1 1 DURATION : Four Semesters (Two Years) Total Marks ... - WBUT

familiarspottyΒιοτεχνολογία

10 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

1.376 εμφανίσεις

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


1
1


DURATION : Four Semesters (Two Years)
Total Marks = 4000
Theoretical Papers

18 Papers (Marks = 1800)
Total Credit = 54

Practical / Project Papers

Total Marks = 1800)
Total Credit = 36
Total Credit in 4 Semesters = 54 + 36 = 90

3 credit (Theory) means 4 lecture hours per week or 42 lectures per semester per paper
2 credit (Lab.) means at least 40 hours of lab work per semester per paper

FIRST SEMESTER

Paper (Theoretical) : 5 Papers = 500 Marks

Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes /
Semester
MSGEN-101 Transmission Genetics & Analysis
100 3 42
MSGEN-102 DNA Structure & Gene Expression
100 3 42
MSGEN-103 Chromosome structure & Function

100 3 42
MSGEN-104 Genetics of Organelles
100 3 42
MSGEN-105 Biophysics & Biochemistry
100 3 42

Paper (Practical) : 5 Papers = 500 Marks
MSGEN-106 Microscopy & Instrumentation 100 2 40hrs
MSGEN-107 Molecular Biology – Basic techniques 100 2 40hrs
MSGEN-108 Basic Cyto-Genetics Techniques 100 2 40hrs
MSGEN-109 Cell Culture Techniques (Plant &
Animal)
100 2 40hrs
MSGEN-110 Biophysical & Biochemical Techniques
100 2 40hrs
Total Credits = 25



Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


2
2
SECOND SEMESTER

Paper (Theoretical) : 5 Papers = 500 Marks

Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes /
Semester
MSGEN-201 Principles of Microbiology 100 3 42
MSGEN-202 Genetics of Model Organisms 100 3 42
MSGEN-203 Principles of Molecular Cell
Biology
100 3 42
MSGEN-204 Genetic Biodiversity and
Taxonomy
100 3 42
MSGEN-205 Quantitative Analysis
100 3 42

Paper (Practical) : 5 Papers = 500 Marks
MSGEN-206 Microbiological Techniques 100 2 40hrs
MSGEN-207 Life Cycle Studies (Model organisms) 100 2 40hrs
MSGEN-208 Genetic Engineering Tools- I 100 2 40hrs
MSGEN-209 Genetic Toxicity Testing 100 2 40hrs
MSGEN-210 Computer Application 100 2 40hrs
Total Credits = 25



Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


3
3

THIRD SEMESTER

Paper (Theoretical) : 5 Papers = 500 Marks

Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit hrs Classes /
Semester
MSGEN-301 Engineering of Genes and Genomes 100 3 42
MSGEN-302 Genomics, Proteomics &
Bioinformatics
100 3 42
MSGEN-303 Microbial Biotechnology 100 3 42
MSGEN-304 Spl. Paper : (any one)

(i) Medical Biotechnology - I
(ii) Plant Biotechnology – I
(iii) Animal Biotechnology - I
(iv) Environmental Biotechnology - I
100 3 42
MSGEN-305 Spl. Paper : (any one)

(i) Medical Biotechnology - II
(ii) Plant Biotechnology – II
(iii) Animal Biotechnology - II
(iv) Environmental Biotechnology - II

100 3 42

Paper (Practical) : 5 Papers = 500 Marks
MSGEN-306 Genetic Engineering Tools- II 100 2 40hrs
MSGEN-307 Bioinformatics 100 2 40hrs
MSGEN-308 Microbial Biotechnology 100 2 40hrs
MSGEN-309 Spl. Paper : (any one)

(i) Medical Biotechnology - I
(ii) Plant Biotechnology – I
(iii) Animal Biotechnology - I
(iv) Environmental Biotechnology - I
100 2 40hrs
MSGEN-310 Spl. Paper : (any one)

(i) Medical Biotechnology - II
(ii) Plant Biotechnology – II
(iii) Animal Biotechnology - II
(iv) Environmental Biotechnology - II
100 2 40hrs

Total Credits = 25

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


4
4

FOURTH SEMESTER

Paper (Theoretical) : 4 Papers = 400 Marks

Paper Code Name of the Paper Marks Credit
hrs
Classes /
Semester
MSGEN-401 Genetic Engineering in Business 100 3 42
MSGEN-402 Bioethics & Biosafety 100 3 42
MSGEN-403 Spl. Paper : (any one)

(i) Medical Biotechnology - III
(ii) Plant Biotechnology – III
(iii) Animal Biotechnology - III
(iv) Environmental Biotechnology - III
100 3 42

Paper (Practical) : Total = 300 Marks
MSGEN-404 Independent Project Work in Academia
and / or Industry
300 6 120hrs

Total Credits = 15


Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


5
5
THEORETICAL PAPERS


MSGEN-101 : Transmission Genetics & Analysis


1. Introduction to Genetics – Greatmilestones inGenetics;levelsofGeneticanalysis(Classical,Molecular
&PopulationGenetics);GeneticsinAgriculture,Medicine&Society.

2. Cells & Chromosomes - Basic cell types – structure & evolutionary relationships, Overview of
Prokaryotic&Eukaryoticcells,Cellularenvironment,Chromosomes–wheregenesarelocated.

