Communications of the

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Works Cited

Borenstein, Jason. “ Computing Ethics: Work Life in the Robotic Age”
Communications of the

ACM
.

52.7 (2010) 30
-
31. Print.


In this article, Jason Borenstein discusses how advancements and improvements in



efficiency will cause companies to invest in more robotic workers. Borenstein raises the

point that robotic researchers should be weary of the ethical issues
they could encounter.



He brings up the point that most of us do not have to wash our clothes o
r dishes by hand

anymore with the advancements in technology. He then brings up the point that even

though most of the work is done for us, not all the work has been eliminated by

technology. He uses an example of if robots are introduced in the surger
y room with the


aid of surgeons, wouldn’t this increase the number of surgeries performed in a day

causing a demand in surgeons to increase the rate of more surgeries. He also mentions

how a typical workweek in today’s society has not gotten any shorte
r or less demanding



in the digital age.
Borenstein asks the question of what would happen if robots did take

jobs of humans that once upon a time required skill? In the conclusion of his paper, he

states he hopes for the robotic community to choose cer
tain design pathways for robots so



the ethical conflict will be minimum as the
robots enhance the public’s lives.



In the article Jason Borenstein wrote, he brings up some very interesting questions along

with some interesting points he raises. Throug
hout his article, Borenstein brings up points

of things that could be raised in the debate of the ethical values robotic workers need. In

doing so, he does not support any of his theories with other work or experts. He does

bring some very unique though
ts to the topic, but he fails to have any evidentiary support.

In a subject like this, it is difficult to find experts and other types of evidentiary support

due to the futuristic outlook on the topic, but there is still many sources out there he could

have used. This make his opinions not as strong, and have no valid foundation.


This article is applicable for my research because it carries many ideas that are not seen

in other articles on this subject. Not only does he see the concern this subject br
ings up,

but he also asks questions about how this could affect society as well as suggesting

solutions. This gives a different angle to my question and researches, showing the

different alternatives and opinions many writers have on this topic.

Chen,
Tiffany L. and Kemp, Charles C. “A Direct Interface for Navigation and Positioning of a

Robotic Nursing Assistant
” Advanced Robotics

25.2 (2011): 605
-
627. Print.


In this article,
Tiffany Chen and

Charles Kemp discuss how physical contact may be an

important form of communication between robots and humans. This article defines,

demonstrates how robots can help in jobs, such as nursing, by using the scientific

method.
They describe how the problem in the nursing field is how there is a shortage

ar
ound the world and giving background to the type of experiment they conduct.

Throughout the experimental process, they offer graphs, reasons behind this experiment,

and how it is relevant. They use a direct physical interphase, (DPI) and 18 different

nu
rses
in an environment like their daily work to see how the robotic assistant benefits

the nurses in their workplace. They explain how many different types of DPIs are

available and could be used in the nursing workforce, and explain different ones by us
ing

charts. Throughout the experiment, the go on to explain the methodology and hypotheses

they have come up with throughout the process. In the experiment they asked the nurses

to do four different tasks using two different types of robots: the gamepa
d interface and

the DPI. They explain the differences, and illustrate the different robots in pictures. They

conduct the experiment, and the
results of this were many nurses found the DPI more

effective and easier to learn. They show all of their findin
gs and conclude with how

human robotic interaction through physical contact is just a step toward the development

and enhancement of jobs around the world.


In this article, Tiffany Chen and Charles Kemp
use an experiment to show how robots

can be effe
ctive in workplaces like the nursing workforce. They use their own expertise,

in which they are entitled to, along with an experiment in real life environment, statistics,

graphs and charts, and surveys. They have background information not only on the

technology, but also why they are conducting the experiment with a certain
group of

people that it applies to in this situation.

Th
is is a well
-
supported article that eliminates

variables and holes in their opinion of ethical problem in robotic/human in
teractions in

the workforce.

This is applicable for my research paper because not only is it supported with different

evidentiary support, it also has a real life situation that could be an advantage in robots

not replacing, but assisting humans in cert
ain jobs. They prove their point using a real life

situation, which is not in a futuristic setting, and conduct an experiment with the results

showing how robots could
improve jobs. This helps enforce and show an advantage of

different ways robots can a
ssist in jobs, rather than taking jobs. This shows how robots

would not take jobs completely, but they will be able to help more, relieving workers

from work overload. This is a real life study that was conducted that does apply the

ethical values of ro
bots, showing how robots would not completely take over jobs, but

assist in different areas.

