Next Generation Web:

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Next Generation Web:
What’s Next?




Young B. Choi

Department of MIS & CIS

Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania

ychoi@bloomu.edu

Map of the Internet

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02.20.08

SDSC (San Diego Super Computer Center) Image of the Internet
Universe on Display at New York's Museum of Modern Art

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The Internet Cartoons

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Abstract


We explore recent developments on the Web
and forecast future development trends of
Next Generation Web based on the current
technologies and emerging Web technologies
developed by international standard
organizations and changing requirements of
Web users and industry market.


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The Internet World Traffic Map


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1. Introduction


As the Internet has became an essential tool
in our daily lives, the World Wide Web is being
used as the most important utility we can use
to access various resources distributed over
the Internet. Recent wireless and mobile
trends of the Internet are also accelerating
development of its customized Web services
according to diverse users’ requirements.

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1. Introduction


The users need more powerful and
customized Web services with fortified privacy
and security control capabilities.



They are requesting more individualized Web
services and many users are influenced by the
past experience of users of the services they
want to use in choosing their choice of best
Web services [15].


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1. Introduction


There is an increasing demand for Web users
that want fast access time to their target Web
services with vendor
-
neutral Web browser
with a language such as HTML5 and platform
-
independency to reduce the use of
proprietary plug
-
in
-
based RIAs (Rich Internet
Application) such as Microsoft Silverlight, Sun
JavaFX, and Adobe Flash although it will take
time to satisfy demanding requirements of the
Web users.


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2. Next Generation Web

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2. Next Generation Web


Although there can be many definitions of a Next Generation Web, we can
define it roughly as a future Web with enhanced current Web features [13]
plus other emerging features. As the Internet usage environment is
changing with better broadband Internet access and wireless
communications using various mobile communication devices with
converging capabilities of various multimedia services, the shape of future
Web, i.e., Next Generation Web can be figured out as a meaningful
Internet usage tool. Recently, ICANN announced the introduction of non
-
Latin script domain names [3] and it would be one of the biggest changes
in its début of the Internet in 1969. This will enable, more users of the
Internet to use the Web friendly than before and the use of the Internet
will continue to be more active. As new Web services such as Google
Wave [1] which is a kind of convergence Web
-
based e
-
mail service
integrating communication, collaboration, and file sharing services are
available in the market, new interesting features of the Next Generation
Web will be developed by the users’ requirements generated in using
those new Web services in their daily activities [6, 7, 15].



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2. Next Generation Web


Over the Internet, the users started to use the Web conveniently to
execute their common business application programs online since 2006.
These programs are accessible from any Web browser over the Internet
even if the distributive software and data are stored on servers over the
Internet without the users’ knowledge about their locations, expertise in,
or control over the technology infrastructure in the “cloud” that supports
them [10, 16]. Since 2008, global IT enterprises such as Amazon, Google,
and salesforce.com started to deliver services such as IaaS (Infrastructure
as a Service) delivering computer infrastructure typically a platform
virtualization as a service, PaaS (Platform as a Service) delivering a
computing platform and solution stack as a service, SaaS (Software as a
Service) [9] delivering a software application license to customers for use
as a service on demand. But, on the other side, cloud computing also has
the problems to be solved such as security, reliability, availability, and
interoperability issues to satisfy the users’ demands in full.

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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web

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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web


HTML5; This specification provides the details
necessary for producers of HTML content to create
conformant documents, and for others to check the
conformance of existing documents. It is designed:


to describe the syntax and structure of the HTML language


to describe the semantics of HTML elements and their
attributes (that is, to describe what the elements and
attributes represent)


to be clear and unambiguous


to be as concise and readable as possible.


(Source: http://dev.w3.org/html5/markup/)


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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web


Emerging Markup


HTML5



Web technologies are being migrated from early generation of
HTML, HTTP, and URL based Web to current XML/RDF based model
and this migration process will continue. Using the same model,
various higher layer standards are being developed to apply on
various popular domains with Web users’ demands.



As a future Web language candidate , which is the specification of
next major revision of HTML, HTML5 is being defined by the Web
Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) since
June 2004. It is the proposed next standard for its predecessors
including HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0, and DOM Level 2 HTML.