3. Genetics of Cell Cycle – Key events of the Cell cycle, Genetic analysis of the Cell cycle, Regulation of
cellcycle,Checkpointsinthecellcycle.

4. Basic principles of Heredity – Segregation of a single gene, the principle & verification of segregation,
segregationoftwoormoregenes,testcrosswithunlinkedgenes.

5. Patterns of Inheritance – Autosomal inheritance, Sex chromosomes & Sex1linked inheritance,
Cytoplasmicinheritance.

6. Mendelian principles of Inheritance – The Big experiment of Mendel, principle of independent
assortment.

7. Extensions & Modifications of Mendelian principles – Complete& Incompletedominance,Epistasis.

8. Linkage, Recombination & Crossing Over – Recombination is the basis of Gene mapping, Linkage
mapping,Tetradanalysis,GenemappinginabsenceofMeiosis,GeneticFinestructuremapping.

9. Genetic Variation – Genes&geneproducts,interactionbetweentheallelesofonegene,interactinggenes
&proteins,applicationsofchi1squaretesttogeneinteractionratios.

10. Alleles & Gene Interactions – VariationsinAllele,Multiplealleles,Geneinteractions,Allelesofdifferent
genes, Modifier genes, Pleiotropic effects, Partial penetrance & variable expressivity, Lethal alleles,
PhenotypesproducedbyConditionalalleles.

11. Quantitative Traits & Polygenic Inheritance – Inheritance of Quantitative traits, Genetic analysis of
QuantitativetraitsusingStatistics,UsefulnessofHeritabilityinpredictingthephenotypesofoffsprings.

12. Extra-nuclear Inheritance – Chromosomes of some cytoplasmic organelles, Maternal inheritance,
Paternalinheritance,EffectofMaternalgenesinthephenotypeofoffspring,Infectiousinheritance.

13. Pedigree analysis & Applications – Study of Human Genetic Characteristics, Pedigree analysis,
Molecular markers in Human Pedigrees, Twin studies, Adoption studies, Genetic Counseling, Genetic
Testing(Pre1natal&Post1natal).

14. Morphological & Molecular phenotypes – Appearance of wild type & mutant characteristics, molecular
mechanismbehindphenotypicexpressions.

15. Probability in prediction of progeny distribution – Mutually exclusive possibilities & Independent
possibilities. 

16. Testing of Genetic hypothesis – Probability in the prediction of progeny distributions using Binomial
distribution, Testing Goodness of Fit to a Genetic hypothesis, Chi1square method, Genetic analysis of
quantitative traits using Statistics (Mean, Variance, Standard deviation, Correlation, Regression,
Distributions),Heritabilityisusefulinpredictingthephenotypesofoffspring. 
References :


(1) Daniel L. Hartl & Elizabeth W. Jones : Genetics – analysis of Genes & Genomes
(2) Alan G. Atherly, Jack R. Girton & John F. McDonald : The Science of Genetics
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


6
6
(3) Benjamin A. Pierce : genetics – a conceptual approach
(4) D. Peter Snustad & Michael J. Simmons : Principles of Genetics
(5) Griffiths, Wessler, Lewontin, Gelbart, Suzuki & Miller : Introduction to Genetic analysis

MSGEN-102 : DNA Structure & Gene Expression


1. Introduction to Molecular Genetics & Genomics – HistoryofDNAmolecule&discoveriessince1956
tilldate.

2. Physical nature of DNA – DNA is the genetic material, Chemical nature of DNA, DNA is a Double
helicalmolecule.

3. How Genes function at Molecular level – Replication, Transcription & Translation, post1transcriptional
modificationinEukaryotes,TheGeneticCode.

4. Molecular Biology of DNA Replication - DNA replication is semi1conservative, Meselson1Stahl expt.,
MultipleOrigins&bi1directionalDNAreplicationinEukaryotes,ReplicationofVirus&Thetareplication
ofCircularDNA molecules, Rolling Circlereplication,PlasmidDNAusinga Rolling Circle,Unwinding,
Stabilization & Stress relief, initiation by a Primosome complex, Chain elongation & Proofreading,
discontinuosreplicationofthelaggingstrand,TerminatorsequencingofDNA.

5. Molecular Biology of Recombination - Molecular mechanisms of Recombination, Gene conversion,
Mismatchrepair,theHollidaymodelofrecombination,Singlestrandbreak&repairmodel.

6. Regulation of Gene Expression – Regulationofgeneexpressionatmanylevels,TranscriptionalControlI,
expression of lac operon, Transcriptional Control II, Attenuation, Antitermination, Methylation, Yeast
GAL regulatory pathway, alteration of gene expression by DNA sequence rearrangements in Salmonella,
Trypanosoma&others.

7. Genomic Position effects on Gene Expression – Positioneffect,Variegation,,Position1effectvariegation
(PEV).

8. Molecular mechanisms of Gene Regulation – Transcriptional regulation in Prokaryotes, Lactose
metabolism & the Operon system of Gene regulation, regulation of Tryptophan operon, regulation in
Bacteriophage Lambda, Transcriptional regulation in Eukaryotes, Epigenetic mechanisms of
Transcriptionalregulation,Translationalcontrol,ProgrammedDNArearrangements.