Korzep, Karen. “The future of technology and the effect it may have on replacing human jobs”

Technology & Healthcare
.
18.4/5 (2010): 353
-
358. Print
.


In this article, Karen Korzep discusses the
healthcare corporation that deals with

electronic technology that
provides

patient care over a distance, TeleHealth


TeleMedicine, and ho the advancements in technology

will a
ffect jobs. She provides

backgroun
d information of how TeleHealth has been used over a long period of time and



has adjusted with the different advancements in technology. Korzep discusses the

advantages TeleHealth has in rural areas due to the availability of
internet and

technology. S
he discusses and raises the point of with the climbing influence of

TeleHealth, will some jobs such as physicians be phased out because of the accessibility

of them by using the computer.
She also brings up the point of as the TeleHealth industry

increa
ses, will this force certain practices in using this advancement in technology and by

doing so, and would this increase or decrease business?
In the conclusion of this article,

Korzep describes how even though this technology is available, many people wi
ll be

resistant to the change and not accept the thought of takeover. Korzep does say that

eventually this takeover may happen, which will in turn have an effect on jobs and how

jobs will one day function for humans.


This article states background inf
ormation over the technology that is being focused on to

give insight on just how important this problem is. Korzep goes on to show how this

technology is being used and how, in the future, this will affect jobs in the healthcare

workforce.
Korzep suppo
rts the statements she makes with expert testament, as well as

her own example of when she was in a college course. She
does leave some unanswered

questions, but she does raise some interesting questions in which she uses her sources to

help explain her

view of how technology and robotics will change or shape jobs in the

future.


This is applicable for my research paper because this focuses on an industry that plays a

large role in healthcare and has a big influence on how it is used rather than just
gradual

change in certain jobs. This focuses on the affects this could have if the industry does

grow to a point. This is a viewpoint of how if one co
mpany does change, how fast this

change would occur and also how big this change would be on a global l
evel. This is a

different view of a similar problem. This will help illustrate how this should concern

everyone.

Moore, Alison. “Space
-
Age Operations”
Nursing Standard

25.49 (2011); 22
-
24. Print.


In this article Alison Moore describes a case where a robot performed surgery on a patent

with the assistant of a nurse.
She goes on explaining how this could eliminate the role of

doctors and surgeons to some extent. The advantages of this robot is the
recovery time is

much quicker than it used to be, due to the smaller more precise incisions made for

certain procedures. The nurse that helps the robot prefers to work alongside a robot. This

article states there are more used worldwide for surgeries fo
r the effectiveness they have.


This article provides real life situations that are currently going on around the world.

Robots are now being integrated
into surgeries, causing the need for surgeons and some

specialist to not be needed. This article doe
s not have expert evidentiary support,

statistics, other text, but it does have an anecdote. The information is organized and

presented in a clear fashion.


This is appropriate for my research paper because this is a story that is telling of robot

inte
gration into a certain field of work that is being affected worldwide. It does state the

advantages and disadvantages, showing what could be and outcome of this growing

technology. This is another way robot interaction and substitution in the workforce w
ill

affect everyone, showing the seriousness of the situation. By using this, it gives the

audience a relatable story that shows both advantages and disadvantages in robots in

certain workforces.

Petersen, Stephen. “The Ethics of Robot Servitude”
Journ
al of Experimental & The
oretical

Artificial Intelligence.
19.1 (2007): 43
-
54. Print.


In this article, Stephen Petersen focuses on a futuristic hypothetical situation where


humans build intelligence equal to our own and highlights ethical situations th
at could

arise. He uses many famous media examples like movies, and shows to give an idea of


what he is asking. He raises the question of will it be acceptable to not pay such creatures

if they have intelligence close to our own, and may we create such

creatures. He goes on



to explain
how he feels it is permissible to do such things, and was surprised by his own

research on the topic. He brings an
example of how dogs find desire in fetching, and if

dogs were more intelligent, but still had the basic

program to fetch, it would still enjoy

fetching. He goes on to explaining how he feels it would be like with robots that were as

intelligent as us. He raises points of how the programming should be for the robots, and

how situations and issues should b
e solved now, rather than later.


