Yee Wei Law

fanaticalpumaΜηχανική

5 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 3 μέρες)

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Yee Wei Law

1

2

Australian Standard:
AS 60038
-
2000
“Standard voltages
”:


Transmission

EHV: 275kV, 330kV,
500 kV

HV: 220kV

MV: 66kV


Distribution

LV: 11kV, 22kV


Why and what is the Smart Grid?



Three Smart Grid components


Transmission: Wide
-
area Monitoring System


Distribution: Distribution Automation


Consumption: Demand Response



Research Areas



Conclusion

3

4


Smart grid = envisioned next
-
gen power grid that is:

Intelligent

(senses
overload,
rerouting)

Efficient

(meets
demand
without more
cost)

Accommo
-
dating

(renewable
energy)

Motivating

(demand
response)

Quality
-
focused

(minimum
disturbances,
interruptions)

Resilient

(to attacks,
disasters)

“Green”

(minimal
environmental
impact)

5


Ageing hardware + population growth = equipment at limits


Market
deregulation (‘80s
-
‘90s
)










Climate change


D
istributed generation using renewable energy sources


Global cooperation
(International Smart Grid Action Network
including Australia
)

Cost of outages in USA in 2002: $79B


8
-
10% energy lost in transmission and distribution
networks



Energy
Management System (EMS): control
generation, aggregation,
power
dispatch



EMS computes
optimal power flow



However
, SCADA
-
based EMS gives incomplete view
of system steady
state (resolution: several seconds)

6


Aka
synchrophasors
, because time
-
synchronized using GPS


Measures
voltage and
current
phasors


Typically 30 time
-
stamped samples per
sec










Control of electromechanical oscillation, voltage, frequency
etc.

7

ABB’s RES521

Macrodyne’s

1690

MiCOM

P847

Phadke

and Thorp’s prototype circa 1988

8

PMU
PMU
PMU
PMU
...
PDC
Application Data Buffer
Real
-
Time
Monitoring
Real
-
Time
Control
Real
-
Time
Protection
Layer
1
:
Data acquisition
Layer
2
:
Data management
Layer
3
:
Data services
Layer
4
:
Applications
WAN

Remotely

and efficiently identify and resolve system
problems


Enables load shifting,
alleviates
overload
conditions


Reconfigures
the system after
disturbances or interruptions


Facilitates coordination with
customer services

such as time
-
of
-
use pricing, load management and
DERs


Maintain
equipment
health


9

Substation

Distribution network

Control center


EPRI proposed
advanced

DA


complete automation of
controllable equipment (actuators and sensors)


Sample actuators:


Auto
-
recloser
: circuit breaker that re
-
closes after interrupting
short
-
circuit current


Voltage regulator
: usually at the supply end, but also near
customers with heavy load


Switched capacitor bank
: switched in when load is heavy, switched
out when otherwise




10

Recloser

Voltage
regulator

Switched
capacitor
bank


Static sensors:







Non
-
static sensors:

11

RF temperature
sensor

RF
leakage
current
sensor

Metal insulated
semiconducting
(MIS) sensor for
detecting
hydrogen


Developed by Tokyo
-
based
HiBot


Able to navigate around
obstacle


Laser
-
based sensors


HD camera


Cost & energy is a
constraint

Aerial photography (SP
AusNet
):


EPRI identified two critical technologies:


Open communication architecture


Redeveloped power system for component interoperability



Urban networks: fiber optics

Rural networks: wireless


12

13



CDMA2000

GE
-
MDS 900MHz

Silver Spring
Networks

Wi
-
Fi/IEEE 802.11

WiMAX/IEEE
802.16

Interoper
-
ability

Open standard

Proprietary

Proprietary

Open standard

Open standard

Capacity

76.8 kbps (80
-
ms frame)

153.6 kbps (40
-
ms
frame)

307.2 kbps (20
-
ms
frame)

19.2 kbps (80 km)

115 kbps (48 km)