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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web

Web Browsers:




In the development of the latest major Web browsers, Microsoft IE8
(Internet Explorer 8), Mozilla Firefox 3.5, and Opera software Opera 10
with Turbo are showing various features focused on easy access, standard
based, and enhanced security with diverse functionalities. To
accommodate ever increasing demands of wireless and mobile
communications of the Web users

various
mobile Web browsers are
being developed. Microsoft is releasing IE Mobile, Widget and Geo
-
Location, and Mozilla and Opera software are continuously enhancing
Mozilla Mobile with Fennec Project and Opera Mobile 9.7 and Mobile
Widgets respectively although their Web market shares are not that high
compared with Microsoft.




Major Web browsers performance comparison is shown in
Box 2

and
usage of major Web browsers is depicted in
Box 3
.



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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web

Mobile Web



The Web has already gone mobile environment. All of the dynamic and
interactive services of the Web can now reach the mass market of millions
and millions mobile users. All the different technologies and concepts
related to mobile browsing may seem overwhelming. Now, users want to
access their favorite Web sites and content whenever they want,
regardless of their physical location or computer access. Web services
must be available when the user has the need to access them.


Full Web browsing means delivering a full, desktop
-
like browsing
experience to the mobile device, with a compatible browser. Pages are
rendered like on desktop browsers, just as the original Web designer
intended. There are clear advantages for both the site maintainer and the
user: there is no need to maintain two separate versions of a Web site,
one for mobile and one for desktop access. The user receives a similar
experience as with a desktop browser, and is instantly familiar with the
look and feel of the site.

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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web


The solid foundation of the mobile Web is the utilization of
standard Web technologies. Standard technologies both
support interoperability across different platforms and
allow Web developers to apply their existing skills. The
following lists and explains the major Web technologies.


HTML and XHTML (MP) for contents structure


CSS for separating the content and layout


Ajax


a Web 2.0 marriage of XML and JavaScript


Flash Lite brings fascinating interactive media to the mobile
browser


Web Runtime


Web technologies extended outside the
browser


Widgets and WidSets: changing the way information is accessed
[21].

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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web


Many different interpretations exist for the term “Web standards.” “Web
standards” can refer to the actual specification of how a language or technology
works. An industry standards body, such as the World Wide Web Consortium
(W3C), produces these specifications. "Web standards” can also describe the
techniques of applying the language or technology as recommended by the
standards body. These are essentially “best practices” or a development
philosophy. There have been accepted industry Web standards and best practices
for mobile development in place since the late ‘90s. The currently accepted
mobile standards continue to evolve along with mobile devices.


However, mobile devices throughout the world vary in how they render content.
This resembles the differences between Netscape and Internet Explorer in the late
‘90s or even Firefox and Internet Explorer today. However, the mobile device
space is more fragmented: instead of having a few major mobile browsers, there
are many different browser types and thousands of variants.


The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) created the Mobile Web Initiative (MWI).
The goal is to increase recognition of standards and best practices of publishing to
the Mobile Web called mobileOK. The W3C MWI includes industry leading mobile
service providers, handset makers, a variety of mobile publishers and mobile
developers
[22].



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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web

Social Web



The Social Web is currently used to describe how people socialize or
interact with each other throughout the
World Wide Web
. Such people
are brought together through a variety of shared interests. There are
different ways in which people want to
socialize

on the Web today. There
are also two ways in which people socialize with each other in the Social
Web. The most general and most common type is always at a distance
and only on the World Wide Web. In such socializing, there is never face
-
to
-
face personal contact. Much of the socializing on Flickr is sharing of
photos and making comments on the photos of others. However, where
Flickr members come from a common local geographical area, then they
are inclined to get together physically for a common photoshoot. This
exemplifies the second type of socializing through the World Wide Web:
that which leads to real physical contact. Typical examples of the latter
arose historically from
social networking

both within and outside schools
and colleges. Facebook's origins are in the facebook of college students
from
Harvard University
.


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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web


Prior to leaving Forrester to join Altimeter Group, Jeremiah Owyang, along with Josh Bernoff, Cynthia N.
Pflaum, and Emily Bowen, published a report that attempted to bring the future of the Social Web into
focus. If we viewed the content of this research as a social object, the conversations that would transpire
could in fact expedite the development and implementation of the most valuable predictions and
observations contained within.



