Automated Truck Driving

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5 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μέρες)

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Automated Truck Driving

Exploring the Benefits and Limits

Presented to AASHTO Subcommittee
on Highway Transport

Wilmington, North Carolina


John Woodrooffe

July 10, 2013

Slide
1

Automated Driving


Technologies that perform the driving task


Various degrees of automated driving (partial
to full)


Requires the integration of several technical
systems


Trucking has unique requirements that will
likely limit the extent of automated driving

Slide
2

Connected Transportation

Intersection Collision Avoidance

Vehicle Safety Communications


Greater situational
awareness


Your vehicle can “see”
nearby vehicles and
knows roadway
conditions you can’t
see


Reduce or mitigate
crashes


Driver Advisories


Driver Warnings


Work Zone

Notification

Model Deployment


CV Participation Summary


3 Integrated CVs


driven by
participating fleets



16
-

Retrofit Safety Device
(RSD) on existing fleet
vehicles



50
-

CVs with Vehicle
Awareness Devices providing
basic functionality (Various
trucks)


On Board Vehicle
Technologies

Roll Stability Systems and
Electronic Stability Systems

Lane Departure Warning
Systems

F
-
CAM: Forward
Collision
Warning Systems with
Autonomous Braking

2

3

1

2

3

1

4

4

Vehicle diagnostic and
location systems


Road curved


Dry surface


Cargo: loaded

3
-
axle tractor
pulling bottom
dump.

14,000 kg cargo
(dirt)

28,000 kg gross
weight

Est. 65 km/h

Evaluating ESC

Schematic Trajectory of Maneuver
(Transient to Constant Curve)


Spiral transition rate of 1.3 m/s
3

is based on the
AASHTO prescribed curve entry geometry
corresponding to a steady
-
state lateral acceleration of
1.5 m/s
2
.

A
B
V
Hardware in the loop

Simulation


TruckSim offers Real
-
time Simulation in Combination
with SIMULINK and the TruckSim Animator

Hardware in
-
the
-
Loop

Hardware


Modeled a 5
-
axle tractor semitrailer


Uses all pneumatic and electronic control elements


The entire pneumatic system
was include:

air
reservoirs, treadle valve, ABS hardware, brake
actuation chambers


Appropriate fittings and proper length tubing and
hose was used


The brake chambers were installed on real S
-
cam
brakes such that they have appropriate
pressure/deflection properties.


ESC Preventing Rollovers

Slide
11

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Vehicle Speed
time, in second
vehicle speed, in km/hr


ABS
RSC
ESC
Vehicle speed time history for ABS,
RSC

and
ESC technologies


Fitting ESC to all tractor semitrailers

Estimated ESC benefits (annual)

4,659 crashes

126 fatalities

5,909 injuries

Total benefit about $2 billion/
yr

Commercial Vehicle Forward Collision Avoidance and
Mitigation
Systems (F
-
CAM)
Intervention Sequence

t0

Object
tracked

Collision
warning:
Visual and
Audible

Collision
warning:
Haptical (short
brake pulse)

Automatic
braking for
collision
prevention or
mitigation

Avoidance
maneuver not
possible

time

t2

t3

t4

Engine Torque Limitation

Brake Activation

Potential rear
end collision
detected

Hard braking
required to
prevent collision

t1

Warning Tone and Lamp

System Reactions

Crash
prevented
or
mitigated

14


Crash types selected as relevant to the
technology


Rear
-
end, striking


Current generation:


Lead vehicle stopped at impact, but seen moving


Lead vehicle slower, steady speed


Lead vehicle decelerating


Lead vehicle cut
-
in


Next generation:


Lead vehicle stopped, never seen moving


Target Crash Types

15

Frontal Impacts

Slide
16


Rear
-
end,

into stopped van
trailer.


Cargo body floor

of van
rides over front bumper.


Underride

to firewall.


Engine ripped from mounts
and pushed down, under
occupant compartment.


F
-
CAM Benefits

17

Device

Fatal

Injury

No
injury

Total

Subsystem Contribution

FCW only

$
528.9

$5
44.8

$
3
4.4

$
1,
108.1

CMB only

2
nd

gen
.

$
4
46.2

$
633.6

$
31
.9

$
1,111
.
7

CMB only
3
rd

gen
.

$741
.
2

$7
92.8

$
60.6

$1.
594.6

Complete System Contribution

Second
Generation

$
745
.
0

$
919.5

$
6
5.8

$
1,
730.3

Third
Generation

$9
7
2.
7

$
1046.1

$
93.1

$
2,112.0

Current
Generation

$412.4

$513.0

$29.5

$954.9


Technically
Possible
≠ Public Acceptance


18

Even I can work this one

Slide
19

Slide
20

Slide
21

Slide
22

Considerations for Integration


Large trucks exist to do work and to do it
efficiently. Their worth and function are tied
directly to work performance in exchange for
money. Trucks are incentivized to be at work
constantly


they are a tool of the economy.



Trucks

are driven by professional drivers paid to
drive and they are highly skilled.



We have everything to gain by keeping the
driver engaged


humans are very good vehicle
operators.

Considerations for Integration


On board technology is
dedicated to the
single vehicle

and provides driver warning
and vehicle state corrections.



V2V describes vehicle position, direction and
speed at the traffic stream level


provides
external conflict input
.


24

Considerations for Integration


Combining V2V
with

crash avoidance technology
integrates traffic stream data with vehicle
-
based
monitoring and control systems


highly desirable.



Drivers are accident fee 99.99% of the time


better than most “Intelligent Systems”.



We have everything to gain by providing
information and corrective actions to reduce
human error.

25

Replacing the Driver Invites
Unintended Consequences

Slide
26

Considerations for Integration


But we lose so much safety value by replacing the
human
-

think system reliability, cost and
unintended consequences
.



The goal for commercial vehicles
-

maximize the
power of the human through the use of supporting
technologies that warn and intervene at critical
moments while retaining the driver as the primary
vehicle controller.

27

Automated Driving Levels (Trucks)

28

Level 0


No automation

Level 1

Adaptive cruise control, auto windshield
wipers, automatic lights, anything that supports
the driver (e.g. ESC, V2V)

Level 2

Hands off and feet off but eyes on.
Driver is
responsible

Level 3

Hands off feet off eyes off


shared dual control
but
vehicle is responsible

Level 4

Complete machine control


Driver has no
responsibility at all

Allow some flexibility of
automation for situations where the
technology may help driver “full time” such as
platooning, or
low
speed
control (traffic jam assist/pilot, automatic docking,
etc
).

Thank You!

jhfw@umich.edu

29