9. RNA Molecules & RNA Processing – Genestructure,Structure&ProcessingofmessengerRNA,transfer
RNA, ribosomal RNA, small interfering RNAs & micro RNAs, regulation through RNA processing &
decay, alternative splicing, mRNA stability,co1suppression through RNA turnover, RNA interference
(RNAi).

10. Molecular mechanisms of Mutation & DNA Repair – TypesofMutations,molecularbasisofMutation,
Spontaneous Mutation, Reverse Mutations & Suppressor Mutations, Transposable elements, Mutagens,
mechanismofDNARepair.

11. The Genetic Code & Translation – Molecular relation between Genotype & Phenotype, The Genetic
Code,ProcessofTranslation,Proteinsynthesis.
References :


1) Daniel L. Hartl & Elizabeth W. Jones : Genetics – analysis of Genes & Genomes
2) Alan G. Atherly, Jack R. Girton & John F. McDonald : The Science of Genetics
3) Benjamin A. Pierce : genetics – a conceptual approach

MSGEN-103 : Chromosome Structure & Function


1. An overview of Chromosome – OverviewofProkaryotic&Eukaryoticchromosomes

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


7
7
2. Chromosome Theory of Heredity – Genes are located on chromosomes, relating Genetic crosses to
Meiosis.

3. Sex Chromosomes & Sex determination – SexdeterminationinHuman,Drosophila&Otheranimals.

4. Dosage Compensation – Hyperactivation of X1linked genes in Male Drosophila & Inactivation of X1
linkedgenesinFemaleMammals.

5. Rearrangements of Chromosome Number - Polyploidy (Sterile polyploids, Fertile polyploids, Tissue1
specific polyploidy & Polyteny); Aneuploidy (Trisomy, Monosomy, Deletions & Duplications of
Chromosomesegments),AneuploidyisaGainorLossofindividualchromosomes.

6. Rearrangements of Chromosome Structure – Inversions, Translocations, Compound Chromosomes &
RobertsonianTranslocations.

7. Cytological Techniques of Chromosome analysis – Analysis of Mitotic Chromosomes, Human
Karyotype,Cyto1Geneticvariation.

8. Molecular structure of Prokaryotic Chromosome – Chromosome structure in Prokaryotes & Viruses,
Prokaryoticchromosomeispackedintosmallspace,ChromosomesofProkaryotesarehighlycoiled.

9. Molecular structure of Eukaryotic Chromosome – Chromosome structure in Eukaryotes, Chemical
composition of Eukaryotic Chromosomes, One large DNA molecule per Chromosome, 3 levels of DNA
packaginginEukaryoticChromosomes,Centromeres&Telomeres,EukaryoticDNAhasRepetitivesequences,
Structure of chromosome changes during the Cell cycle, Eukaryotic chromosome has Specialized sequences,
Lampbrushchromosome,Polytenechromosome.

10. Unique aspects of Eukaryotic Chromosome Replication – Eukaryotic DNA Replication, DNA
PolymerasesinEukaryoticcells,Nucleosomeassembly.

11. Chromosome Mutations – NatureofMutation,CausesofMutation,StudyofMutations,DNArepair.

12. Recombination & Transposable Elements – Homologous recombination utilizes sequence
complementarity, Generalized & Site1specific recombinations, Transposable elements are ubiquitous,
Genomic instability caused by Transposable elements, Bacterial Transposable elements, Eukaryotic
Transposableelements,BiologicalsignificanceofRecombination&Transposableelements.

13. Genetic Mapping in Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes – Linkage maps, Linkage & Recombination between
two genes & three genes, Physical Chromosome Mapping, Linkage analysis using Chi1square test,
Accountingforunseenmultiplecrossovers.

14. Genetic Mapping in Human Pedigrees – AssessmentoflinkageinHumanpedigreesusingLodscores.

15. Molecular Organization of Chromosomes – Genomesize&EvolutionaryComplexity;C1valueparadox;
Supercoiling of DNA; Polytene Chromosome; Unique & Repetitive Nucleotide sequences in Eukaryotic
Genomes;MolecularstructureofCentromere;MolecularstructureofTelomere.
References :


1) Daniel L. Hartl & Elizabeth W. Jones : Genetics – analysis of Genes & Genomes
2) Alan G. Atherly, Jack R. Girton & John F. McDonald : The Science of Genetics
3) Benjamin A. Pierce : genetics – a conceptual approach
4) D. Peter Snustad & Michael J. Simmons : Principles of Genetics
5) Tom Strachan & Andrew P. Read : Human Molecular Genetics

MSGEN-104 : Genetics of Organelles


1. Organelle Chromosome – Geneticmaterialoforganelle,Leafvariegationinplants,AntibioticResistance
inChlamydomonas,MetabolicdefectsinYeast,
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


8
8

2. Organelle Heredity – Endosymbiont Theory, Genetic codes of Organelles, Respiration1defective
Mitochondrialmutants,CytoplasmicMalesterilityinPlants,CytoplasmictransmissionofSymbionts.