Today’s social experience is disjointed because consumers have separate identities in each social network
they visit. A simple set of technologies that enable a portable identity will soon empower consumers to
bring their identities with them

transforming marketing, eCommerce, CRM, and advertising. IDs are just
the beginning of this transformation, in which the Web will evolve step by step from separate social sites
into a shared social experience. Consumers will rely on their peers as they make online decisions. Socially
connected consumers will strengthen communities and shift power away from brands and CRM systems;
eventually this will result in empowered communities defining the next generation of products.



Forrester reports the evolution and direction of the Social Web in several distinct stages:


The era of social relations



The era of social functionality


The era of social colonization


The era of social context.


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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web

Structure Data



Structure Data has been referred to under the umbrella term of
'Semantic Web.’ It is however become clear that this trend is much
more than the Semantic Web. Tim Berners
-
Lee said that we're now
in a Web of Data, rather than a Web of Documents. The W3C has
promoted two key initiatives that are helping to build this Web of
Data: the Semantic Web and more recently Linked Data. There are
many other ways to structure data and enable others to build off it.
The best current example is surely Twitter, whose API has
historically been responsible for around 90% of Twitter's activity
-

via third party apps. The basic principle of the Web of Data is
"unstructured information will give way to structured information
-

paving the road to more intelligent computing."


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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web

Real
-
time Web


The real
-
time web is a set of technologies and practices which enable users to receive information
as soon as it is published by its authors, rather than requiring that they or their software check a
source periodically for updates. It is fundamentally different from real
-
time computing since there
is no knowing when, or if, a response will be received. The information types transmitted this way
are often short messages, status updates, news alerts or links to longer documents. The content is
often "soft" in that it is based on the social Web
-

people's opinions, attitudes, thoughts and
interests
-
as opposed to hard news or facts.


The most successful examples are Facebook's newsfeed and Twitter. This approach is being
implemented in social networking, search, and news sites, which makes those experiences more
like Instant Messaging. Early benefits include increased user engagement ("flow") and decreased
server loads.


Ken Fromm wrote an insightful primer to the Real
-
Time Web for ReadWriteWeb. In it, he explained
that the Real
-
Time Web is a new form of communication, it creates a new body of content, it's
immediate, it's public and has an explicit social graph associated with it, and it carries an implicit
model of federation. One of the early leaders in the Real
-
Time Web was FriendFeed, a
lifestreaming service that became popular with early adopters. Co
-
founder Paul Buchheit (who also
built the first version of Gmail, during his time at Google) told ReadWriteWeb in May that "the
open, real
-
time discussions that occur on FriendFeed are going to become a major new
communication medium on the same level as e
-
mail, IM and blogging


[24, 25].”

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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web


To satisfy the diverse and ever increasing Web users’ dynamic
requirements, Web applications for client interoperability, Mobile Web to
better support the mobile device usage environment, Voice standards to
support verbal communications, Web Services to deliver diverse services
in a distributed environment, Semantic Web standard to support
intelligent service processing, and Privacy/Web security standards are
being developed by W3C [14]. Overall, the Web is continuously evolving
towards the Next Generation with three major elements: Web Services,
Semantic Web, and Ubiquitous Web [11].



As one of the possible set of component technologies of Next Generation
Web, there are five major component technologies such as Ubiquitous
Web, Mobile Web, Web 2.0 [2, 4, 5, and 12], Web Platform [8], and Web
Accessibility.



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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web


Ubiquitous Web Technologies make possible different types of devices including desktops, office
automation devices, home appliances, mobile phones, ubiquitous devices such as sensors and
effectors to communicate each other seamlessly via the Web. Mobile Web Technologies make it
possible for diverse types of mobile devices including cell phones, PDAs to exchange URI based
resources via HTTP and use markup languages such as XML. Web 2.0 technologies make it possible
to use a more ‘distributed and open’ Web as a Platform by enhancing the capabilities of existing
Web applications and service environments. Web as a Platform Technologies make it possible for
users to link and execute local or remote applications, services, and data by using the various
currently available standardized Web technologies. Web Accessibility Technologies, including
cursor
-
based browsing, adaptive zoom, ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Application) markup support
make it possible the Web users primarily for disabled uses, but for all user agents including highly
limited devices such as mobile phones to access Web content. A series of Web content access
guidelines were published by W3C as the document WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines)
[14].



