ReporteEstadoDelArte_TT0026x - hando0026-escom

farmacridInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

2 Φεβ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

166 εμφανίσεις




Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semantico
s


El siguiente docuemento, es una recopilación del estado del artde, los
antecedentes y
aspectos importantes a considerar sobre los : SERVICIOS WEB SEMANTICOS.

PRIMERAMENTE RESPONDEREMOS ALGUNAS PREGUNTAS.

¿Qué es la web semantica
?

Es el uso estructuras de metadatos en internet para descripción del contenido y las

relaciones
entre esos contenidos cada unidad de descripción es llamada recurso.

Cómo funciona?

Los metadatos que describen los recursos son comprendidos y utilizados por agentes

de software y middleware


Para qué sirve?

Se usa para:



Recuperación de informació
n
.



Calificación y valoración de contenido
s
.



Identificación los derechos de propieda
d
d de los recursos



Aplicación de preferencias de privacidad de un usuario según las políticas de
privacidad de un recurso



Manejar la seguridad con las firmas digitales


Como se usa?

Se crean structuras de metadatos basados en el formato Resource Description
Framework (
RDF) y también Dublin Core para los documentos

Las descripción del recurso se realiza identificando cada uno unívocamente por medio
de un nombre, sus propie
dades, sus atributos y sus relaciones con otros recursos, se
reunen todos estas descripciones en una conjunto llamado ontología y que se expresa
en un lenguaje controlado: OWL, Ontology Web Language


JOSE ANTONIO

Estado del arte: servicios web semanticos
.



ESTADO DEL ARTE: SER
VICIOS WEB SEMANTICO
S
.







Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


2


Seguidamente trazamos un
resumen de las ventajas y desventajas

de la Web Semántica en este
momento, así como
un panorama de los servicios, proyectos y buscadores de la Web Semántica
.

Desventajas:




Usabilidad no generalizada
: instrumentos y aplicaciones no son para el usuario final, forman
parte del: middleware
?

Componentes de software cuya función es la admnistrar la interacción
entre una o más aplicaciones ejecutadas por sistemas diversos y no homogéneos.




Wag the dog
:
(el perro que se muerde la cola) Los creadores de contenidos no usan content
metadata porque no existen buscadores all the web basados en

RDF o DC y no existen porque
los creadores de contenidos no usan content metadata
.



Aislamiento
: Existe sólo un conjunt
o de sitios (
islas semánticas
) que utilizan sus ontologías ad
-
hoc o desarrollan sus motores de búsqueda aplicados a su metainfomación en RDF o OWL,
dentro de un sitio o dominio informativo particular,
como por ejemplo SWED
, portal semántico
para información de medio ambiente.

Un conjunto de aplicaciones que entienden algunas notaciones semánticas (RSS, FOAF, basadas
en programación relativamente sencilla (Ruby, Ajax), que permiten agregar y difundir
contenidos en un contex
to de información dirigido al usuario (a un usuario cooperativo en
muchos). Es lo que se llama Web 2.0.


Ventajas:


Variedad de herramientas:




Editores:
Dublin Core Metadata Gen, Los clásicos elementos
meta
que aparecen entre las
etiquetas
<head>
y
</head
>
de un documento HTML. El contenido de un fichero RDF útil a los
agentes de software, Microformatos: , información semántica para las personas y no a las
máquinas (o mejor dicho). Esta información aparece entre las etiquetas
<body>
y
</body>
de
un documen
to HTML




Lenguajes para la representación:
son cada vez más unificados:
OWL, RDF, SKOS,
TopicMaps para aspectos únicamente temático.




Parsers
: Jena, desarrollado por Hewlett Packard, que permite leer, recorrer y modificar
grafos tanto RDF como OWL desde un programa Java. Jena permite además guardar las
ontologías tanto en RDF textual como en formato de base de datos




Lenguajes de consulta,
RDF Query Language (RDQL),
SPARQL Query Language for RDF
.
http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf
-
sparql
-
query/ Se trata de la especificación para el lenguaje de
consulta.
SPARQL Protocol for RDF
.
http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf
-
sparql
-
protocol/




Entornos de desarrollo
: Kaon, WebODE o Protégé.
Altova (los creadores de XMLSpy) han
lanzado SemanticWorks17 un editor de vocabularios que trabaja tanto con RDF y XML como
con N
-
triples.





Módulos de gestión
(almacenamiento, acceso, actualización) de ontologías: webonto


Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


3



Extensión de la web semántica con

Web services
:




OWL
-
S: una ontología para la descripción de la semántica de servicios,

pero aún no han dado
lugar a una implementación de las plataformas y motores necesarios para la ejecución de los
servicios.




Harvesting de metadatos:

Open Archives Initiative (OAI)
.

Se describe el protocolo OAI
-
PMH
(Open Archives Initiative
-

Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) utilizado para la transmisión de
metadatos en Internet. Se analiza el contexto en el que nació, las com
unidades de depósitos de
documentos científicos y cómo se ha desarrollando y extendido su alcance a cualquier material
en formato electrónico. Se describe brevemente su arquitectura basada en el modelo cliente
-

servidor donde los primeros, llamados archiv
os, ponen a disposición del público metadatos en
formato Dublin Core para que puedan ser recuperados por los segundos. La comunicación se
realiza mediante el protocolo http. Las respuestas están codificadas en XML. Finalmente se
hace una revisión de las pr
incipales instituciones que lo han implementado, los servicios que se
han basado en él y se dan una serie de herramientas que facilitan la creación de archivos
abiertos.




