Robotic Parking Frequently Asked Questions (V. 1.1) Table of Contents

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Robotic Parking Frequently Asked Questions (V. 1.1)


Table of Contents


General Questions

3

What is Automated Ro
botic Parking?

3

What can the Patron (driver) expect?

3

What benefits are there to using a Robotic Garage?

3

How long does it take to retrieve a car

3

How reliable is a Robotic Parking System?

3

What happens during an electrical failure?

4

What if the computer system crashes?

4

Can a car ever get stuck inside the Robot
ic Parking System?

4

How many parking spaces can be built with a Robotic Parking System?

4

What type of cars can a Robotic Syste
m accommodate?

4

What is the average operational life of equipment before major repairs or replacement of the key elements
in the system are required?

4

Can I be sure that nothing will get (drip) on my car (oil, water, etc.) from the vehicle above me?

4

Robotic Parking Costs

5

What is the cost per space for a Robotic Parking System?

5

What does it cost to operate a Robotic Garage?

7

How many employees are needed to maintain a Robotic Parking System?

7

What is the monthly per space cost for ongoing maintenance?

7

Structural Questions

7

What additional rooms are needed to operate a Robotic Parking System?

7

Does the Robotic Parking Sy
stem require a stand
-
alone building or can it be built under or inside a
building?

7

Are Robotic Parking Systems supporting structures made of steel or concrete?

7

Does the façade and roof need be self supporting or can they be connected to the Robotic Parking System
structure?

8

Which temperature ensures stable operat
ion of a Robotic Parking Garage?

8

Accessibility and Security

8

Is a Robotic Parking System suitable for handicapped persons?

8

How secure is the Robotic Parking System?

8

Codes and Fire

9

Wha
t are the fire requirements for Robotic Parking Systems?

9

What is the level noise from automated parking system?

9

Does a Robot
ic Parking Garage need to be illuminated

9

What light level is required in the parking area?

9

What is the required light level
for drop
-
off/pickup bays?

9

Air Changes needed

9

Patron Enter and Exit

10

How is a driver alerted when they are not correctly centered (within tolerance) within the drop
-
off bay, and
what kind of communication is provided to help guide them into an acceptable position?

10

Are there any limitations to what kind of vehicle can be parked within a Robotic Garage?

10


General Questions

What is Automated Robotic Parking?

Robotic parking garages rely on technology similar to what i
s used in manufacturing and
warehouse

facilities world wide for
cost effective movement of materials
, pallets, etc.


The Robotic Garage uses computer
-
controlled vertical lifts and
horizontal

shuttles or robotic valets
(AGV’s) to transport vehicles from an
arrival area to a remote compartment for storage without human
assistance.


What can
the Patron

(driver) expect?

A patron’s experience of an automated parking structure begins as the patron drives into an enclosed entry

drop
-
off bay and parks,
aligning the
ir vehicle with the help of sensors and lasers. The patron gathers their
belongings and exits the

vehicle. The patron takes a ticket from a
kiosk

machine outside the compartment,
trig
gering the compartment door to close.


When exiting, the patron goes to a

centralized

location (waiting room) puts the ticket into a
kiosk

and the
system retrieves the
vehicle. An interface informs the patron which exit compartment the vehicle will be

returned to. The patron loads belongings and drives out forward.


What benefi
ts are ther
e to using a Robotic Garage
?

Fit twice the cars in the same space
utilized

for a conventional garage o
r

u
se half the space for
the same
number of cars.


Other benefits can be realized by less excavation for below grade garages or more leasable/s
ellable square
footage for above ground garages.


Many green aspects are
inherent

to Robotic Garages such as, additional open space for parks, etc.,
elimination of
carbon

emissions
, no water/oil runoff, etc.


In addition to the smaller building size and in
creased parking
capacity, Robotic P
arking System
s

virtually
eliminates vandalism, theft, weather d
amage, misplaced vehicles and provide a
valet type experience when
parking your vehicle.


How long does it take to retrieve a car

Most Robotic Parking System
s tout
retrieval

times of 90
-
120 seconds.


However
depending on type of system,
technology
and configuration
this number could vary when several
people arrive at the same time requesting vehicles from the same area of the garage.