The Web is also migrating toward Social Web which is used for people socialize via WWW. People
are brought together by people oriented Websites such as Facebook and My space or by common
hobby oriented Websites such as Flickr and Kodak Gallery. There are many Web
-
based
Collaboration Tools available on the market [19]. Although there are paid or subscription services
such as Basecamp and Zimbra, there are many alternatives providing free and similar, if not better,
features including MS Live docs, Google Docs and bubbl.us. The functions of those tools are very
diverse ranging from basic brainstorming or white boarding to fully
-
featured project management
applications.


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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web


As one of the possible set of component technologies of Next Generation Web,
there are five major component technologies such as Ubiquitous Web, Mobile
Web, Web 2.0 [2, 4, 5, and 12], Web Platform [8], and Web Accessibility.





Ubiquitous Web Technologies make possible different types of devices including
desktops, office automation devices, home appliances, mobile phones, ubiquitous
devices such as sensors and effectors to communicate each other seamlessly via
the Web. Mobile Web Technologies make it possible for diverse types of mobile
devices including cell phones, PDAs to exchange URI based resources via HTTP and
use markup languages such as XML. Web 2.0 technologies make it possible to use
a more ‘distributed and open’ Web as a Platform by enhancing the capabilities of
existing Web applications and service environments. Web as a Platform
Technologies make it possible for users to link and execute local or remote
applications, services, and data by using the various currently available
standardized Web technologies. Web Accessibility Technologies, including cursor
-
based browsing, adaptive zoom, ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Application)
markup support make it possible the Web users primarily for disabled uses, but for
all user agents including highly limited devices such as mobile phones to access
Web content. A series of Web content access guidelines were published by W3C
as the document WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) [14].



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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web



The Web is also migrating toward Social Web which is
used for people socialize via WWW. People are
brought together by people oriented Websites such as
Facebook and My space or by common hobby oriented
Websites such as Flickr and Kodak Gallery. There are
many Web
-
based Collaboration Tools available on the
market [19]. Although there are paid or subscription
services such as Basecamp and Zimbra, there are many
alternatives providing free and similar, if not better,
features including MS Live docs, Google Docs and
bubbl.us. The functions of those tools are very diverse
ranging from basic brainstorming or white boarding to
fully
-
featured project management applications.


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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web

(*source:
http://www.web
-
strategist.com/blog/2009/04/27/future
-
of
-
the
-
social
-
web/
)

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3. Current Major Technologies for
Next Generation Web

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4. Emerging Technology Trends



The major technologies for a Next Generation Web discussed in section 3 are
interacting with many emerging technologies having enhancing functionalities to
deliver better services to users. These include technologies such as
telematics/LBS, broadband convergence service, DMB/TDV, home service,
RFID/USN service, IT service, next generation mobile communication service,
intelligent robot, embedded software/terminal and digital contents/software
solution [8].





Beyond the technologies mentioned above, there are many other technologies to
consider. One of them is Web development tools. Up to now, currently used
widget tools are mainly used to create user interfaces (UIs). They are not the Web
applications that general Web developers want. Canvas, which is a HTML
extension for procedural graphics allowing dynamic scriptable rendering of bitmap
images and WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), is used to describe a
system that make displayed content during editing looks very similar to the final
output such as Web page, slide presentation, or a printed document. In case of
Canvas, it is an important tool in Web development because sometimes we need a
program offering a more compact way to represent images. Tools which can offer
these features will be useful to satisfy the Web developers’ requirements and
further stimulate the use of HTLM5.







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4. Emerging Technology Trends


Currently, different Web browsers support different chipsets and drivers. Fennec
which is the build of the Mozilla Firefox web browser for smaller non
-
PC devices,
mobile phones and PDA is UNIX based. Maemo is a software platform developed
by Nokia for smart phones and the Internet Tablets based on the Debian OS.
Maemo, based on Debian GNU/Linux supports hardware acceleration at Maemo
platform. OpenGL ES (OpenGL for Embedded Systems) which is a subset of the
OpenGL 3D graphics API designed for embedded devices like mobile phones, PDAs,
and video game consoles and Canvas use vector engines for processing
respectively.