3. Evolutionary Origin of Organelles – Origin & evolution of Mitochondria & Chloroplasts, Eukaryotic
organellesasEndosymbionts,

4. Genetics of Cytoplasmic Transmission – Expression of Mitochondrial genes, Interplay between
Mitochondrial&Nucleargeneproducts,

5. Patterns of Extranuclear inheritance – Uniparentalinheritance,Maternalinheritance&Maternaleffects,
MaternaleffectinSnailShellcoiling,Heteroplasmy,Paternalinheritance.

6. Biology of Mitochondria & Chloroplasts – Biology of Mitochondria & Chloroplasts, Mitochondrial
DNA,ChloroplastDNA.

7. Mitochondrial Genome – Origin of Mitochondrial Genome 1 Yeast & Human mtDNA, Mitochondrial
genes; Replication, Transcription & Translation of mtDNA, Unique Human Mitochondrial Genetic Code;
ComparisonofMitochondrialGenomewithNuclearGenome;MitochondrialDNAphylogenies;Evolution
ofMitochondrialgenome.

8. Chloroplast Genome – Chloroplast biogenesis, Structure & Organization of Chloroplast cpDNA,
Replication,Transcription&TranslationofcpDNA,EvolutionofcpDNA,Genomecomparisons.

9. Intergenomic exchange of Genetic Information – Comparison of nuclear Eukaryotic, Eubacterial,
Mitochondrial&Chloroplastgenomes,PromiscuousDNA.

10. Mitochondrial DNA & Aging in Human – Mechanism of age1related increase in mtDNA damage,
DeclineofOxydativephosphorylationcapacitywithage,Lateonsetdegenerativediseases.

11. Tracing Human History through Mitochondrial DNA – TostudyHumanevolutionusingmtDNA.

12. Human Mitochondrial Mapping – Human Mitochondrial genome, mtDNA & Human disease, non1
universalcodonsinmtDNA. 
References :


1) Daniel L. Hartl & Elizabeth W. Jones : Genetics – analysis of Genes & Genomes
2) Benjamin A. Pierce : genetics – a conceptual approach
3) D. Peter Snustad & Michael J. Simmons : Principles of Genetics
4) Tom Strachan & Andrew P. Read : Human Molecular Genetics

MSGEN-105 : Biophysics & Biochemistry


Topics : Biophysics


1. Molecular Modeling & Molecular Dynamics – Modeling of Macromolecules, different types of
interaction energy, molecular potential, bonding potential, non1bonding potential, potential due to angle,
torsional strain, electrostatic interaction, molecular structure of protein, lipid, nucleic acid, carbohydrate,
energy minimization (SD, ABNR), molecular dynamics simulation for simple molecules (GROMACS
software)

2. Method of determination of size & shape of macromolecules – Molecular electron microscopy,
measuringelectrondiffractionofasolidwithElectronMicroscope,determinationofmolecularstructurein
Electron Microscope, minimizing drying & shrinking artifacts, using symmetry to enhance the Electron
Microscopeimage,HighResolutionAutoradiography,X1Raydiffraction

3. Absorption Spectroscopy – Absorptionspectroscopyofelectronicstates,Extinctionco1efficient,Spectral
properties of a simple molecule (Formaldehyde), Peptide group domination of far UV absorption for
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


9
9
proteins, Aromatic amino acid domination of near UV absorption for proteins, estimation of protein
concentrationfromUVabsorbance,nucleicacidabsorptiondominatedbybases.

4. Infrared Spectroscopy – Principles of IR spectroscopy, vibrational spectra of biopolymers, Fourier
transform of Infra Red spectroscopy, Instrumentation, factors influencing vibrational frequency (Vibronic
coupling,H1bond,electronicfactors,bondangles,etc)

5. NMR Spectroscopy – Proton magneticresonancespectra ofproteins,13CNMRspectraofproteins,31P
NMR studies, NMR spectra of nucleic acids, Fourier transform of NMR spectroscopy, Relaxation (ID
spectra)

6. X-Ray Crystallography – Instrumentation,Fouriertransformation,Application
References :


(1) Cantor & Schimmel : Biophysical Chemistry (Part I, II & III)
(2) A. Lehninger : Principles of Biochemistry

Topics : Biochemistry


1. Biomolecules – structure, function & metabolism – Organization&CompositionofEukaryoticCells;
Integration& Controlof Cellularfunctions,StructuralcomponentsofNucleicacids,higherorderDNA
structure,DNAsequence&function,functionalrolesofProteinsinHuman,Aminoacidcompositionof
Proteins,higherlevelsofProteinorganization,dynamicaspectsofProteinstructure&Proteinstability,
Methodsforcharacterization,purification& studyofProteinstructure &organization,Bioenergetics&
Oxidativemetabolism.

