communicatory and
power technologies.


We
have
patent
ed

superconductive

devices working up to t
emperatures
up

to 93.50С


«
HOT SUPERCONDUCTORS
».

Use of
hot superconductors
provides to
solve a problem of creation and commercial application
for information and power technologies

of
:




economic super large integrated circuits




neurocomputers




Broadband cab
le communication
s




Power lines of transfer of the electric power




Compact economic electric motors and electrogenerators




Elimination of a problem of friction
due to

a magnetic suspension bracket


Now, the theory of condensed
matter
does not allo
w calculating parameters and
characteristics of
compounds

of any given structure and structures. This theory has not allowed
adequately to describe major experimental
discoverings of

the XX

centur
y



low
-
temperature

and
high
-
temperature superconductivity a
nd to predict
room

superconductivity. It is connected
with
that
conceptions

of the electron
as a
n

unstructured wave of probability or as a mathematical point
now are used

now
.


To understand the mechanism of movement
of electrons
in
a
condensed substance w
e have
constructed new model
of an electron
.
O
ur model
is based on taking into
account
the

spatial
structure
of an electron
,
its field and feature
s

of its movement in the condensed
matter

depending
on external electromagnetic fields and temperature.

As a
result of
our studies
we have found, that in some inorganic materials and polymers
under the certain external conditions
an
unusual movement of an electronic wave as a ring by a
diameter 14.5
nm
, rotating with speed, in 137
2
times of smaller speed of light

is possible
.
In our
model

this electronic ring is
a
two
-
dimensional
object moving in three
-
dimensional space of
a
condensed substance.

In patent (Ilyanok, 2003) it was determined that in some material under certain
external conditions the unusual motion
of an electron is possible when electron is simulated
by a charged ring of radius
nm
2517
.
7
2
0


c
m
r
e



rotating with speed equal to
c
2

. Here

is the modified Planck constant,
e
m

is the elec
tron mass,


is the fine structure constant
and
c

is the speed of light.
The dynamic model of a ring electron

is presented on Figure 1.

From the left to the right there are “cold”
(0.1 eV)
electron, “warm”
(1 eV
-
13.6

eV
)
electron
and “hot" relativistic
(>> 13.6 eV)
electron.




In controversy to the
standard
Cooper phonon
mechanism of
electron coupling
in our model
coupling of
two ring
electrons

the
cross
-
section of interaction
of
them with ions of a lattice
hard
ly
decreases
because
a change of spatial structure of
electron is happened
. Knowing the mechanism
of
coupling of
ring
electrons
one may
to formulate the requirements to high
-
temperature
superconductive

materials.
It has been

appeared, that is possible to c
reate the large new class of
high
-
temperature ceramic and polymeric superconductors working at room and higher
temperatures down to 366.6К (93.50С)

on a basis already of existing technologies and materials.




“Hot” superconductors up to 93.5 C temperatu
re


Spherical
nano
-
dimensional multi
-
layer clusters
by the size about 30
nm
play
a role of
transistors. They
allow a
three
-
dimensional connection with direct
contacts
between
themselves.
Such contact carries out functions
of
managing or having electrodes.
In result, such design allows
to
change the current
planar technology to volumetric three
-
dimensional
one

and to increase
density of packing, and, hence, speed and productivity of the integrated circuits. It will allow
creating parallel matrix computing st
ructures with the large degree of a branching that is very
important at the decision of a problem of creation
of neuro
-
computers
. Certainly, use of
the
room
superconductors will reduce
consumption of energy
and will increase
the
speed of the integrated
cir
cuits. It will allow reviving non
-
realized idea of firm IBM about creation of computers on
superconductors

at
the

new level.


Competition

T
he certain practical successes in this area today are achieved. For example, the firm
“Room T
emperature Superconduct
ors Ink.”A
lready receives
the
room superconductivity in
polymers, which they have named "«ultraconductors" (US Patent 5777292). However this effect
is observed while only in
micrometer

areas. Except for them, the set of research groups searches
quickly
for

an opportunity of creation of
the
room superconductivity in carbon
nanotubes

(
http://superconductors.org/roomnano.htm
)

and others
anisotropic

spatial structures. The absence
for today of the adequate theory brakes
a
development
in
this
field
. It results t
o disproportionate
ly

high material
expenses on
search of an empirical way of the problem

solution
. However
,

practical
achievement
s

in creation
of
ultraconductors already allow really speaking about creation
of a
neurocomputer
on our technology.


A
t presen
t

(April, 2005)
NASA has awarded Rice University’s Carbon Nanotechnology
Laboratory a four
-
year, $11 million contract to produce a prototype power cable made entirely
of carbon nanotubes


(
http://nanotechwire.com/news.asp?nid=1852
)
.