I will be more than happ
y t
o provide a throughput
analysis

on a case by case basis.


How reliable is a

Robotic Parking System?

Robotic Parking Systems provides true redundancy with multiple elements controlling the same process to
provide alternatives in case of a component fail
ure.


What happens
during

an electrical failure
?

Most
Robotic Parking Systems are equipped with a stand
-
by generator in sufficient capacity to get the job
done

if or when there is a power failure
.
An automatic transfer switch ensures

a seamless transition

to
stand
-
by power within 6 seconds.


What if the computer system crashes?

Most
Robotic Parking Systems servers are no
t only equipped with

UPS (Uninterruptable Power Supply),
but also with a true hot swappable redundant server that has all information inst
antly available t
o continue
seamless

operation.


Can a car ever get stuck inside the Robotic Parking System?

Robotic

Parking

System
s are

designed from the very beginn
ing with exactly this in mind,
how to overcome
any possible machine failure so the car ca
n be retrieved no matter what

the situation
.

Different systems
take
longer than others to rectify the situation.

This design point is represented in the system architecture, its
redundancies and flexibilities.


How many parking spaces can be built with a
Robotic Parking System?

Due to the modular flexibility of the Robotic Parking System
s
, automated parking structures are desig
ned
and built for a few

to thousands of parking spaces.


The Robotic Valet
technology

has no limit on the amount of cars that can b
e parked within the
conventional structure.


What type of cars can a Robotic S
ystem accommodate?

Most Robotic P
arking system
s are
design
ed

to accommodate standar
d vehicles including most SUV’s
having a max length of 19’ (
5791
mm
)

and
width

of 7’6” (2286mm)
with heights and
weights

that
very

from system to system.

Also most companies can
accommodate

any size vehicles with modifications.


What is the
average
operation
al life of equipment before
major repairs or
replacement of the key elements in the system

are

required
?

Depending on the type of system, overhaul should be carried out after 12
-
15 years of operation. Basical
ly,
lifetime of a Robotic Parking S
ystem is comparable to the lifetime of the building.


Boomerang the
manufacture

of the

Robotic Valet sugges
t an overhaul

of its Robotic Valet’s every 15
-
20
years.


Can I be sure that nothing will get (drip) on my car (oil, water, etc.) from the
vehicle above me?

In a pallet based system e
very car is placed on specially designed pallet, which excludes the possib
ility of
any liquid dripping on the car, located on the level below.



Most pallet
-
less systems
usually

use solid concrete floors eliminating this occurrence.


Saving Air Rights
Example: 500 Spaces, Residential Tower
Volume Taken By Parking
Self Park Solution: 1,750,000 cubic feet
Automated Solution/:
900,000 cubic feet
Value
of Air Rights:
$50/sq ft
$100/sq ft
$200/sq ft
Self Park
Garage
Structure Per Space
$21,000
$21,000
$21,000
Air Rights Per Space
$17,500
$35,000
$70,000
Total Per Space
$38,500
$56,000
$91,000
Boomerang
Garage
Structure Per Space
$11,250
$11,250
$11,250
Automation Per Space
$12,000
$12,000
$12,000
Air Rights Per Space
$9,000
$18,000
$36,000
Total Per Space
$32,250
$41,250
$59,250
Increase
in
Value to Developer
$3,125,000
$7,375,000
$15,875,000
Robotic Parking Costs

Wh
at is the cost per space for a
Robotic Parking System?

The cost per spa
ce of a

Robotic Parking Syst
em depends on three factors:

1)

The layout of the project

2)

T
he total number of parking spaces

needed

3)

The required
throughput

of the system.

These three variables are of equal importance in the equation for project estimate calculati
ons and can
r
esult in prices ranging from $9
,000 USD per space to over $30,000 USD per space.


Much more important than just comparing construction costs are the overall DEVELOPMENT costs.