7. Mechanism of Enzyme action – Introduction to Enzymes, How Enzymes work, Enzymes are highly
powerful specific catalysts, Michaelis1Menten Model, Enzyme Kinetics as an approach to understanding
mechanism,Enzymaticreactions,RegulatoryEnzymes

8. Metabolism, Pathways & Regulation – Carbohydrate metabolism – major metabolic pathways & their
control,specialpathways & Glycoconjugates, Lipidmetabolism–utilization & storage ofenergyinlipid
form, metabolic pathways of special lipids, Amino acid metabolism, Purine & Pyrimidine nucleotide
metabolism,metabolicinterrelationships

9. Physiological Processes – BiochemistryofPolypeptide&SteroidHormones,Hormones&theirreceptors,
Regulatorycascades,Insulin&relatedGrowth1regulatinghormones

10. Expression & Transmission of Genetic information – GeneticcontrolofEnzyme synthesis, Controlof
Gene expression, Gene expression in Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes, Response to environmental changes –
Sensorysystems&Immunesystems

11. Biochemical Genetics, In born Errors of Metabolism & Gene Therapy – Metabolic pathways,
Overviewofthemetabolicbasisofinheriteddiseases

12. Signal Transduction pathways – Molecularcircuits,Seventransmembrane1Helixreceptors,Gproteins,
defectsinsignalingpathwayswhichleadtoCancer&otherdiseases

References :


(1) Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko & Lubert Stryer : Biochemistry
(2) Lehninger – David L. Nelson & Michael M. Cox : Principles of Biochemistry
(3) David E Metzler : Biochemistry – The Chemical Reactions of Living Cells
(4) Thomas M. Devlin : Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations
(5) Charles Rscriver, Arthur L. Beaudet, William S. Sly & David Valle : The Metabolic
basis of inherited diseases

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


10
10
PRACTICAL PAPERS

MSGEN-106 : Microscopy & Instrumentation


1. Microscopy&Imaging
2. Principles&OperationofGeneralEquipmentusuallyusedinResearchlaboratories

References :
(1) Barch M J et al; The AGT Cytogenetics Laboratory Manual; 3
rd
Ed, 1997; Lippincott-
Raven; New York
(2) Celis Julio; Cell Biology – a laboratory manual; AP; 2
nd
Ed, 1998.

MSGEN-107 : Molecular Biology – Basic Techniques


1. DNAanalysis(Microbes/Plants/Animal/Human)
2. MutationdetectionbyPCRanalysis
References :
(1) Sambrook & Russell : Molecular Cloning; 3
rd
Ed; 2001

MSGEN-108 : Basic Cyto-Genetics Techniques


(1) BasicprinciplesofCyto1Geneticsprocedures
(2) SettingupLaboratory
(3) PeripheralBloodCyto1GeneticsMethods
(4) Chromosomestaining
(5) Microscopy&Imaging
(6) Chromosomeanalysis&Karyotypereporting
(7) Interpretation&RecommendationsinAbnormalChromosomestudy
(8) Chromosomalsyndromesidentification&Karyotyping
References :
(1) Barch M J et al; The AGT Cytogenetics Laboratory Manual; 3
rd
Ed,
1997; Lippincott-Raven; New York
(2) Purandare Hema & Chakravarty Amit : Human Cyto-Genetics Techniques & Clinical
Applications; 2000; Bhalani Publishing House; Mumbai

MSGEN-109 : Cell Culture Techniques (Plant & Animal)


1. GeneralprocedureforTissueculture
2. PrimaryCulturesfromEmbryonicTissue
3. CultureofspecificCelltypes
4. Cellseparationtechniques
5. Cytotoxic&CellGrowthAssays
References :
(1) Celis Julio; Cell Biology – a laboratory manual; AP; 2
nd
Ed, 1998.
(2) Culture of Animal Cells – a manual of basic techniques : R Ian Freshney (Wiley Publication)

MSGEN-110 : Biophysical & Biochemical Techniques


1. DeterminationofpHofunknownsolution
2. VerificationofLambert1Beer’sLaw
3. DeterminationofMolecularweightofProteinbyColumnchromatography
4. Iso1electricfocusing
5. DeterminationofSurfaceTensionbyStalagmometer
6. DeterminationofViscositybyOswald’sViscometer
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


11
11

References :
(1) Cantor & Schimmel : Biophysical Chemistry (Part I, II & III)
(2) Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko & Lubert Stryer : Biochemistry
(3) David E Metzler : Biochemistry – The Chemical Reactions of Living Cells

MSc (Genetic Engineering) - SECOND SEMESTER


THEORETICAL PAPERS


MSGEN-201 : Principles of Microbiology


1. Overview of history of Microbiology - Biogenesis and abiogenesis, Contributions of Redi, Spallanzani,
Needham,Pasteur,Tyndal,JosephLister,Koch[GermTheory],EdwardJennerandFlemming[Penicillin],Scope
ofMicrobiology. (1 Period)

2. Microbial diversity - Whittaker’s five kingdom classification of living system Systems of classification,
Classification on the basis of Nutritional types, oxygen requirement, Cell morphology, function, reproduction,
Definitions & Examples of Photosynthetic eubacteria (cyanobacteria), Gliding bacteria (Myxobacteria and
Cytophaga group),Gram negative eubacteria (Spirochetes, Rickttsias, Chlamydias), Gram positive eubacteria
(Actinomycetes), Spore forming bacteria (spore formation and germination), Fermentative bacteria – metabolic
character,Nitrogenfixingbacteria,Themollicutes. (2 Periods)

3. Brief description of Eukaryotic Algae & Fungi and Protozoa : General characteristics, vegetative &
reproductive structure of Algae (Cyanophyta, Cholorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Phacophyta, Rhodophyta), Fungi
(Phycomycetis,Bacidiomycetis,Zygomyetes,Oomycets,Asomycetes,Deuteromycetes1imperfectandperfect
stages),Protozoa(Giardia, Entamoeba andPlasmodium). 
(2 Periods)