Uso de
metadata SW en SOAP

(Simple Object Access Protocol y UDDI (Universal Description,
Discovery and Integration)
.
SOAP

(siglas de
Simple Object Access Protocol
) es un
protocolo

estándar

que define cómo dos objetos en diferentes procesos pueden comunicarse por medio de
intercambio de datos
XM
L
. SOAP fue creado por
Microsoft
,
IBM

y otros y está actualmente
bajo el auspicio de la
W3C
. Es uno de los protocolos utilizados en los
servicios Web
.


Buscadores SW
:





SWoogle2006:

http://swoogle.umbc.edu/ sistema de indización y recuperación para
Documentos de la Web Semántica, lo que se denomina en SWoogle (SWDs, Semantic Web
Documents es decir para archivos escritos en RDF y OWL,.
Swoogle
recupera, procesa, analiza
e indiza
docume
ntos SW
en una interfaz Web similar a Google. Recupera también ontologías
disponibles en la Web (1.0, y 2.0), almacenadas base de datos MySQL en forma de URIs, pero
también permite buscar en los términos de cada vocabulario/esquema/ontología.




Semantic
Web Search:

http://www.semanticwebsearch.com/
.





Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


4




Semantic Search Demo
.





General

Q: What does SWSE stand for?

Semantic Web Search Engine. People pronounce it "swuasziee", "swishy", or "s
-
w
-
s
-
e". We
prefer
"swizzy".




General: ¿Qué hace SWSE significa(aguanta,apoya)?


Motor Semántico de Web De búsqueda. La gente lo pronuncia "swuasziee", "swishy", " o la e de s de w
de s ".
Preferimos "swizzy".


Q: What does SWSE do?

SWSE is a search engine for the RDF Web on the Web,
and provides the equivalent services a search
engine currently provides for the HTML Web. The system explores and indexes the Semantic Web and
provides an easy
-
to
-
use interface through which users can find the information they are looking for.
Because of t
he inherent semantics of RDF and other Semantic Web languages, the search and
information retrieval capabilities of SWSE are potentially much more powerful than those of current
search engines.



Q: ¿Qué hace SWSE hace?


SWSE es un motor de búsqueda para e
l Web RDF sobre el Web, y proporciona los servicios
equivalentes un motor de búsqueda actualmente asegura(preve) el Web de HTML. El sistema explora e
incluye en un índice(e indexa) el Web Semántico y proporciona un interfaz fácil de usar por el cual los
us
uarios pueden encontrar la información que ellos buscan. A causa de la semántica inherente de RDF y
otras lenguas Semánticas de Web, la búsqueda y las capacidades de recuperación de documentos de
SWSE son potencialmente mucho más poderosas que aquellos de
motores corrientes de búsqueda.


Q: Who is behind SWSE?

SWSE is a research project being carried out by DERI Galway.
Contributors include:



Q: ¿Quién es detrás de SWSE?


SWSE es un proyecto de investigación siendo realizado por Galway DERI. Los
contribuidores incluyen:



Andreas Harth

(Project Lead)



Aidan Hogan



Jürgen Umbrich



Stefan Decker



John Breslin



Hannes Gassert


Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


5




Matteo Magni



Jan Oliver Steinbach



Christian Uhlig



Smitashree Choudhury



Marcus Joyce



Patricia Flyn
n

SWSE has been partially supported by grants from EU projects
DIP

and
TripCom
, and national project
Lion
. In addition, expertise gained from the SWSE project is being leveraged in EU projects
Romulus

and
Okkam
.


SWSE parcialmente ha sido apoyado por subvenciones de la PENDIENTE
de proyectos de Unión
Europea y TripCom, y el León nacional de proyecto. Además, la maestría ganada del proyecto de SWSE
es leveraged en la Unión Europea proyecta a Rómulo y Okkam.


Q: What kind of data does SWSE index?

SWSE indexes RDF data which is
retrieved from many sources. The main sources are OWL, RDF and
RSS files. RSS2 is converted to RDF. We will add GRDDL sources soon.



Q: ¿Qué tipo de datos hacen el índice de SWSE?


SWSE incluye en un índice(indexa) los datos RDF que son recuperados de muc
has fuentes. Las fuentes
principales son el BÚHO, RDF y archivos RSS.
RSS2 es convertido a RDF. Añadiremos fuentes GRDDL
pronto.

Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


6




A continuacion les present
o

algunos proyectos de desarrollo de aspecto de SW






























Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


7













Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


8


DESCRIPCION DE:

AKT.
(Advanced Knowledge Technologies)
.


Proyectos relacionados

EL AKT IRC directamente está implicado con un número de subproyectos de colaboración, y
contribuye a otra tecnología de conocimiento y proyectos semánticos de web.


Estos
proyectos pueden ser categorizados en los campos



Medicine



Engineering



Science



Semantic Web


OBJETIVOS:


In accordance with the need to understand the process of knowledge use, the programme of AKT is
based around six challenges to ease fundamental bottlenecks in the engineering and
management of
knowledge. Each of these bottlenecks occurs at a vital stage in the evolution of knowledge



Acquiring Knowledge

Although we often suffer from a surfeit of data, we still face situations where the problem is
insufficient or poorly
-
specified kno
wledge. Knowledge Acquisition sets the challenge of getting
hold of the information that is around, and turning it into knowledge by making it usable. Key
issues include how to make tacit knowledge explicit; how to identify gaps in knowledge already
held;
how to acquire and integrate knowledge from multiple sources (e.g. different people, or
distributed sources on the WWW); how to acquire knowledge from different media (e.g.
diagrammatic knowledge, or knowledge from unstructured text).



Modelling Knowledge

K
nowledge modelling technologies occupy a key role; they provide a bridge between the
acquisition of knowledge and its use. Knowledge model structures must be able both to act as
straightforward placeholders for the acquired knowledge coming in, and to repr
esent the
knowledge so that it can be used for problem
-
solving. These are very different requirements,
and can pull in different directions. One important knowledge modelling area is that of
ontologies, which are specifications of the generic concepts, att
ributes, relations and axioms
of a domain. Ontologies can act as placeholders and organising structures for acquired
knowledge, while also providing a format for understanding how knowledge will be used.