The
illustrations below give you a good idea of how Robotic Parki
ng can
impact

any development












Reducing Excavation
Example: 200 Spaces, Urban Infill Mixed Use
Volume Taken By Parking
Self Park Solution: 850,000 cubic feet
Automated Solution/:
384,000 cubic feet
Cost of Excavation
:
$5/cu ft
$10/cu ft
$15/cu ft
Self Park
Garage
Structure Per Space
$25,500
$25,500
$25,500
Excavation Per Space
$21,250
$42,500
$63,750
Total Per Space
$46,750
$68,000
$89,250
Boomerang
Garage
Structure Per Space
$12,000
$12,000
$12,000
Automation Per Space
$15,000
$15,000
$15,000
Excavation Per Space
$9,600
$19,200
$28,800
Total Per Space
$36,600
$46,200
$55,800
Increase
in
Value to Developer
$2,030,000
$4,360,000
$6,690,000
Maximizing Parking
Example: 1,000 Spaces, Long Term Airport Parking
Present Value of Income
Generated Per Parking Space
:
$25,000
$50,000
$75,000
Self Park Garage
Spaces Yielded
500
500
500
Value of Spaces Yielded
$12,500,000
$25,000,000
$37,500,000
Total Development Cost
$13,000,000
$18,000,000
$23,000,000
Net Project Value
$(500,000)
$7,000,000
$14,500,000
Boomerang
Garage
Spaces Yielded
1,000
1,000
1,000
Value of Spaces Yielded
$
25,000,000
$
50,000,000
$
75,000,000
Total Development Cost
$
22,000,000
$
27,000,000
$32,000,000
Net Project Value
$
3,000,000
$
23,000,000
$
43,000,000
Increase
in
Value to Developer
$3,500,000
$16,000,000
$28,500,000
Volume Taken By Parking Per Space
Self Park Solution: 850,000 cubic feet
Automated Solution/:
384,000 cubic feet

























What does it cost t
o operate a Robotic Garage
?

This of cou
rse varies depending on the type of garage.


With the elimination of parking attendants, heating, cooling
, ventilation

and light
ing requirements for
publ
ic access. The cost to operate a Robotic Garage is drastically reduced in most situations.


The following is a good rule of thumb for the ongoing operation of Robotic Garages.


For an open air garage a 20% reduction in operation co
sts can be realized

For a closed garage needing ventilation the reduction could be as high as 50%


How many employees

are
needed

to maintain a Robotic Parking S
ystem?

Consid
ering that Robotic P
arking systems are fully automated the presence of permanent st
aff is not
required, but in some cases (given the novelty of the product), the presence of one or two technic
ians on the
premises is suggested upon opening for a short period of time.


Most manufactures offer a maintenance program which includes onsite
pre
ventative

maintenance

and 24x7
remote monitoring of the facility.


What

is the monthly per space cost for ongoing maintenance
?

This price varies from manu
facture to manufacture.

The
numbers

below represent a good range promoted by most manufactures.


$20
-
25 per space/per month



Structural

Questions

What

additional
rooms

are

needed to operate a Robotic Parking System?

Most Robotic Systems would require i
n addition to the actual storage volume, a Control Room,
Lobby
/Waiting Room
, Electrical Room, Pump Room,

Generator Room and Storage
/
Maintenance

Room for
spare parts are needed.



The size of these rooms will change based on manufacture.


Does the Robotic Parking System require a stand
-
alone building or can it
be built under or inside a building?

Most
Robotic

Parking System can be stand
-
alone, below a building or abov
e a building as long as there is
clear access and staging to the drop
-
off and pickup bays
.


The Robotic Valet can be retrofit into existing buildings, using existing floors.



Are

Robotic Parking
System
s supporting structures made
of
steel

or
concrete?

Most
Robotic Parking System
technology
can be

used in both a steel or
concrete

structure.

Does the façade and roof need be self supporting or can they be connected
to the Robotic Parking System struc
ture?

For most Legacy Rack & Rail systems
the façade and roof can be attached to the Robotic Parking System
supporting structure and do not need be free standing.


This is not an issue with Robotic Systems that use concrete structures.


Which temperature
ensures s
table operati
on of a R
obotic
P
arking

G
arage
?

M
ost Robotic P
arking
garages

recommend
temperatures

ranging

from

-
22 F

(
-
30 º C
)

to
122 F (+50

º C
)
.