4. Structure and function of Prokaryotic cell & its components - The Slime and the cell wall of bacteria
containingpeptidoglycanandrelatedmolecules;theoutermembraneofGram1negativebacteria,thecytoplasmic
membrane, mesosomes, flagella, Pilus, fimbriae, ribosomes, carboxysomes, sulfur granules, glycogen,
polyphosphatebodies,fatbodies,gasvesicles;endospores,exospores,cysts,MyceliaoffungiandActinomycetes,
Cytoskeletonfilament,heterocystsandakinetsofCyanobacteria,Glidingandmotility. (2 Periods)

5. Microbes in Extreme Environment –Nature,specialfeaturesofthethermophilic,methanogenicandhalophilic
Archaea;photosyntheticbacteria,someArchaeawholiveinextremeconditionslikecold,andspace.
  (1 Period)

6. Basic concepts of Virology - General characteristics of viruses, differences between bacteria and viruses,
ClassificationofvirusesPhysicalandchemicalStructuresofdifferentVirusesonthebasisofcapsidsymmetry1
enveloped(Herpesvirus),helical(TMV),icosahedral(Polyomaviruses)andcomplex(Bacteriophage,andVirion
size, General Properties of Viroids & Prions, Filamentous DNA phages, Single stranded RNA phages,
CauliflowerMosaic,VirusofPlants;HIV,VacciniaandSimianvirusofanimals,Insectvirus. 
     (3 Periods)

7. Kinetics of Bacterial Growth : Different types of bacterial culture (Batch, Synchronous, Arithmatic) –
Definition and brief description. Growth Phases, Growth Kinetics, Calculation of duration of Phases and
generation time, Growth yields, Methods of growth determination, Environmental factors affecting growth 1
temperature, pH, osmotic pressure and nutrient concentration per cell.
(2 Periods)

8. Microbial Metabolism -  Biological N
2
1fixation, Free living N
2
1fixation by anaerobic (Clostridium),
facultativelyanaerobic(Azospirillum)andaerobic(Azotobacter),N
2
1fixersassociatedwithstem,rootandleaf,
Symbiotic N
2
1fixation in legumes and non1 legumes by Rhizobium and Frankia, N
2
1fixation by cyanobateria.
Requirement of ATP, O
2
1sensitivity and inhibition by ammonia and nitrogenous substance in the case of
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


12
12
nitrogenase, The peculiarity of alternate nitrogenase of Streptomyces  thermoautotrophicus, genetics and
regulationofN2fixation,. (2
Periods)
9. Photophosphorylation –Conversionoflightenergyintochemicalbondenergy.Roleofbacterio1chlorophyllin
photosynthetic bacteria and cholorphylls in green algae. The role of phycocyanin, phycoerythrin and
carotenoids.PhotosystemsI&II.ProductionofATPbyCyclicphosphorylationinphotosyntheticbacteriaand
bothcyclicandnon1cyclicphosphorylationinCyano1bacteriaandgreenalgae.Photosynthesisinanerobicand
sulphurbacteria. (2 Periods)

10. The reduction of CO
2
– Reversecitricacidcycleandhydroxypropionatecycle.ThereductionofCO
2
byCalvin
cycle. The Production of 41, 51, 61, and 71 carbon sugars. CO
2
Fixation by chemolithotrophs under aerobic
conditionbynitrifyingbacteria,Oxidationofmethanebymethanotrophs. 

(2 Periods)

11. Prokaryotic Genomes - Genetic organization of prokaryotic genomes (E. coli genome, Genome of other
bacteria, Genome of other Archaea); Physical organization of bacterial genomes (Structure of the bacterial
nucleoid,Replicationandpartitioningofthebacterialgenome);Plasmid(Differenttypesofplasmids,Plasmid
andbacterialsex,Copynumberandincompatibility).  
(2 Periods)

12. Genetics of Bacteria and their Viruses - Bacterial transposons, Mobile DNA (F Plasmid: a Conjugate
plasmid, Insertion sequence and transposons, Mobilization of Nonconjugative plasmid, Integrons and
Antibiotic1Resistancecassettes,Multiple AntibioticResistantbacteria);BacterialGenetics(Mutantphenotype,
Mechanismofgeneticexchange);DNAmediatedTransformation;Conjugation(CointegrateFormationandHfr
Cells,Time–of–EntryMapping,F’Plasmid);Transduction (ThePhageLyticcycle);Generalizedtransduction,
SpecializedTransduction).(3 Periods)

13. Bacteriophage Genetics - E.coli PhageT4, E.coli Phage T7, E.coli phage lambda, Immunity to infection,
Prophage integration, Induction of prophage, Induction & Prophage excision, Repressor, Structure of the
operator and binding of the repressor and the Cro product, Decision between the lytic and lysogenic Cycles,
Transducingphages,E.coliphagephiX174,filamentousDNAphages, Single stranded RNAphages,Benzer’s
finestructureofgeneinbacteriophageT4:PlaqueFormationandPhageMutants,Geneticrecombitioninthe
lyticcycle,(conceptofrecon,muton,cistron).  (3 Periods)