Accessing the resources in cloud computing environment over the Internet using
mobile or fixed hardware devices will provide the challenge in realizing a
standardized solution for a seamless Web access for the users to achieve their goal
of enjoying Web services without disruptions.



In this respect, major Web browser vendors including Microsoft, Mozilla, Opera
software, and Apple are striving to embed emerging technical features into the
Web market according to the users’ new requirements into their Web browsers
such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, Opera, and Safari respectively in developing their
products.





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4. Emerging Technology Trends


Another emerging issue, in the Web market, is Web OS. One example is a Web
browser Gazelle introduced by Microsoft in February 2009 [17]. It acts like as
multi
-
purpose Operating Systems with browser kernel exclusively protecting all
system resources and sharing across Web sites. On the other hand, Google
Chrome OS is running Web applications on the Google Linux
-
based kernel. It is a
light weight OS devoted to use the Web and was announced on 7 July, 2009.
Google stated that the Google Chrome will be open source by the end of 2009 and
will use “a new windowing system [18].” We can consider Google Chrome OS as a
combination of Linux kernel and Google Chrome Web browser, and Gazelle OS is a
combination of Windows kernel and Internet Explorer. It is expected that a
miniaturized OS kernel which can drive a Web browser (not heavy/full desktop OS
kernels such as XP, Vista, and Windows 7 which was released in October 2009 in
the market), Web components, and various plug
-
ins are being developed by
Microsoft now. Considering current development trends of Web browser and Web
OS, various development directives of different vendors will converge to
development effort based on standardized technical specifications of Web browser
and OS accepted by the industry for higher interoperability of diverse Web user
applications.



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4. Emerging Technology Trends


Web OS is also being developed toward Mobile
Web OS such as Palm Web
-
OS running on a Linux
-
based kernel with proprietary components
developed by Palm to satisfy increasing
requirements of mobile wireless Web users. The
Palm Pre smart
-
phone is the first device to launch
with Web
-
OS

(2009
-
01
-
08) and Palm Pre and
Web
-
OS were released on June 6, 2009

(2009
-
06
-
06). The second device to use the new Web OS,
Palm Pixi is planned to be released in the market
in late 2009 with significant online social network
and Web 2.0 integration features [20].


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5. Future Development Direction of
Next Generation Web Technologies


Several standardization development organizations (SDOs) including, CELF, DVB,
EPC, IEC, IEEE, ISO, ITU, JCP, MPEG, OGC, OMA, OMG, W3C, and 3GPP are working
on the emerging technologies of Next Generation Web.
Table 1

shows a mapping
between emerging technologies relevant to a Next Generation Web and SDOs
involved in Next Generation Web technologies compiled based on referencing
various resources including [8]. The mark ‘X’ in the table shows that a given SDO is
involved in developing respective set of emerging technologies relevant to the
Next Generation Web. For example, ITU
-
T is involved in development of standards
for emerging technologies relevant to the Next Generation Web such as
broadband convergence service, DMB/TDV, home service such as residential
technology [26] , RFID/USN service, next generation mobile communication
service, and intelligent robot technologies.



As we can see in
Table 1
, five standard organizations are involved in intelligent
robot technologies, four in digital contents/software solution technologies,
telematics/LBS technologies and three standard organizations are involved in
DMB/TDV technologies, RFID/USN service technologies, and next generation
mobile communication service technologies respectively.


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5. Future Development Direction of
Next Generation Web Technologies

Standard
Organizations/
Emerging
Technologies

CELF

DVB

EPC

IEC

IEEE

ISO

ITU

JCP

MPEG

OGC

OMA

OMG

W3C

3GPP

Number

of Standard
Organizations
Involved

Telematics/LBS

X

X

X

X

4

Broadband
convergence service

X

1

DMB/TDV

X

X

X

3

Home service

X

X

2

RFID/USN service

X

X

X

3

IT service

X

1

Next generation
mobile
communication
service

X

X

X

3

Intelligent robot

X

X

X

X

X

5

Embedded
software/terminal

X

X

2

Digital
contents/software
solution

X

X

X

X

4

Table 1
: A Mapping between Emerging Technologies Relevant to Next Generation Web and Standard Organizations Involved
in

Next Generation Web Technologies

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5. Future Development Direction of
Next Generation Web Technologies



This analysis shows that Next Generation Web will develop mainly based on those technologies
considering the market growth direction of the current Web market. Besides those technologies,
there are many other factors we need to consider in future development of Next Generation web
technologies. As discussed in section 3, HTML5 is being developed with emerging features such as
CSS3, RIA, and Mobile Web. Its impact on the Web industry will be significant. The other issue is,
whether it is possible and desirable to replace Operating Systems with Next Generation Web.





