Slides - MIT Media Lab

fanaticalpumaΜηχανική

5 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

99 εμφανίσεις

Dimensions and Definitions
of Etiquette


Christopher A. Miller

Smart Information Flow Technologies

St. Paul, MN


AAAI Fall Symposium, North Falmouth, MA, November 15
-
17, 2002

(or why “Etiquette” and what
the @#$% does he mean by
that anyway?)

6 November 2013

2

“Rules of

Etiquette”


or


How a Mannerly AUI should Comport Itself to Gain
Social Acceptance and be Perceived as Gracious and
Well
-
Behaved in Polite Society


Chris Miller



AAAI
-
Spring Symposium on Adaptive User Interfaces

March, 2000

6 November 2013

3

Etiquette(s) of Adaptive Automation

Etiquette rules are generally

NOT created from scratch


based on observed good practice


extended into novel domains


made explicit for those who don’t get it
naturally

Etiquette rules for AA should be the same


observe good human/human practice


extend and generalize to AA

Etiquette isn’t the same for all situations


Work situations are different than social ones

Etiquette violations can be powerful



Dear Miss Manners,

Are there any rules of etiquette yet
governing use of voicemail systems?

6 November 2013

4

Etiquette Violations 1

“How to Kill Clippy (or at
least put him to sleep)”

6 November 2013

5

Etiquette Violations 2

6 November 2013

6

RPA’s Crew Coordination & Task Awareness
Display

1

Very

Inaccurate

Inaccu
-

rate

2

3

4

5

Very

Accurate

Border
-

line

Accu
-

rate

Mission Task

Pilot Task

Co
-
Pilot Task

Associate Task*

4.4

4.0

Accuracy Ratings

4.3

4.3

* Ratings in terms of ‘usefulness’
for the associate question


Perceived accuracy of
LED Task displays was
very high



Comments (and other
ratings) indicated these
were very useful to
pilots

MISSION

PILOT

ASSOCIATE

COPILOT

AREA

HOVER

MANUAL

6 November 2013

7

My Proposed Etiquette List for Associates

1.
Make many, many correct
conversational moves for every
error.

2.
Make it very, very easy to correct
your errors.

3.
Know when you are wrong
--
and
then get out of the way.

4.
Don’t make the same mistake twice

5.
Don’t show off

Just because you
can do something, doesn’t mean
you should.

6.
Be able to talk explicitly about what
you’re doing and why


7.
Be able to take instruction; not only
will this help you adapt to the user’s
expectations, it may actually make
you look smarter.

8.
Make use of multiple modalities
and information channels
redundantly

9.
Don’t assume every user is the
same

be sensitive and adapt to
individual, cultural, social,
contextual differences

10.
Be aware of what the user
knows

especially if you recently
conveyed it (i.e., don’t repeat
yourself).

11.
Try not to interrupt. Err on the
side of caution.

12.
Be cute only to the extent that it
furthers your interaction goals.


6 November 2013

8

Horvitz’s ‘Courteous Computing’ (CHI’99)

1. Provide significant, genuine,
value
-
added automation

2. Consider uncertainty about
user goals

3. Consider the status of a user’s
attention in timing services

4. Infer ideal action in light of
costs, benefits and uncertainties

5. Employ dialog to resolve key
uncertainties

6. Allow efficient direct invocation
and termination

7. Minimize cost of poor guesses
about action and timing

8. Scope precision to match goal
uncertainty and variations

9. Provide mechanisms for efficient
agent
-
user collaboration to refine
results

10. Employ socially appropriate
behaviors for agent
-
user interaction

11. Maintain working memory of
recent interactions

12. Continue to learn by observing.

“…the sensitivity of an intuitive, courteous butler…”

6 November 2013

9

Etiquette is … 1

“… the defined roles and acceptable behaviors or
interaction moves of each participant in a
common ‘social’ setting … Etiquette rules create
an informal contract between participants in a
social interaction allowing expectations [and
interpretations] to be formed and used about the
behavior of others.”