Reusing Knowledge

One of the most serious impediment
s to cost
-
effective knowledge intensive system
construction is that usually they are built afresh. It is unusual for problem
-
solving experience
or domain content to be acquired and then reused, partly because knowledge tends to require
different representa
tions depending on the problem
-
solving that is intended to do.
Understanding how to find patterns in knowledge, to allow for its storage in a library so that it

Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


9


can be reused when circumstances permit would save a good deal of managerial effort in
reacquir
ing and restructuring the knowledge that had already been used in a different context.



Retrieving Knowledge

In any large repository retrieval of knowledge is an issue. How do we recover a subset of
content relevant to a problem or task? Human knowledge is
indexed by additional knowledge
structures to limit and direct our search for relevant content. In some cases the process is not
one of retrieval but dynamic extraction
-

configuring knowledge out of resources for a
particular problem. Automated methods to

support retrieval and extraction are vital as are
architectures to integrate such capabilities.



Publishing Knowledge

Assuming large repositories of well
-
structured, well
-
indexed knowledge can be built we then
face the problem of how best to publish or
disseminate this content. Knowledge as many
recognise is only effective if it is delivered in the right form, at the right place, to the right
person at the right time. Different users may want to see knowledge presented and visualised
in quite different w
ays. Getting presentation right will involve understanding the different
perspectives of people with different agendas, while an understanding of knowledge content
will help to ensure that important pieces of knowledge get published at the appropriate time



Maintaining Knowledge

Finally, having got the knowledge acquired, and having managed to retrieve and disseminate it
appropriately, the last challenge is to keep the knowledge repository useful by maintaining it as
it sits there. This may involve the regul
ar updating of content as content changes. But it may
also involve a deeper analysis of the knowledge content. Some content has a considerable
longevity, while other knowledge dates very quickly. If a repository of knowledge is to remain
active over a peri
od of time, it is essential to know which parts of the knowledge base must be
discarded and when. Other problems involved in maintenance include verifying and validating
the content, and certifying its safety.



TECNOLOGIAS:

The mission of the Advanced
Knowledge Technologies consortium is to identify where we can, and
invent where we must, the next generation of technologies for organisations to create, manage and
extract value from their knowledge assets, and to integrate these technologies to create a
complete
approach to the knowledge life cycle.

During our research, a number of component technologies have been implemented, exploring the
different challenges encountered through the various stages of the knowledge lifecycle.

In addition to our core rese
arch during the summers of 2005 and 2006 , Southampton employed a
dozen or so undergraduate students to work on activities supporting our the research aims. The result
of this work has been gathered together on separate pages for the summer of
2005

and
2006
.


Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


10




3store

A core C library that uses MySQL to store its raw RDF data and caches, forming an i
mportant
part of the infrastructure required to support a range of knowledgeable services.



AKTive Media

AKtive Media is an ontology based cross
-
media annotation (Images and Text) sys
tem. Our goal
is to automate the process of annoation by suggesting knowledge to the user in an interactive
way while the user is annotating and hence minimizing user effort. The system actively works in
the background, interacting with web services and qu
eries our central annotational store to
look for context specific knowledge.



AKTiveDoc

AktiveDoc is a tool for supporting knowledge management in the process of document editing
and r
eading. Its main goal is to support users (both readers and writers) in timely sharing and
reusing relevant knowledge.



Abraxas

A tri
-
partite, dynamic and iterative approach to automatic

ontology learning.



AKT Research Map

A competence map for members of the AKT project



AKT
-
Bus

An open, lightweight, Web standards
-
based communication infrastructure to support
interoperability among knowledge services.



ANNIE
-

Open Source Information Extraction

An open
-
source robust informa
tion extraction system



Adaptiva

A user
-
centred ontology building environment, based on using multiple strategies to construct
an ontology, minimising user input by using adaptive information ext
raction.



Amilcare

An adaptive information extraction tool designed to support document annotation for the
Semantic Web.



Applications of
FCA in AKT

Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is used in a variety of application scenarios in AKT in order to
perform concept
-
based domain analysis and automatically deduce a taxonomy lattice of that
domain.



Aqua

AQUA is a system which answer questions written in English. It combines several technologies
Natural Language Processing, Logic, Information Retrieval and Ontologies.



AquaLog

AquaLog is a Natural Language Question Answering System for corporate semantics intranets.
The next generation of AquaLog, PowerAqua, will be a QA system able to provide answers
drawn from multiple heterogeneous ontologies on the Semantic Web in the large
.


Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


11




Armadillo

Exploits the redundancies apparent in the Internet, combining many information sources to
perform document annotation with minimal human intervention.



ArtEquAkt

A system that automatically extracts information about artists from the web, populates an
ontology, then uses the knowledge to generate personalised biographies.



Automatic Support for Enterprise Modelling and Workflow

Knowledge management using multi
-
modelling techniques and how modelling activities may be
assisted with automation based on formal methods.



BuddySpace

Instant messaging with custom map visualizations, semantics of presence (beyond
'offline'/'online'/'away' status) and value
-
added web services (group alerts, bots, inferences
via personal profiles)



CASD

A tool for producing system architecture diagrams from service and data descriptions.



CJJTOE

A tool that produces an OWL Lite ontology containing

all the fact templates as classes,
structured in the inferred taxonomy.



COCKATOO

A knowledge acquisition tool which can be used to produce a set of cases for use with a Case
-
Based Reasoning syst
em.