Jefferson D. Howell, J
r., Director, NASA Johnson Space Center



Richard Smalley, Director, Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory (CNL)

The project aims to pioneer methods of producing pure nanotube power cables, known as
quantum wires, which may conduct electricity up to 10 times be
tter than copper and weigh about
one
-
sixth as much. Such technologies may advance NASA's plans to return humans to the moon
and eventually travel to Mars and beyond.

“Technology advances like these are exactly what will be needed to realize the future of
space exploration,” Howell said. “We are extremely fortunate to be able to pool the unique
expertise available at JSC, Rice and the other collaborators in this effort.”

The contract was awarded by NASA’s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. It calls f
or
an additional $4 million in related research at JSC, where researchers will conduct crucial work in
the area of nanotube growth, and at NASA’s Glenn Research Center, where nanotube composites
will be developed for fuel cell components.

Rice’s portion o
f the funding includes support for collaborative projects at Houston
-
based
Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc., which specializes in large
-
scale nanotube production; GHG Corp.;
Duke University and the University of Pennsylvania.

“In the Space Shuttle, the primar
y power distribution system accounts for almost 7 percent
of the craft’s weight,” said Smalley, University Professor, the Gene and Norman Hackerman
Professor of Chemistry, professor of physics and the lead researcher on the project.. “To support
additional

instrumentation and broadband communications, NASA’s next generation of human and
robotic spacecraft will need far more power. For ships assembled in orbit, a copper power
distribution system could wind up accounting for one
-
quarter the weight of the vess
el.”

The contract calls for CNL to provide NASA a one
-
meter prototype of a quantum wire by
2010. This will require major breakthroughs in the production and processing of nanotubes.
Notably, a way has yet to be found to produce a specific type of nanotube
, and of the hundreds of
types available, only about 2 percent are pure metals. These metallic tubes


also known as
“armchair” nanotubes


are the only types that conduct electricity well enough for quantum wires.

“We need to find a way to make just the
nanotubes we want, and we need them in large
quantities,” said CNL Executive Director Howard Schmidt. “Another major focus of the research
will be finding new ways to combine armchair nanotubes, which are single molecules just a
billionth of a meter wide,
into large
-
scale fibers and wires.”


Patent Position

Now we have finished the first stage of our researches and have begun the international
patenting and publication of our results.

ILYANOK A.M.

-

applicant and inventor

Basing on the patent application
РСТ

BY
98
/00012 "QUANTUM
-
SIZE ELECTRONIC
DEVICES AND METHODS OF OPERATING THEREOF"
(80 claims)

we have filed the
enhanced
patent application

РСТ

BY
99
/00012 "QUANTUM
-
SIZE ELECTRONIC DEVICES
AND OPERATING CONDITIONS THEREOF"

(102 claims)
(International Publ
ication Number:
WO 00/41247, 13.07.2000). In 2001 the application entered its Eurasian Regional Phase (EA),
European Regional Phase (EP) in all European states and its National Phases in the USA (US),
South Korea (KR), China (CN).



O
n the patent applicat
ion

EA/200100735/27 in the Eurasian Patent Office

titled
«Quant
ums
ized electronic devices and operating conditions thereof” (70 climes)

the Euroasian
patent №003164 in full volume of the formula of the invention (70 climes) and American patent
US 6,570,224,B1

(102 climes) are taken out.


Our patent is the second one acting in the world after the patent
US

Patent

5777292
(1996).
We

overlap

and

expand

this

patent

as

in

the

volume

of

invention formulae as in the
quantity of patenting countries.


Business Model

Our strategic aim is to obtain a lead position in the specific markets in which our
technologies

enjoy overwhelming advantages. Our st
rategy for accomplishing this uses two
different models:

The "Cola Syrup" model and the "Intellectual Property" (IP) model. We believe
that these two

models will allow us to realise the greatest benefits from our technology.

Cola Syrup Model
.
The Cola Syru
p model is primarily based on license revenue; the
syrup maker doesn't actually

sell a single can of cola, but it does make and control the formula
which is shipped to bottling

plants around the world. The syrup maker in this model owns a
controlling inter
est in the syrup

making plant and licenses to only one bottling plant in each
market (or niche market). In this

model the syrup maker does not interfere in the day
-
to
-
day business of the bottler, who best

knows
both his market and his clients.

This analogy

can be extended to the mass
-
market portion of the
hot superconductors

management industry.

Hot superconductors
can be used in dozens of very distinct fields.