--
(from the Symposium description)

6 November 2013

10

Etiquette is … 2

“…(1) the body of prescribed social usages. (2)
Any special code of behavior … : ‘
In the code of
military etiquette, silence and fixity are forms of
deference’

(Ambrose Bierce). … Synonyms:
propriety, decorum, protocol.”

--
American Heritage Dictionary


Etiquette as “the Social Niceties”
versus

etiquette
as domain conventions


6 November 2013

11

Social Niceties vs. Work Conventions

Both
prescribe

some behaviors and
proscribe

others for participants

Both
assign meaning

to behaviors


Facilitates efficiency and clarity of
intent within the domain


Brown and Levinson on Politeness
as diffusion of hostile intent

Etiquette
is

the set of prescriptions
and proscriptions


“Social niceties” are
generalized

etiquette


“Military etiquette” and ATC
protocols are
specialized etiquettes

Work domains frequently dispense
with the polite forms of generalized
etiquette in favor of their specialized
etiquettes

Range of Possible Behaviors

Prescribed Behaviors
for Domain X

Proscribed
Behaviors for
Domain X

Etiquette for
Domain X

Specialized

Generalized

6 November 2013

12

Dimensions or Attributes of Etiquette 1

Different Etiquettes for Different Interactions










Etiquette Evolves


Within individuals and in response to cultural and technological
changes


learning of interfaces?


Initial etiquette tends toward the more formal precisely because it
is most general

X

~X

Strongly Proscribed

Behaviors for Context
= {X

Y

Z}

~Y

~Z

Z

Y

Most likely (most
conservative) source
of acceptable
Behaviors in Context
= {X

Y

Z}


X = Church
location

Y= Friend

Z= Football

6 November 2013

13

Dimensions or Attributes 2

Etiquette is mostly implicit



Will be difficult to encode

Etiquette is only expected of
‘intelligent’ agents


But the barriers to imputed
intelligence are low


Exhibiting etiquette implies
intelligence

Etiquette generally implies roles


Generalized: e.g.,
petitioner/responder


Specialized: e.g., pilot/copilot


Power relationships are frequently
encoded as roles


Not all prescribed behaviors are
appropriate for all roles


Behaviors that violate role boundaries
will strongly marked and potentially
confusing



Etiquette
for
Domain
X

X.A

X.B

~X.B

Prescribed behaviors
for Role A and B in
Domain X

Unacceptable
behaviors for Role A
and B in Domain X

~X.A

6 November 2013

14

Dimensions or Attributes 3

Etiquette is Functional, yet Arbitrary


Functions (esp. of general etiquette)
are common across cultures


Forms are arbitrary and varied


But forms must be adhered to within
the ‘culture’

Etiquette constraints are “soft”


“Let’s dispense with protocol”


But may contribute to efficiency,
ease, enjoyment, (safety).

Etiquette
-
based behaviors can
establish context or role

Etiquette
-
based behaviors convey
intentions and capabilities

Etiquette violations will be
disruptive, but occasionally useful

Physical

Characteristics

Decreasing
proportion of hard
to soft constraints

Social & Organizational
Characteristics

(including

Etiquette)

Individual Human
Characteristics

6 November 2013

15

The etiquette perspective in Design

Acknowledges that computers and automation
will

be
regarded as social actors (Reeves & Nass, 1996).

Attempts to understand, predict and/or influence
human+machine system behavior through attention to
those social parameters



Questions from the Etiquette Perspective

If this system were replaced by an ideal human, how
would (would we like) that human to behave differently?

If a human were to provide this information/re
-
commendation/action in this way, how would s/he be
perceived by colleagues?

6 November 2013

16

Questions

What is etiquette?

What does it mean in Human
-
Machine
interactions?

How might we design for good HCI etiquette?


Now, with current technologies and applications


In the future

Would it buy us anything if we did?


Is etiquette anything different from what we already
do?


Will it provide sufficient added value to justify the
cost?

6 November 2013

17

Further Reading …

H.P. Grice, 1975

Reeves and Nass, 1996

Brown and Levinson,
1987

Norman, 2002 (and
Forthcoming)


Emotion and Design:
Attractive Things Work
Better