COHSE
-

Conceptual Open Hypermedia Services Environment

COHSE researches methods to improve significantly the quality, consistency and breadth of
linking of WWW documents at retrieval and autho
ring time.



CS AKTiveSpace

CS AKTiveSpace is a smart browser interface for a Semantic Web application that provides
ontologically motivated information about the UK computer science research

community.



ClassAKT

A text classification web service for classifying documents according to the ACM Computing
Classification System.



Compendium

Compendium is a semantic, visual hypertext tool for supporting collaborative domain modelling
and real time meeting capture



ConRef

A service discovery system which uses ontology ma
pping techniques to support different user
vocabularies



ConcepTool

A system to model, analyse, verify, validate, share, combine, and reuse domain knowledge bases
and ontologies, reasoning abou
t their implication.


Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


12




D3E
-

Digital Document Discourse Environment

D3E enables the easy conversion of websites or structured documents into interactive
discussion sites



Dome

A programmable XML editor which is being used in a knowledge extraction role to transform
Web pages into RDF.



Eprep

An add
-
on for the Eprints document archive which
uses text extraction to automatically create
the bibliographic metadata needed for the submission of a new document.



ExtrAKT

ExtrAKT is a tool for extracting ontologies from Prolog knowledge bases.



eServices

The e
-
Services framework provides advanced scholarly services (in particular visualisations)
using distribute
d metadata.



F
-
Life

F
-
Life is a tool for analysing and maintaining life
-
cycle patterns in ontology development.



Floodsim

A prototype sys
tem which demonstrates the benefits of applying semantically rich service
descriptions (expressed using Semantic Web technologies) to Web Services.



Foxtrot

Foxtrot is a recommender system which r
epresents user profiles in ontological terms, allowing
inference, bootstrapping and profile visualization.



GATE
-

General Architecture for Text Engineering

GATE is a stable, robust, and scalable ope
n
-
source infrastructure which allows users to build
and customise language processing components, while it handles mundane tasks like data
storage, format analysis and data visualisation.



I
-
X Process
Panels

The I
-
X tool suite supports principled collaborations of human and computer agents in the
creation or modification of some product.



IF
-
Map

IF
-
Map is an Information Flow based ontology mappin
g method. It is based on the theoretical
grounds of logic of distributed systems and provides an automated streamlined process for
generating mappings between ontologies of the same domain.



ILP for
Information Extraction

To overcome the knowledge acquisition bottleneck, we apply Inductive Logic Programming
techniques to learn Information Extraction rules.



Identify Knowledge Base

Identify
-
Knowle
dge
-
Base is a tool of Topic Identification about Knowledge Base


Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


13




Internet Reasoning Service

The Internet Reasoning Service provides a a number of tools which supports the publication,
location, compos
ition and execution of heterogeneous web services, specified using semantic
web technology



KRAFT
-

I
-
X TIE

Supports collaboration among members of a virtual organisation by integrating workflow
and
communication technology with constraint solving.



KnoZilla




Knowledge Broker

The knowledge broker addresses the problem of knowledge service location in distributed
environments.



Magpie

Magpie suppo
rts the
interpretation

of web documents through on
-
the
-
fly ontologically based
enrichment. Semantic services can be invoked either by the user or be automatically triggered
by patterns of browsing activity



Melita

Melita is a semi
-
automatic annotation tool using an Adaptive Information Extraction engine
(Amilcare)to support the user in document annotation.



Muskrat
-
II

Given a set of knowledge bases and problems solvers, the Muskrat system will try to identify
which knowledge bases could be combined with which problems solvers to solve a given problem.



MyPlane
t

MyPlanet allows users to create a personalised version of a web based newsletter using an
ontologically based profile.



NMARKUP

NMARKUP helps the user build ontologies by detecting nouns in text
s and by providing support
for the creation of an ontology based on the entities extracted.



ONTOCOPI

A tool which uncovers
Communities Of Practise

by analysing the connectivity of instances in
t
he
3store

knowledge base.



OntoPortal

Enables the authoring and navigation of large semantically
-
powered portals



ONTOSEARCH2

ONTOSEARCH2 uses semantic approximations of description logics to reduce the complexity
of ontologies.



PJMappingTab

PJMappingTab is a Protégé tab
-
plug
-
in which supports the user in achieving reuse of a JessTab
rule set.


By automating many of the procedures the user would otherwise be required to

Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


14


perform manually, PJMappingTab simplifies and accelerates the process of
modifying a
JessTab rule set for reuse.



Revyu

Revyu is a web site allowing people to write reviews and give ratings of anything they choose.
Reviews and ratings are provided via web forms
and republished on the web as RDF/XML and
via a SPARQL endpoint.



ReTAX+

ReTAX is an aide to help a taxonomist create a consistent taxonomy and in particular provides
suggestions as to where a new en
tity could be placed in the taxonomy whilst retaining the
integrity of the revised taxonomy (c.f., problems in ontology modelling).



Refiner++

REFINER++ is a system which allows domain experts to create and maintain their own
Knowledge Bases, and to receive suggestions as to how to remove inconsistencies, if they exist.



Semantic Annotation
with MnM

MnM is a semantic annotation tool which provides manual, automated and semi
-
automated
support for annotating web pages with 'semantics', i.e., machine interpretable descriptions.



Simmetrics

SimMetrics is an
open source
extensible library of Similarity or Distance Metrics



T
-
Rex

Trainable Relation Extra
ction Framework



Visualisations for the CS AKTive Portal

Maps are used to geographically illustrate knowledge from the Triplestore, such as highlighting
the locations in the UK that are active in

a particular research area.



WebOnto

WebOnto supports the browsing, creation and editing of ontologies through coarse grained and
fine grained visualizations and direct manipulation.