Stephen Petersen uses hypothetical scenarios, expert opinions and studies, and examples

to support his opinion. Even though he uses all of this, I find he leaves some holes in his

scenarios. As I was reading, I kept ask
ing the question of if the creatures were equal to

our intelligence, why would they not question why they were asked to perform certain

tasks and then in turn question why we were in control of them. He did touch lightly on

this subject, but he did not
answer this question. He instead used the example of dogs. To

me, this is not the same because we would have not built dogs, and they would not be as

intelligent as us. The ethical values were mentioned and explained, but would they

change because of hi
s lack of
acknowledgement to certain points? Overall, he did explain

the ethical ramifications of robotic integration into the society.


This is appropriate for my paper because not only does it go into depth over the ethical

values the advancement in t
echnology would cause, it also explains and reasons with

other situations that would arise because of this. This gives an angle to the research that

shows how the media perceives robots and also how these similar questions should be

reviewed and answere
d before it is too late. This is just one more reason that everyone

should be concerned with the advancement in technology, because without realizing it,

this futuristic view is coming closer than most people expect or even realize. Without

thought bein
g put into these issues, there is no telling what type of problems would be

made because of it.

Hinds, Pamela
;

Jones, Honk and Roberts, Teresa. “Whose Job is it Anyway? A study of Human
-

Robot Interaction in a Collaborative Task”
Human
-
Computer
Interaction

19.1/2 (2004):

p151
-
181. Print.


In this article, they discuss the advancements in artificial intelligence and speech

recognition. The article begins
discussing how robots and humans will interact in new

jobs and also how the technology will evolve into more complex
features like
identify

and track people and objects, understand a
nd respond to spoken questions,
and travel to a

destination while avoiding obstacles
. They continue to discuss about the advan
tages that

robots would have to humans as the technology advances. The article also discusses that

the United Nations plan to have service robots for the different fields like military,

medical services, and agricultures.
With this, the development of r
obots will differ in

variety allowing everyone to use them for more mundane activities such as being

available for homes, schools, hospitals, and other places. It goes on to explaining the

different types of robots. After giving this information, they b
egin raising different points

about how the interactions
between humans and robots would be as well as how humans

will trust robots if robots are giving power.


These authors use hypothetical scenarios,
pictures
, and also uses outside expert sources

to

support their side.
In the beginning of the article, they describe how many different

robots would advance with the advancement of different fields of artificial intelligence.



As they continue to explain the different ways, they use outside sources to
show how the



United Nations discussed the different ways robots would be used. They also use pictures

to show the differences between machine looking and human like robots. They also use

mathematical equations in their research to see how different peo
ple react with the

different
versions of robots and also the different positions of the robots. They have

effectively supported their point.


This would be applicable for my paper because it shows how the different research ways

that they use to describe the different evolutions in technology and how the different

views affect how people will react to robots in job settings. This is a real life situation

that has been tested to see how humans would react to robots in the job set
ting. This gives

a better view of how people would react to the scenarios in jobs. This would contribute

to one view of how people could react to robots in more average jobs.

Rasmussen, Chris “Jobs Galore for Robots
” Rethinking History

5.1 (2001): p 14
9
-
162. Print.


In this article, Chris Rasmussen begins
with quoting someone on the outlook of American

culture. He begins to discuss how machines started making jobs easier as early as the

19
20s. He begins brining in the history of when the word robot w
as introduced. He also

uses pictures to illustrate how many people v
iewed robots and jobs as robots were

introduced into the big industries. He focuses on earlier ages of the introduction of

robotics and automatic machines to the public and how the publ
ic reacts.

He also uses

different points like technologies and unemployment and robot entertainment.


In his article, Chris Rasmussen
uses many different outside sources, pictures, and also

information in the different era. He begins discussing how the

introduction of the

machines affected the point of view of workers and society alike. He focuses on when

automatic machines were first
made and also how the view of machines has changed with

the evolution of technology. He effectively uses this to show

how the evolution of

technology does produce some ethical questions, but with the continuous advancements,

soci
ety began to accept the changes.


This would be acceptable for my paper because it shows how society went through the

change of machines fir
st being introduced. It gives a viewpoint of how people were

resilient at first, but then accepted the change because it brought jobs and helped make

some jobs easier. This shows about how the different advancements in this field in the

future could aff
ect society, and how it could possibly be seen by society as a whole.
This

is a scenario of how new technology and advancements would affect the society and how

eventually how society will adapt.