In considering all of these issues in various applications of Next Generation Web, use of
interoperable standardized technologies would be extremely useful for seamless fixed and mobile
Web services delivery over the Internet. In that sense, the following recent Web technology
standard issues of W3C show some clues to the future direction of Next Generation Web [14]:





Device API standards for Mobile Web device control


Video Web standards toward common metadata for diverse Web
-
based video services


Mobile Web standards for seamless Web services access using diverse Mobile Web devices


RIA standards for Web applications for including widgets


HTML5 standards toward comprehensive Web markup specification


Social Web standards Web
-
based social services using Semantic Web technologies.





The following
Figure 1

shows major decision factors influencing future development direction of
Next Generation Web.

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5. Future Development Direction of
Next Generation Web Technologies

Next

Generation

Web


Users’ Diverse Web Service Requirements

Current Web Technologies

Emerging Web Technologies

Industry’s Business Models to Generate Revenue

International Web Technology Standard Development
Directions

Figure 1:

Major Decision Factors Influencing Future Development Direction of Next Generation Web

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5. Future Development Direction of
Next Generation Web Technologies


Major decision factors will influence in the development
directions of Next Generation Web technologies including
Web browsers, languages, OSs, and development tools. At
the same time, emerging technologies with enhancing
functionalities to deliver better Web services to users such
as telematics/LBS, broadband convergence service,
DMB/TDV, home service, RFID/USN service, IT service, next
generation mobile communication service, intelligent
robot, embedded software/terminal and digital
contents/software solution will interact with major Next
Generation Web technologies to satisfy users’ more diverse
and dynamic requirements in a sustainable manner.


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6. Conclusion


We identified current major technical components of Next Generation
Web and its emerging technologies based on the standardization activities
of major international organizations relevant to emerging Next Generation
Web technologies, leading Web software and software vendors, users’
increasing requirements, and the Web market.



We need to analyze diverse Web users’ new application requirements in
depth in figuring out what would be the Next Generation Web. Although
many interesting technologies for Next Generation Web are available in
the market, only demanding and popular requirements of the users will
survive in the market in the long run and play an important role in shaping
the future configuration of Next Generation Web as you can see the
changing trend of the users’ requirements [15].


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6. Conclusion


To access the Web over the Internet seamlessly, a
Web user will want to use desktop or any mobile
device of choice with universal Web engine and
browser having features of user friendly
accessibility, fortified security, and diverse
functions with globally interoperable standards.
To make all of these possible, we may think of
development of standardized Web OS like Linux
in software development industry as one of the
possible choices of future Next Generation Web
development for interoperability.



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6. Conclusion


A standardized Web OS is another issue in the Next
Generation Web. The current Web relevant software,
hardware, and service standards including HTML5, Device
API, Video Web, Mobile Web, RIA, and Social Web will
interact with emerging technologies based on diverse
requirements of the Web users and the growth of Web
market according to the users’ changing usage trends of
Web services. The eventual future topology of the Next
Generation Web will be significantly influenced and
decided by the users’ diverse Web service requirements,
current and emerging Web technologies, industry’s
business models to generate revenue, and international
Web technology standard development directions and
progress.

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References


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2009 KOCSEA Technical Symposium, LV, NV

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References


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Acknowledgements



The presenter wants
to express sincere thanks to
Dr. Young
-
Han Choe
of

ITU
-
T Technology Watch
Program
who supplied
the ITU
-
T Technology Watch research fund generously and

Dr
.
Seung
-
Yoon Lee
of ETRI

for
his precious expertise by
supplying
documents and latest technical trends regarding Next
Generation Web.

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Thank you!

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