X
-
Search

A flexible search system for information retrieval and visualisation supporting both keyword
and semantic approach






Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


15


PROYECTOS DENTRO DE AKT


CROSI
-

Capturing, Representing, and Operationalising Semantic Integration. It aims to overcome
these problems by working on a systematic approach to
semantic integration

which will enable us to:
capture and expose semantics, codify them in knowledge repre
sentation formats, and operationalise
them for the benefit of integration.

CROSI
-

Captura, Representar, e Integración Operationalising Semántica. Esto apunta para vencer
estos problemas por trabajando sobre un acercamiento sistemático a la integración sem
ántica que nos
permitirá: la captura y expone la semántica, se se codifica en formatos de representación de
conocimiento, y operationalise en beneficio de la integración

URL

:

http://www.aktors.org/crosi




OntoWeb
-

Ontology
-
based information exchange for knowledge management and electronic
-
commerce. The goal of the OntoWeb Network is to bring together researchers and industrials coming
from various research and application areas, promoting interdisciplinar
y work and strengthening the
European influence on Semantic Web standardisation efforts such as those based on RDF and XML

OntoWeb
-

cambio a base de Ontología de la información para dirección de conocimiento y comercio
electrónico. El objetivo de la Red
de OntoWeb es de juntar(reconciliar) a investigadores e industrials
que viene de varia investigación y áreas de aplicación, promoviendo el trabajo interdisciplinario y
reforzando la influencia europea sobre esfuerzos de estandarización Semánticos de Web co
mo aquellos
basados en RDF Y XML
.


Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


16


URL :
http://www.ontoweb.org


Semanticweb.org is the Semantic Web community portal. Its objective is to collect and explain tools
and techniques, which will help to create the Seman
tic Web, and to be a forum for people interested in
the Semantic Web.

Semanticweb.org es la entrada de comunidad Semántica de Web. Su objetivo es recoger y explicar
instrumentos y técnicas, que ayudarán a crear el Web Semántico, y ser un foro para la gente

interesada en el Web Semántico
.

URL :
http://semanticweb.org/


SWWS
-

Semantic Web Enabled Web Services main objectives are to provide a comprehensive Web
Service description framework; define a Web Service
discovery framework and provide a scalable
Web Service mediation middleware. In order to evaluate the overall approach, SWWS will provide an
integrated software environment to implement the proposed case studies
.


SWWS
-

el Web Semántico Permitió Servicios

de Web objetivos principales son proporcionar un marco
de descripción de Servicio comprensivo de Web; defina un marco de descubrimiento de Servicio de
Web y proporcione una mediación de Servicio escalable de Web middleware. Para evaluar el
acercamiento to
tal, SWWS proporcionará un ambiente de software integrado para poner en práctica
los estudios de caso propuestos.

URL :
http://swws.semanticweb.org/


SWSI
-

The Semantic Web Services Initiative is an ad hoc
initiative of academic and industrial
researchers, many of which are involved in DARPA and EU funded research projects. The major
objective of the Semantic Web Services Initiative (SWSI) is to bring current Web technology to its
full potential by combining

and improving recent trends around the Web, including Semantic Web
Technology, Web Service Technology and Intelligent Web Services.

SWSI
-

la Iniciativa de Servicios Semántica de Web es una iniciativa ad hoc de investigadores
académicos e industriales, mu
chos de cual están implicados en DARPA y Unión Europea proyectos de
investigación financiados. El objetivo principal de la Iniciativa de Servicios Semántica de Web (SWSI)
es traer la tecnología corriente de Web a su potencial lleno por combinando y mejoran
do tendencias
recientes alrededor del Web, incluyendo la Tecnología Semántica de Web, la Tecnología de Servicio de
Web y

Servicios Inteligentes de Web.


Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


17


URL :
http://swws.semanticweb.org/

TODOS ESTAN EN : http://
www.aktors.org/projects/semweb/


Adaptive Services Grid (ASG) project

https://asg
-
platform.org/cgi
-
bin/twiki/view/Public/ASGAnimation


ASG Project Information

ASG is an
Integrated Project supported by the Sixth Framework Programme of the European
Commission under the Information Society Technology Objective Open Development Platforms for
Software and Services. ASG started on September 1, 2004, the duration of the project
is two and a
half years. ASG involves 22 partners from seven countries.

ASG Proyectan la Información ASG es un Proyecto Integrado apoyado según el Sexto Programa de
Marco de la Comisión Europea bajo el Objetivo de Tecnología de Sociedad de Información Abre
n
Plataformas de Desarrollo para el Software y Servicios. ASG comenzado el 1 de septiembre de 2004, la
duración del proyecto es dos años y medio.
ASG implica a 22 compañeros de siete países

“Service oriented software architectures will form the core of ope
rational enterprise IT landscapes in
the future.”

D. Kuropka et al.


Have you already heard statements like this one and are now wondering how your company can benefit
from this trend?

The promise, that through service oriented architectures (SOA) all pl
ayers in the software system
market can gain competitive advantages, are auspicious. The core assumption is to meet changing
market requirements in shorter time and more cost
-
efficient. This enables companies to expand their
clientele continuously by offer
ing enhanced functionalities or making existing functionalities accessible
in many different system variants, including the integration of external information systems.

Service oriented architectures realize these promises by offering functionality in the

form of
dedicated services tailored to business aspects and processes. Services divide the system’s
functionality into several encapsulated parts, which are made available individually. This reduces the
complexity and facilitates the adaptation of softwar
e systems, which are now constructed from
services along business aspects and not mainly along technical aspects.

However, at present each variant of service based software systems needs to be defined, published
and maintained separately. If a new version of a service or a completely new service is developed and
published it cannot be used automatically. To the contra
ry, it has to be integrated in the software
variants manually.