Accessibility

and Security

Is a

Robotic Parking System suitable for handicapped persons?

As long as
the drop
-
off/pickup bays

are compatible with the requirements of the ADA


American
Disability Act.

Then all spaces within the garage are ADA
compliant
.


How secure is the Robotic Parking System?

Safety and security are unsurpassed compared to any other pa
rking scheme.


Consider that parking lots are the number one place where sexual assaults by strangers occur.
Unfortunately self park garages are difficult to monitor and secure and therefore present an opportunity to
would be robbers and assailants.


E
ven if no one is lurking in the garage, it can be an unpleasant experience to walk alone at night to one’s
car in a large ramp garage.


By contrast consumers do not enter automated parking garages and occupied space is limited to a small
central common a
rea which is easy to monitor and secure
.


In an automated parking garage, you can park your car with the piece of mind that no one has access to it.
Because automated parking garages are unoccupied, many of the problems that plague conventional self
park
garages are eliminated:




Fender Benders



Door Dings



Vandalism



Theft of Vehicle



Theft of Vehicle Contents



Codes and Fire

What are the fire requirements for

Robotic Parking System
s
?

Questions about fire fighting, fire alarms, standpipes, escape routes and

ventilation requirements are
described in NFPA® 88A Standard for Parking Structures 2011 Edition,


In North America one of the biggest
obstacles

with Legacy Rack & Rail systems is fire access. This one
item has limited the growth of Robotic Parking Syste
ms in North America over the last decade.


New technology and methods have addressed this issue in recent years. In the coming months I will post a
detailed report on fire requirements for Robotic Parking.


What is the level noise from automated parking s
ystem?

Based on the existing building codes the maximum no
ise
levels

shall not exceed 60 dB at a distance of
6’
(
2 meters
)

away from the building. The noise level of the me
chanisms used in most Robotic Parking
Systems do not exceed

50
-
52 dB at a distance o
f
6’ (
2 meters
)

inside the parking facility, so the system is
virtually noiseless.


Does a Robotic
Parking

Garage need to be
illuminated

No, there

is no need for full lighting the garage. Most Robotic Systems are considered dark garages, since
there is no
human
presenc
e inside the facility. However minimum emergency and
maintenance

lighting will
be required by local code.



What light level is required in the parking

area?

If the customer would li
ke internal video then the
use the 30 foot candles

would be r
equired
. If the
customer opps to run a dark garage. Then IBC would require 1 lumen of light at the floor level for all
egress pathways, which is basically the entirety of each floor



What is the required

ligh
t level for drop
-
off/pickup
bays?

For

Loading A
reas it is

recommends 30 foot candles of lighting to operate full D1 video at 30fps, though
possibly less lighting might be required at kiosk locations.


Air Changes needed

The most recent NFPA 88A
-
A2010 specifies that "9.2.3.1
an

enclosed automated type
parking structure
shall be provided with a ventilation system that continuously provides a minimum of two air changes per
hour.” (Conventional is 7 air changes per hour)


Patron Enter and E
xit


How is a driver alerted when they are not correctly centere
d
(within
tolerance) within the drop
-
off bay
, and what kind of communication is
provided to help guide them into an acceptable position?

Most Robotic System provide a
n LED display positioned at

the far end of the drop
-
off bay

from the entry
door,

it

will off
er illuminated text and symbol directions to the driver that change in response to the
vehicle's positioning as the driver pulls in. This will occur the entire time the vehicle is being driven into
the Loading Area. Once the vehicle is positioned correct
ly within tolerances to be stored, the display will
direct the driver to stop. Assuming the driver stops within tolerances, the sign will then provide other
helpful directions to facilitate the vehicle

storage.


Are there any limitations to what kind of v
ehicle can be parked within a
Robotic Garage
?

Most manufactures

recommend that owners post adequate signage on approach which notifies potential
parkers of System limitations, similar to that which would be normal for any other park
ing garage. Once in
the

bay
s

the vehicle is scanned and measured
. V
ehicles not meeting the criteria

due to weight, dimensions,
etc.

are not allowed to park within the garage. Some systems, at the
owner’s

preference, may also
simultaneously offer audio verbal feedback