Intellectual Property (IP) Model
.
The IP Model has been successfully used in many
fields where a
significant, new technical

advance has been discovered. Each company that licenses
the intellectual property agrees that

any advances or improvements that they make are
automatically shared with all other licensees.

This ensures that all licensees and sub
-
licensees will
benefit from improvements in the

technology regardless of their origin, and will minimise or
eliminate inter
-
licensee disputes

concerning the technology.

The more companies that have a
vested interest in keeping the technology as the propert
y of the

licenser and licensees, the greater
the resources that can be brought to bear to defend against

intellectual property infringement or
theft elsewhere.


Product

The opening of the new mechanism of hot superconductivity allows to create not only
int
egrated circuits, but also
cable communication lines, not limited in length, lost
-
free, having
a band up to 3.5

10
11

Hz
, that is commensurable with
the
best
optical fiber
communication lines.
Such cables do not require

the

direct and
back
transformation of

an electrical signal in
to

light, as
in
optical fiber
communication lines.

In the field of power
engineering
the hot superconductors should result
to a
technological
revolution. On their basis it is possible to create power cables and wires with density o
f a current
up to 3.4

10
4
A/см
2
, which will replace air
electricity supply
lines, wire
s

of transformers, super
-
power electrogenerators and electromotors.

Also, the hot superconductors
allow solving

the
problem of creation of powerful
inexpensive compact engines / generators withou
t liquid cooling. Such engines can directly be
built in wheels
of electric cars
and combined
cars
. It will allow refusing
from
use of constant
magnets
based
on
rare earth
elements

in electric motors.
It is the
lack
of
rare earths
in a nature
that
brakes tr
ansition of motor industry on combined and
electric cars
.

It is possible to make powerful magnets with a critical field up to 12.5

Т
l

from
hot
superconductors for
tokamacs
,
transport on magnetic
suspe
n
sion
, magnetic bearings, medical
tomography
. Besides
,

it is possible to use
superconductive
coil
s

for accumulation of energy with
specific capacity till 0.06
MJ/l.
It is close to paramet
ers of leaden accumulators. The inductive
accumulators on hot superconductors will much more
effective than
electrolytic
ones by
dynamic
characteristics and have no restrictions
in

amount of cycles
in
the charge/
discharge
category. In
result it will be pos
sible completely to replace
electrolytic
accumulators in
cars
and
electric cars
with
environmentally
safe and eternal inductive accumulators.

Markets

Conectus

(http://www.conectus.org/
)
, Consortium of European Companies Determined to
use superconductivit
y,
announces roadmaps and market forecasts for 2000
-
2010
. It

expects that
during 2005
-
2010 system developments and cost reductions for components will prepare the
economical basis for these new fields
.
They

estimate that their growing contributions to the
world
market will reach about
1.7 B€ in 2010
. The
greatest growth rates
among these emerging
businesses are seen in the fields of
power applications, medical diagnosis and communications
.

As indicated in the table,
LTS

(
Low Temperature Superconductors,

LTS
, about 4K
).

contributions to
the ove
rall market
are predicted to continue their steady growth with
a total market
share exceeding
3.6 B€ in 2010
. Estimates for
HTS
(
High Temperature Superconductors, HTS
,
about 70K
)

are in the range of
1.6 B€ for 2010
. They are based on the forecast th
at
several new
businesses will start off between 2005 and 2010.



Market figures represent the annual sales of materials, components and (sub
-
) systems providing a
specific

technical function for which superconductivity is indispensable. All after sales s
ervices,
warranties and related

maintenance are included. Commercial orders and pre
-
commercial orders
related to RTD activities, prototype

testing and field tests, are included, whereas RTD contracts
are excluded.





Markets for “hot” superconduct
ing

pro
ducts
(about 366 K)
have a forecast growth rate of
seven times those projected for refrigerated superconductors
.

Provisional Estimate of Expenditures

By analogy of
t
he JSC Carbon Nanotube Project

(
NASA has awarded Rice
University’s Carbon Nanotechnology
Laboratory a four
-
year, $11 million contract to
produce a prototype power cable made entirely of carbon nanotubes

(
http://nanotechwire.com/news.asp?nid=1852
)
), f
or the three
-
year period the expendi
ture
will make
more than

12

M EUR


Marketable Products of the Firm

Limited licenses for production technology of
hot superconductors
.

Selection and instruction of the personnel for license buyers.

Preparation of the "umbrella" of patents
related to
“QUANTU
M
-
SIZE ELECTRONIC DEVICES
AND OPERATING CONDITIONS THEREOF” (92
-
102 claims) (US 6,570,224 B1) and Eurasian analog patent
EA patent N 003164
.


P
rofessor Alexander M. Ilyanok

Scientific Adviser