14. Food Microbiology 1 Microbiology of milk, Cheese, Yogurt (curd), Idli, Spoilage of food (fresh and cooked,
canned food, Vegetables, fruits, fish, poultry product, meat and meat products, a brief account on common
food–borne infections and toxicoses (Salmonellosis, Botulism, Cholera, Mycotoxicosis, E.coli –poisoning). A
briefaccountonFoodpreservation(pasteurization,appertization,asepticpackaging;use ofhightemperatures,
freezing, dehydration,  ionizing radiation, osmotic pressure; use of chemicals 1 organic acids, esters, sulphur1
dioxide,saltsandhighsugarconcentration1sweetsetc.). (2 Periods)

15. Agricultural Microbiology - Soil as microenvironment, Soil pores and movement of gases for microbial
activity, Microbes in soil surface and different zones of soil, Decomposition of Plant and animal residues by
microorganisms in soil, Brief account of microbial interactions (Symbiosis, neutralism, Commensalism,
Competition, Ammensalism, Synergism, Parasitism),  Biofertilizers1 Biological Nitrogen fixation1 symbiotic
and asymbiotic, mass production by Rhizobium, Azotobacter and Cyanobacteria, nitrifying ammonifying and
photosyntheticbacteria,DenitrificationofnitratefertilizerstoN
2
andN
2
O(agreenhousegas)bydenitrifying
bacteria, free living and in  association with Azolla, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Soil anerobic
methanogens in rice field, Biological control of soil1borne microbial pathogens and nematodes 1 Microbial
pesticides,interactionofsyntheticpesticideswithsoilmicroorganisms,EntomopathogenicFungi,Effectofsoil
pH and heavy metals on microorganisms, Microbial antagonism in soil, Role of soil protozoa, nematodesand
fungi.      (3 Periods)


16. Industrial Microbiology - Biominingandbioleachingofores(Useofthermophilicmicroorganismsinindustrial
microbiology, Retting of jute, Biogas production, Biologics for immunization (Production of monoclonal
antibodies), Deterioration of paper, textiles, painted surfaces and their prevention, Biofilms, microbial
biopolymers,biosurfactants,Petroleumprospectingandformationofoilspills,Microbialcultureselectionwith
high yield potential, Strain preservation, maintenance and strain improvement by mutation of gene transfer
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


13
13
processes,Batch,fed1batchandcontinuouscultures (definitionandkinetics), Fermenters(Stirredtank,bubble
columns, airlift. Bioreactors, Static, Submerged and agitated fermentation), Use of immobilized cells and
enzymes (Ca1alginate beads, polyacrylamide); Industrial production of Ethyl alcohol, Acetic Acid (Vinegar),
Citric acid, lactic acid, α1amylase, protease penicillin, tetracycline and vitamin B
12,
 with reference to easily
available raw materials, inoculum, type of reactors, recovery and purification, Production of herbal drugs.
       (3 Periods)

17. Medical Microbiology - Normal microbialpopulation ofhealthy humanbody(Skin, mouth, upperrespiratory
tract,intestinaltract,urino1genitaltract,eye),Harmful MicrobialInteractionswithHuman (Entryofpathogens
into the host, types of bacterial pathogens, Mechanism of bacterial pathogenicity, colonization and growth,
Virulence, Virulence factors – exotoxins, enterotoxins, endotoxins, neurotoxins. – avoidance of host defense
mechanisms, damage to host cell, Host factors for infection and innate resistance to infection),

 (2 Periods)

18. General Account of Epidemiology - Principlesofepidemiology,Currentepidemics
(AIDS, Nosocomical, Acute respiratory Syndrome), Measures for prevention of epidemics – Global health
consideration,Emergingandreemerginginfectiousdiseases,Biologicalwarfareandbiologicalweapons,Person
topersonMicrobialdisease(Namesofpathogen,disease symptoms,andpreventive measures),Directcontact
transmission of diseases (Staphylococcus, Helicobactor pylori and Gastric ulcers, Hepatitis viruses), Sexually
transmitteddiseases(Gonorrheaandsyphilis,AIDSandHIV),Animaltransmitteddiseases(Rabies,Hantavirus
pulmonary syndrome), Arthropod transmitted disease (Rickettsia, Malaria,  Plague), Soil borne diseases
(Tetanus),Waterbornemicrobialdiseases(Cholera,Typhoid,Amoebiasis,Giardiasis).   
(3 Periods) 
19. Chemical control of Pathogens–DefinitionandClassificationofantibioticsonthebasisofstructureandmode
ofaction,Assayofantibiotics,antibioticspectrumNaturallyproduceddrugs,Antibioticsproducedbybacteria,
actinomycetes and fungi used in chemotherapy, Semi1synthetic antibiotic, Sulfar drugs 1 their use and
mechanism of action, Nalidixic acid, nitrofurans, isonicotinic hydrazide, metronidazole; Prophylactic agents,
Drug toxicity, Drug resistance – chromosomal mutation and plasmid1borne multiple drug resistance, Cyclic
polypeptideantibioticsofbacteria.  (2 Periods)

MSGEN-202 : Genetics of Model Organisms


1. The content of our genome: Eukaryotic genomes contain both non repetitive and repetitive DNA
sequences,HumangenomehasfewergenesthanexpectedGenomescanbemappedbylinkage,restriction
cleavageorDNAsequence,RFLPsandSNPsforgeneticmapping.   