1 Mbps (32 km)

100 kbps

54 Mbps (802.11a)

11 Mbps (802.11b)

54 Mbps (802.11g)

72 Mbps (802.11n)


9 Mbps

Latency

Hundreds of milliseconds

Tens of milliseconds

Tens of
milliseconds

Milliseconds

Milliseconds

Interference

rejection

DSSS, 2 GHz frequency
band allows frequency
band re
-
use



FHSS, 902
-
928 MHz

FHSS, 902
-
928
MHz

802.11a: ODFM, 5 GHz

802.11b: DSSS, 2.4 GHz

802.11g: OFDM/DSSS,
2.4 GHz

802.11n: OFDM, 2.4/5
GHz

*2.4 GHz band is
crowded; 5 GHz less so

OFDM, 3.65
-
3.70
GHz

Transmission

range

Nation
-
wide service
coverage


80 km

Unknown

802.11a: 120 m

802.11b/g: 140 m

802.11n: 250 m

20 km

Configuration

Point
-
to
-
multipoint

Point
-
to
-
point,
point
-
to
-
multipoint

Point
-
to
-
point

Point
-
to
-
point, point
-
to
-
multipoint

Point
-
to
-
multipoint

Jemena
, United Energy,
Citipower

and
Powercor

SP
AusNet

and Energy Australia

* Note:
ZigBee

is not in here



Edge over
ZigBee
: RF better penetration of steel structures,
energy
-
efficient, better security


Notable vendor: Dust Networks


6LowPAN (
RFC4919,
RFC4944 etc.)


IPv6 for low
-
power wireless personal area networks


Edge over
ZigBee
:
interoperability with existing IP
-
based
devices


Routing protocol
still being standardized by the ROLL
working group (
R
outing
O
ver
L
ow power and
L
ossy networks
)

14


Keep demand curve as flat as possible (especially during
summers and winters)












Ideally, everyone uses high
-
efficiency appliances


Motivate consumers to shift their usage to off
-
peak hours

15


Price
-
based programs


Dynamic peak pricing / critical peak pricing: customers notified in
advance of critical peak times (at most several days per year)

16

DPP = Dynamic
Peak Pricing


Source: Energy
Market Consulting
associates, “A
Report to the
Ministerial Council
on Energy”,
2009


Price
-
based programs


Time
-
of
-
use pricing: different tariffs for different hours of the day

17

Available from some
vendors at limited
locations, for example:


Incentive
-
based programs


Direct load control (e.g. Australian water heaters)


Interruptible/
curtailable

service: reduce load during contingencies


Demand bidding, emergency demand response, capacity market,
ancillary services market etc.



Reference: US Department of Energy, “Benefits of Demand Response
in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving them,”
report to the United States Congress, February 2006
.



Enabling technology: smart meter and Advanced Metering
Infrastructure

18

19

Neighborhood
Area Network

Home Area
Network

AMI

Smart

meter

20


In VIC, official rollout will run from 2009 to 2013



Smart meters


T
o send meter data every 30 minutes


To enable remote connection/disconnection


To detect outage


To support demand response


Provide information via in
-
home display


Provide input to smart appliances via Home Area Network (
ZigBee

for
Australia)



Fast charging Plug
-
in Hybrid Electric
V
ehicles (PHEV)
introduce harmful harmonics


smart meters will help
[
Masoum

et al., 2010]

Transmission


PMU placement problem


Low
-
cost transmission line monitoring


Distribution


Distribution network reconfiguration


Multi
-
objective optimization
problem:
minimize real losses,
regulate voltage profile, load
-
balancing


Resilient wireless sensor network for substation monitoring
and distribution
automation


Coordination of load management and demand response


Overall


Security



21


Advances in sensor and comm. tech driving Smart Grid


Grid modernization stimulates multi
-
disciplinary
research


In
progress:


$100m Smart Grid, Smart City demo project in
Newscastle


Intelligent Grid: CSIRO and five
universities


Collaboration opportunities sought

22


EPRI, “Sensor Technologies for a Smart Transmission System,”
white paper, Dec
2009.


V
.
Gungor

and F. Lambert, “A survey on
communication
networks for electric system
automation
,” Computer
Networks, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 877


897, 2006
.


Y. Liu et al., “False data injection attacks against state
estimation in electric power grids,” Proc. 16
th

ACM Computer
and Communications Security, 2009
.


M
.
Masoum
, P. Moses, and S.
Deilami
, “Load management in
smart grids considering
harmonic
distortion and transformer
derating
,” in Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT),
2010
,

pp. 1

7
.


B.K.
Panigrahi

et al., “Computational Intelligence in Power
Engineering”, Springer
-
Verlag

Berlin Heidelberg, 2010
.

23


Generation


Distributed generation


Microgrid


Transmission


Wide
-
area monitoring system (WAMS)


Distribution


Distribution automation (DA)


Consumption


Demand response

24

Advanced
Metering
Infrastructure
(AMI)