The Adaptive Services Grid (ASG) approach towards semantic service provisioning, which is explained
in detail on this web site, is a solution to actually realizing the agility and adaptiveness

promised by the

Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


18


SOA by overcoming the problem mentioned above. Based on relevant and already available standards,
which are crucial for an easy adoption in industry, a solution for service provisioning has been built.
With the help of semantic annotations
, this solution provides the following key features for service
provisioning:

1.

Seamless integration of heterogeneous external services

2.

On
-
demand creation of service compositions

3.

Reliable service provision with assured quality of service

ASG Project Visi
on

The goal of Adaptive Services Grid project is to develop an architectural blueprint and a proof
-
of
-
concept prototype of an open development platform for adaptive and reliable matchmaking discovery,
composition, and enactment. To achieve its goal, ASG
addresses scientific and technological issues
making use of the knowledge and expertise of major European research institutions with significant
contributions from the software, telecommunications, and telematics industry. ASG provides the
integration of i
ts sub
-
projects in the context of an open platform, including tool development by small
and medium sized enterprises. Based on semantic specifications of requested services by service
customers, ASG discovers appropriate services, creates composed services

and enacts them
.

DBin:
cliente para compartir archivos
, permite compartir y recibir información estructurada
semánticamente" usando RDF

Descripción corta:

Similar a un cliente filesharing, DBin se une directamente a otros pares. En vez de archivos, sin
embargo, esto descargará " la información relevante " sobre asuntos que usted especifica. Más
técnicamente compartiendo y recibiendo " información Semánticamente estructurada " usando RDF y
otros componentes de la Iniciativa W3C Semántica de Web.

Similar a

un cliente de Grupo de discusión, los bits de información ("anotaciones" llamadas) son
recogidos e insertados por entrando en Espacios(Cuartos) de Asunto. p.ej. " los amantes de Cervezas " "
o colector de Mariposas " espacios(cuartos). Para máximo disfrut
ar del espacio(cuarto), se sugiere que
usted descarga un interfaz de usuario apropiado, especializado y el ambiente de interacción listo para
usted por expertos de dominio (p.ej.)

Tales usos de dominio "especializados" que controlado sobre la cima de DBIN
llaman a "brainlets".

Las anotaciones a menudo toman la forma de comentarios o archivos binarios (cuadros etc. ..), pero
dado RDF es usado, ellos pueden los pedazos amablemente estructurados de "metadata" como
comparaciones directas, votos, hojas(sábanas)
de datos, ofertas de ventas, eslabones semánticos con
otros recursos o conceptos, revisiones, etc...

* Más "anotaciones" usted recoge, "más simpático" y más diversió
n su instalación DBIN se hacen.

* DBin automáticamente combina anotaciones de cada grupo qu
e usted visita, tan permitir la cruz que
corta vistas(opiniones) que engendran múltiples dominios y asuntos. Haga preguntas como " el
Espectáculo una publicación esto está abierto en este tiempo y sirve una cerveza que ha sido tasada al
menos 8 y no contie
ne el ingrediente X ".


Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


19


* Comprobar la paternidad literario de cualquier información. DBin automáticamente firma cada
anotación insertada en el P2P con una firma generada digital. Use tal información de identidad para
crear la filtración exacta dir
ectamente

para sus necesidades

* Unir grupos de asunto P2P también controlando detrás de cortafuegos y gracias de NATS a nuestra
mensajería JaSiMPA API


* Disfrutar de anotaciones ricas incluyendo imágenes, accesorios y otros medios de comunicación que
inmediat
amente son publicados sobre el Web desde dentro DBIN y hechos disponibles tanto a usuarios
DBIN como usuarios regulares de web.


* ¡Comenzar su Grupo de Asunto Semántico basado de Web por creando un Brainlet para su dominio
de interés y estableciendo su

P2P que encuentra al servidor y grupos!. Ningún programa requerido,
solamente(justo) corrija un archivo de configuración XML..

Pero el más pretenciosamente:

DBin no es otro vendedor el enredo específico, totalmente idiosincrásico de nombres y definicion
es.

DBin es en cambio un objetivo general y el usuario orientó el Web W3C Semántico el uso autorizado.

Short overveiw:


Similar to a filesharing client
, DBin connects directly to other peers.
Instead of files, however, it
will download "relevant
information"

about topics you specify. More technically sharing and
receiving "Semantically structured information" using RDF and other components of the
W3C Semantic
Web Initiative
.

Similar to a Newsgroup
client,

bits of information (called "annotations") are collected and inserted by
entering Topic Rooms. e.g. the "Beers lovers" or "Butterflies collector" rooms. To maximally enjoy the
room, it is suggested that you download a proper, specialized user inter
face and interaction
environment prepared for you by domain experts (e.g. ).

Such "specialized" domain applications that run on top of DBin are called
"brainlets"
.

Annotations often take the form of comme
nts or binary files (pictures etc.. ), but given RDF is used,
they can nicely structured pieces of "metadata" such as
direct comparisons, votes, data sheets,
sale offers, semantic links with other resources or concepts, reviews,
etc ..



The more "annotations" you collect, the "smarter" and more fun your DBin installation becomes.



DBin automatically merges annotations from each group you visit
, so to enable cross cutting
views spawning multiple domains and topics. Ask questions like "Show

a pub that's open at this
time and serves a beer that has been rated at least 8 and doesn't contain ingredient X".



Check the authorship of any piece of information.

DBin automatically signs each annotation
inserted in the P2P with a generated digital sig
nature. Use such identity information to create
precise filtering right for your needs



Join
P2P topic groups

also when running behind firewalls and NATs thanks to our
JaSiMPA

messaging API


Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


20




Enjoy
rich annotations

including images, attachments and other me
dia which are immediately
published on the Web from within DBin and made available both to DBin users and regular web
users.



