Finding OERs with Social-

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21 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Finding
OERs

with Social
-
Semantic
Search

{N. Piedra, J.
Chicaiza
, J. López}
1

, E. Tovar
2

and O. M Bonastre
3


1
(Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja; Ecuador)


2
(
Politechnic

University

of Madrid,
Spain
)


3
(Miguel Hernández
University
,
Spain
)


2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Open
Educational

Resources

Teaching, learning, and
research digital resources
and tools, available on the
public domain or that
have been released under
an intellectual property
license, that is, permit
their free use, re
-
use or re
-
purposing by others


2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Web 2.0
technologies

augment

the

Web
power
.

Semantic

technologies

enable

structure

and

semantically

enriching

of

the

content


2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Why

merge

these

two

Web
visions
?



Social and
Semantic

Web are
two

approaches

complementary

and
each

field

can and
must

draw

from

the

other

strengths


(
Ankolekar

et al., 2008)



2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Synergy between social & semantic web


ecosystem of participation

ecosystem

of

data

Data
created

collaboratively

and

semantically

enriched

Aggregation

of

user

contributions

Integration

of

structured

data

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

There

is

a
need

for

counting

with

semantic

metadata

in
the

description

of
the

OERs
, i.e., semantic search engine
to find accurate results and annotate
educational resources


Social
-
Semantic

Technologies
driven

to

OER
searcher

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Some

ways

to

find


open
educational

resources

DiscoverEd

Courseware

Watchdog

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

OER
-
ONTO

SEARCH

A
searcher

based

on

metadata

of Open
Educational

Resources

and
user

contributions

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Why

is

neccesary

a vertical
search

engine

for

OERs
?


General search engines which are based on horizontal search,
do not know the context



Development and usage of vertical search engines could be
the option to find more accurate results, thus:
specialized
search
(to find out and retrieve only educational content)
filtering of content
(to focus the target audience and its
preferences), and, the possibility to
choose the most key
educational resources provider.

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Why

is

neccesary

a vertical
search

engine

for

OERs
?



By
means of metadata enrichment and logic
inference
, OER consumers will get more precise
results from general search engines.



At the moment of determining the relationship
between the open resources, social annotations, RDF
graphs and expert's recommendations, the system
itself will be in charge of recommending action paths
for information seekers



2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

The

challenges


Information about open educational content
is maintained in heterogeneous

sites/repositories



Different metadata schemas are used for
describe educational material

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

The

challenges


Apart from its heterogeneous nature, another
important feature of the OER domain is that
the content offered on the web sites
continuously undergoes changes. The RDF
store change to reflect additions of new OER


2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

The

implementation

process



Metadata

&
annotations

Adquisition


RDF triples
from

metadata

&
annotations

Encoding

and

Storage


Resources

properties

retrieved

from

RDF store

Application

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Adquisition

http://ocw.mit.edu

http://ocw.utpl.edu.ec

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Encoding


For representing the semantic metadata of
OER


We use the
OER
-
CC ontology
, which has been
designed to support the OER search based on
Semantic
-
Social Web technologies.


For Ensuring Metadata Quality of the
Semantic Metadata


Automatic methods to extract and clean metadata

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Storage

MIT
-
OCW

Knowledge

area
:

Electrical

Engineering

and

Computer

Science

Address

Web

Feed
:


feed
:
//
feeds
.
pheedo
.
com
/

OcwWeb
/
rss
/
new
/
mit
-
newcourses
-
6

Obtained

Metadata
:

resource

URL,

title
,

description
,

Publisher,

language
,

rights
,

date,

creator
,

relation

and

subject

Kind

of

resources
:

OCW

courses

Triplets

number
:

1380

UTPL
-
OCW

Knowledge

area
:

Systems

and

Computer

Engineering

Address

Web

Feed
:


feed
:
//
ocw
.
utpl
.
edu
.
ec
/sistemas
-
informaticos
-
y
-
computacion
/
rss_recent

Obtained

Metadata
:

resource

URL,

title
,

description
,

Publisher,

language
,

Rights,

date,

creator

and

subject

Kind

of

resources
:

OCW

courses

and

Youtube

videos

Triplets

number
:

1690

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Implementation


Implemented features for OER
-
Onto search:



It searches for keywords (simple and advanced)


It provides options for results filtering


It also provides descriptions in many languages (if
multilingual descriptions of metadata were specified)


The presentation of results is made in HTML and RDF
formats, what it makes easier the communication
with human and machine agents


Support for search refinement, i.e., it provides tag
cloud and RDF Graph of related OER

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Tier Layers of the Search Engine Prototype

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Search Interface

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Initial

Evaluation



To check the supported functionalities, we
have made an experimental evaluation with
educators, students, and self
-
learners from
Computer Science School of UTPL

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Answer

level

0

1

3

5

7

9

Questions

No
result

insufficient

result

result

with

heavy

analysis

result with moderate
analysis

good

result

excellent result

1.


Java for beginners





X







2.


Video of descriptive statisticals







X





3.


OER with CC license Share Alike









X



4.


Course

in
Spanish











X

5.


OER created by UTPL











X

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Discussion


Queries about information that exist in
metadata. Good results.



The proposed searcher was able to answer a
high number of the questions despite its
simplicity
.

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Future

work

and

Conclusions


Currently, we are working to implement other supporting
components, such as design of an improvement metric
system



Enhanced OER search to continue integrating social and
semantic web technologies



Final Thoughts: When having semantically described
resources and offering the results of a search in RDF
format, the authors think it will contribute to create a Web
of Data

Linked Data
-

for Open Educational Resources. In
this way, different human and software agents will be able
to communicate among them

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

References


Ankolekar
, A.,
Krötzsch
, M.,
Tran
, T.,
and

Vrandecic
, D. “
The

two

cultures:
Mashing

up Web 2.0
and

the

Semantic

Web
”. Journal
of

Web
Semantics
,
Elsiver
, 6 (1), 2008, 70
-
75


Gruber, T. “
Collective

Knowledge

Systems:
Where

the

Social Web
meets

the

Semantic

Web
”, Journal
of

Web
Semantics
, 6 (1), 2008, pp. 4
-
13.


Heath
, T. “
Information
-
seeking

on

the

web

with

trusted

social
networks
:
from

theory

to

systems
”.
PhD

thesis
,
The

Open
University
, 2008


López, C., García, F. J. “
Ontologies

applied

to

Learning

Objects

Repositories

for

educational

environments

in
the

Semantic

Web
”.
m
-
ICTE, 2005


Piedra, N. Chicaiza, J. López, J. Martínez, O. Tovar, M. “
An

approach

for

description

of

Open
Educational

Resources

based

on

semantic

technologies
”,
Proceedings

on

EDUCON 2010, IEEE, 2010, 1111
-
1119

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011

Acknowledgements


This

work

has

been

supported

by

e
-
Madrid

Project,

S
2009
/TIC
-
1650
,

which

promotes

research

and

development

of

technologies

to

support

learning

(Technology
-
Enhanced

Learning)

2
nd

Annual

Global Engineering Educational Conference

IEEE

Educon

2011, Amman, Jordan 4
-
6 April

2011