Dorans, Kristen

Will a Robot Steal Your Job?
” Nature
Medicine

15.5 (2009): p 467
-
467.

Print.


In this article, Kristen talks about a robot that can design its own experiment. Adam, the

robot that can do this, has been able to discover functions of several genes that are

involved metabolism that were prev
iously unknown before. In her article, she states that

as of her source’s knowledge, Adam is the first robot to make scientific discoveries on its

own.
The creators of the robot Adam are working on a robot named Eve to help discover

new drug candidates.



This article is acceptable even though it is short. She does use a source and pictures, but

her article is very short. She should have elaborated on this subject. Instead of just doing

a small summary of what Adam does, she could have shown the differ
ent technologies

and how this is affecting the field of study.
The pictures show what the robot looks like

from two different angles.
It proves that technology is advancing to a point to do complex

experiments and be able to find discoveries that were n
ot found with humans and robots.


This is applicable for my paper because it proves that technology is already advancing to

the point where robots are able to conduct experiments on its own. Because of this, robots

are able to make findings that humans
have not been able to find.
This shows how

technology is advancing to the point that it is able to form its own experiments. This is a

huge breakthrough because many jobs in the healthcare fields will be able to use this

technology. This shows how techn
ology is advancing at a fast pace, which brings up the

issue of how far the technology should be able to go.

Radojicic, J
;

Schreck, G, and Surdilovic, D “Modular Hybrid Robots for Safe Human
-
Robot

Interaction”
World Academy of Science, Engineering & Tec
hnology

60.0 (2009): p 832
-

838. Print.


In this article, the authors discuss how important it is to design safe interactive robotic

systems. They also discuss how the development of techniques and applications has

been engineered in the past two years f
or industrial robots. One of the goals of this is to



realize passive admittance robot behavior or to control the force of interaction actively. It

discusses how there should be environment friendly as well as human friendly robots that

use end
-
effector

and the entire arm body and surface. It focuses on the problems robots

have right now with being human friendly and addresses these problems with different

solutions.


This article shows a diagram of how to fix the problem; it uses outside sources, and

also

mathematical justification. It goes through
the different ways on how to make robotic and

human interactions safer for both the environment
and humans alike. They used one

solution that deals with getting rid of joint stiffness in robots. This wil
l help get rid of the

dangers some robots could potentially have while interacting with humans in society. It

shows how there are some people who are starting to think of problems that

robots could

have while interacting with society.


This is applicable for my paper because it shows different problems that robots have right

now and the different solutions. It helps show how there are some people that are

concerned with the human robotic interactions and the concerns with the environme
nt as



well society. This gives evidence that people are becoming aware of the advancements in

technology.

Decker, Michael
“The Role of Ethics in Interdisciplinary Technology A
ssessment

Poiesis &

Praxis

2.2/3 (2004): p139
-
156. Print.


In this article,

they talk about how some
organizations, like Technology Assessment, tries

to answer questions like how does society want to live. He discusses the different aspects

that are taken into the account for the problems and solutions.
He begins to go into ho
w

robots have some natural ways of movements and includes the different forms of

movements like arms, legs, and wings of different organisms.
After explaining how these

different applications are applied, he raises questions about healthcare. He begins

explaining how the process is for developing robots and robotic applications in the

healthcare field. In this article, he uses two different robots that were made for the

healthcare field and goes into the steps on before it is made and the ethical valu
es to

when it is in use.


In this article, he uses outside sources, examples, and diagrams of how robots are thought

of and the steps that go into building the machines. Even though this has many expert

opinions about this subject, the author does cite

his own work. He uses detail to explain

how the process is done. He uses two examples of two robotic machines that were

designed for the healthcare field. The author effectively shows these steps throughout

both examples that are used. Even though he d
oes cite some of his own work, he provides



exceptional data using other sources as well as examples.


This is adequate for a research paper because it explains the steps that go into building a

robotic machine. It helps show how some ethical questions a
re answered as the design of

the robot is being built. This helps
solve some of the concerns that can occur with the

invention of new robots in the healthcare field. This helps show that there is more to this

blind new field than just trial and error. T
here is thought that goes into the processes that

create this new growing field.
This is an article that supports the fact that much thought

must go into this new growing field and it also stresses the importance of how these

robots affect healthcare.