Start your Semantic Web based Topic Group by creating a Brainlet

for your domain of interest
and
setting up your P2P meeting serve
r and groups!
.
No programming required, just edit an
XML
configuration file
..


But most importantly:

DBin is not another vendor specific, totally idiosyncratic tangle of names and definitions.


DBin is instead a general purpose and user oriented W3C Sema
ntic Web empowered application .




Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


21



DIP (Data, Information, and Process Integration with Semantic Web Services)
: objetivo:
desarrollar y extender la Web Semántica a los Servicios Web.

Vision


DIP’s objective has been to develop and extend Semantic Web and
Web Service technologies in order
to produce a new technology infrastructure for Semantic Web Services (SWS)
-

an environment in
which different web services can discover and cooperate with each other automatically. DIP's long
term vision is to deliver the

enormous potential benefits of Semantic Web Services to e
-
Work and e
-
Commerce.


La v
isión de DIP’s

ha sido desarrollar y ampliar tecnologías de Servicio Semánticas de Web y de Web
para producir una nueva infraestructura de tecnología para Servicios Semánticos de Web (SWS)
-

un
ambiente en que servicios diferentes de web pueden descubrir y coopera el un
o con el otro
automáticamente. La visión de largo plazo de la PENDIENTE debe entregar las enormes ventajas
potenciales de Servicios Semánticos de Web al trabajo de e y el comercio electrónico.


Achievements

The objectives and work plan of DIP have been des
cribed as very ambitious.

Over a 100 specialists and researchers from all over Europe worked together for 3 years contributing
over 1800 person
-
months of effort to the project. The research results, summarised in DIP’s “4
Golden Bullets”, are contained in
some 250 deliverables
-

including reports, prototypes, standards
specifications and a DIP movie
-

most of which are public domain and available for download from this
site.

Logros

Los objetivos y el plan de trabajo de PENDIENTE han sido descritos como muy

ambicioso.

Sobre los 100 especialistas e investigadores de por todas partes de Europa trabajó juntos durante 3
años contribuyendo más de 1800 meses de persona de esfuerzo al proyecto. Los resultados de
investigación, resumidos en la PENDIENTE " 4 Balas de

oro ", están contenidos en aproximadamente
250 deliverables
-

incluyendo informes, prototipos, datos específicos de normas y una película de
PENDIENTE
-

la mayor parte de cual es el dominio público y disponible para el descargado de este
sitio.

Disseminat
ion was a substantial focus area of all project related activities. As of November 2006 the
DIP Consortium had published or contributed to 15 Journal papers, 8 Books (including a forthcoming
'DIP book'), 4 Book chapters, 63 Workshop papers (in 56 Workshops
), 123 Conference papers
(presented at 79 Conferences), 48 Invited talks, 21 Tutorials, 12 Posters and 3 Technical Reports.

Detailed plans for quality assurance were agreed with the European Commission at the outset and
adhered to throughout the project's

life cycle. No major deviations were observed, and all out
-
of
-
line
situations were swiftly resolved with no negative impact on DIP.





Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


22


La diseminación era un foco sustancial el área de todo el proyecto actividades relacionadas. Desde el
noviembre de 2006
el Consorcio de PENDIENTE había publicado o había contribuido a 15 Diario
empapela, 8 Libros (incluyendo un próximo ' el libro de PENDIENTE '), 4 capítulos de Libro, 63
papeles(periódicos) de Taller (en 56 Talleres), 123 papeles(periódicos) de Conferencia
(presentado en
79 Conferencias), 48 conversaciones Invitadas, 21 Clases tutoriales, 12 Carteles y 3 Informes
Técnicos.

Proyectos detallados para la garantía de calidad fueron estados de acuerdo con con la Comisión Europea
en el principio y adheridos a en todas partes del ciclo de vida del proyecto. Ningunas desviaciones
principales fueron observadas, y todas las situacione
s de línea rápidamente fueron resueltas sin el
impacto negativo sobre la PENDIENTE.

An outstanding success


The final Project Review was held on 25 and 26 of October, 2006, in Innsbruck, Austria. The
unanimous conclusion of the reviewers was that the
project was a resounding success with no
significant deviations from its stated work plan. In particular, the review report contained the
following comments:

“…it is anticipated that the results will have a significant impact upon the research community fo
r
some time. The excellent results have been achieved in all respects: theory, technology, tools,
industrial cases, standardization and dissemination.”

Un éxito excepcional

La Revisión final De proyecto fue agarrado el 25 y 26 de octubre de 2006, en
Innsbruck, Austria. La
conclusión unánime de los revisores era que el proyecto era un éxito resonante sin desviaciones
significativas de su plan de trabajo indicado. En particular, el informe de revisión contuvo los
comentarios siguientes:

" …it es esperad
o(previsto) que los resultados tendrán un impacto significativo sobre la comunidad de
investigación desde hace algún tiempo. Los resultados excelentes han sido alcanzados desde todo punto
de vista: teoría, tecnología, instrumentos, casos industriales, esta
ndarización y diseminación.
"

“Exploitation and Dissemination activities are convincingly real and very powerful, to the extent that
the project has probably witnessed (and has in no small way contributed to) the successful conception
of a new SWS generati
on. Europe is now the global centre
-
of
-
gravity for SWS.”


“The DIP partners have ensured that the project has become a flagship project. Without exception
the partners have worked extremely hard from the start of the project and have collaborated with
each

other in an exemplary fashion. Overall, DIP has been a paragon of collaborative research. The
reviewers would be pleased if DIP was drawn on by the CEC as an exemplar project, in order to
demonstrate the increased value of carrying out international colla
borative research.”





Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


23


" La explotación y actividades de Diseminación son convincentemente verdaderas y muy poderosas, al
grado que el proyecto probablemente ha atestiguado (y no tiene de ningún pequeño modo contribuido) el
concepto(la concepción) acertado

de una nueva generación SWS. Europa es ahora el centro
-
de
-
gravedad global de SWS.
"


" Los compañeros de PENDIENTE han asegurado que el proyecto se ha hecho un proyecto de buque
insignia. Sin la excepción los compañeros han trabajado sumamente con fuerza del principio del
proyecto y han colaborado el uno con el otro en una manera ejemplar
. En general, la PENDIENTE ha
sido un modelo de investigación de colaboración. Los revisores estarían contentos si la PENDIENTE
fuera utilizada por CEC como un proyecto de ejemplo, para demostrar el valor aumentado de realizar la
investigación internaciona
l de colaboración.
"

http://kmi.open.ac.uk/projects/dip/

Objectives



http://dip.semanticweb.org/implementation.html

Background

We are in the midst of a revolutionary change in the development, implementation and use of
information and communication
technologies. Web technologies are shifting from rendering
information in a format for human interpretation, towards providing an automated environment for
delivering a wide variety of e
-
commerce and business
-
to
-
business services and applications.


Such se
rvices and applications will communicate and interoperate in a world composed of Web
-
accessible programs and databases, and interface wirelessly with many smart devices and sensors.
These shifts have the potential to change significantly the way we communi
cate, co
-
operate, and
organize our commercial and personal relationships.


The
Semantic Web

is fundamental to enabling the services and applications outlined above by providing
a universally accessible platform that allows data to be shared and processed
by automated tools, and
by providing the machine
-
understandable semantics of data and information that will enable automatic
information processing and exchange.


Experts have already developed a range of mark
-
up frameworks and languages, notably the revi
sed
Resource Description Framework (RDF) and the Web Ontology Language (OWL) which mark the
emergence of the Semantic Web as a broad
-
based, commercial
-
grade platform. However, much work
remains to be done for upper layers of the Semantic Web, which are con
siderable research challenges.


Complementary to the Semantic Web,
Web Services

are a new breed of application. They are self
-
contained, self
-
describing, modular applications that perform anything from simple requests to
complex business processes, which
can be accessed across and via the Web. Web services can
significantly increase the potential of the Web’s architecture by providing a way of automated
program communication, discovery and invocation of services.


Future Vision

DIP’s vision is the further development, combination and enhancement of Semantic Web and Web
Service technologies to produce a new technology infrastructure


Semantic Web Services
. Web
Services are the proper means for accessing semantically enriched data
, and semantically
-
enabled
Web Services are essential to providing the mature and scalable operating conditions necessary for

Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


24


their successful deployment in stable and secure environments. Significant research work needs to be
done before the infrastructur
e underlying Web Services can make this vision a reality.

DIP’s mission is to make Semantic Web Services a reality as the new infrastructure for e
-
Work and e
-
Commerce. The successful creation of such an infrastructure could potentially change the way
electronic cooperation and business is conducted to the same ex
tent that the original Web
revolutionised access to electronic information.

This mission translates into the following core objectives:



Make Semantic Web technology a reality.

An important objective of DIP is to further develop the
vision of the Sem
antic Web based on machine
-
processable semantics as a new communication and co
-
operation infrastructure. Machine
-
processable semantics enable the automation of information access
and processing.


Combine Semantic Web technology with Web Services for sem
antics
-
based services.

DIP believes
that a combination of Semantic Web and Web Services technology may well deliver the killer
application for the Semantic Web. Semantic Web Services can provide an infrastructure that will not
only revolutionize informatio
n processing but also the way we access computational resources in
general. They will provide a completely new infrastructure to facilitate more effective and cost
-
efficient electronic business and enable people to work together in better and more innovati
ve ways.


Apply Semantic Web Services as an infrastructure in real world scenarios within an organization and
between organizations and its customers, partners and suppliers.

DIP will also address one of the
critical success factors in the market take
-
u
p of Semantic Web Services by creating practical
solutions to real
-
world business challenges. These solutions will be showcased in scenarios within single
organizations, and between and across multiple organizations operating along the classic business val
ue
chain. DIP aims to develop practical technology, that can be deployed in new methods for eWork,
eGoverment, and eCommerce. The main types of applications are:


Intelligent Information Management
: The Semantic Web, which ranks as one of this decade’s
most
important software developments, has the potential to improve human information access to
unstructured and semi
-
structured information. Through the use of metadata


information about
information


the Semantic Web will help us organise and access the

vast amount of material on the
Web.


Enterprise Application Integration
: Semantic Web Services hold the promise of moving beyond the
simple exchange of information, the dominant mechanism for application integration today, to
accessing application serv
ices that are encapsulated in both old and new applications. This means
organizations will be able to not only move information from application to application, but also will be
able to create composite applications by combining services found in any numbe
r of different local or
remote applications.


Dynamic & Smart eCommerce
: Semantic Web Services in B2B applications will enable virtual and
smart organizations in commercial and non
-
commercial environments. Here we are talking about the
integration of da
ta, processes, and applications between different organizations introducing advanced
requirements for openness, heterogeneity, and change.



Estado del Arte: Servicios Web Semanticos


25


DIP will strive to develop Semantic Web Services as a scaleable and cost effective solution to the
integration prob
lem, thereby dealing with one of the key bottlenecks of modern networked society.
According to Gartner analysts, there will be strong and in some cases explosive demand for Web
Services and integration technology and services as businesses react to the nee
d for more integration
and more agility.

Making disparate systems share information cost
-
effectively is a perennial problem for companies and
represents billions of dollars in technology spending, with an estimated 30% of worldwide IT budgets
dedicated to
Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) type projects
.