(5 Periods)

2. Genomes - types of genomes, genomes & genetic variation, comparison of different genomes, genome
evolution.    (3 Periods)

3. Genomics – about the genomics, history, comparative genomics, comparative genomic hybridization,
functionalgenomics.   (3 Periods)

4. Human Genome Project (HGP) – an overview of the project, goals of the project, major scientific
strategies & approaches used in HGP, expected scientific & medical benefits of this project, about the
organizations behind this project, an overview of projects of other model organisms of Human Genome
Project. (4 Periods)

5. HGP & its impact –impactofHumanGenomeprojectinPlant,Animal&Human.
(3 Periods)
6. Biology & Life cycles – study of biology & life cycles of model organisms (E. coli, Yeast, Arabidopsis
thaliana,C.elegans,Drosophila melanogaster,laboratorymouse,Zebrafish&Human). 
   (8 Periods)

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


14
14
7. Genomics of selected Genomes – about genomics of model organisms (E. coli, Yeast, Arabidopsis
thaliana,C.elegans,Drosophila melanogaster,laboratorymouse,Zebrafish,Human).  
   (8 Periods)

8. How Human genome was mapped –physicalmapping,geneticmapping,geneontology,geneannotation.
      (3 Periods)

9. Technologies used in HGP – RFLP,microsatellitemarkers,STS,EST,DNA
sequencing,DNAmicroarray.    (5 Periods)

MSGEN-203 : Principles of Molecular Cell Biology


1. Recombinant DNA Technology and Molecular Cloning –

(a) How to clone a gene - What is clone, Overview of the procedure, Gene library, Hybridization, molecular
cloning, construction of DNA library, Library screening, Expression libraries, Restriction mapping, RFLP,
DNAsequencing. (2 Periods)

(b) Purification and Separation of nucleic acids – Extraction and Purification of nucleic acids, Detection and
QuantitationofNucleicacids,GelElectrophoresis.(1 Period)

(c) Cutting and Joining DNA – Restriction Endonucleases, Ligation, Alkaline Phosphate, Double Digest,
ModificationofRestrictionFragmentsends,OtherWaysofjoiningDNAMolecules.  
  (1 Period)

(d) Vectors – Plasmid vectors, Vectors based on the lambda Bacteriophage, Cosmids, M13 vectors, Expression
vectors,VectorsforcloningandexpressioninEukaryoticcells,Supervectors:YACsandBACs. 
  (1 Period)

(e) Amplifying DNA : PCR and Cell based DNA Cloning – TheimportanceofDNACloning,PCR:basic
featuresandapplication,PrinciplesofCell1basedDNACloning,CloningSystemforamplifyingdifferent
sizedfragments,CloningSystemforproducingsingle1strandedandmutagenizedDNA. 

(2 Periods)

(f)Nucleic Acid Hybridization : Principle and application - Preparationofnucleicacidprobes,PrincipleofNucleic
acidhybridization,Nucleicacidhybridizationassays,andmicroarrays.   
  (2 Periods)

(g) Gene Recombination and Gene transfer : BacterialConjugation,Transformation,Transduction,Episomes,
Plasmids, Microinjection, Electroporation, Microprojectile, Shot Gun method, Ultrasonication, Liposome
fusion,Microlaser.(2 Periods)

(h) Changing genes: site-directed mutagenesis and Protein engineering:Primerextensionisasimplemethod
forsitedirectedmutation,PCRbasedsitedirectedmutagenesis,Randommutagenesis,UseofPhagedisplay
techniquestofacilitatetheselectionofmutantpeptides,Geneshuffling,productionofchimericproteins.
          (2 Periods)
2. Tools for analyzing gene expression -

(a) Reporter Genes – Commonlyusedreportergenes, AnalysisofgeneregulationPurificationanddetectiontags.
      (1 Period)

(b) Analysis at the level of gene transcription – Northernblot,insituhybridization,Rnaseprotectionassay,RT1
PCR.     (2 Period)

(c) Analysis at the level of Translation – Western blot, in situ analysis, ELISA, protein gel electrophoresis,
Antibodyproduction.    (2 Periods)

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


15
15
MSGEN-204 : Genetic Biodiversity and Taxonomy


1. Basic concept of Biodiversity – WhatisBiodiversity,Whyshouldweconserveit,ElementsofBiodiversity1
Ecosystem Diversity, Genetic Diversity, Species Abundance & Diversity, Patterns of Species Diversity.

(5 Periods)

2. Global patterns of Biodiversity – measuringbiodiversity, CatalogingandDiscoveringSpecies,Geographical
Patterns of Species Richness, Biogeography, Importance of Distribution Patterns (Local Endemics, Sparsely
DistributedSpecies,MigratorySpecies),GAPAnalysis.
(6 Periods)



3. Biodiversity & Conservation – Overexploitationthreateninglivingspecies, InternationalTrade, Animals
threatenedbyInternationaltrade,ProblemsinControllingInternationalTrade(Enforcement,Reservations,
IllegalTrade),FreeTrade&theEnvironment,FreeTrade&Conservation,Commonpatternsof
Overexploitation. (6 Periods)

4. Exotic Species – Plants,Invertebrates,Fishes,Amphibians,Reptiles,Birds,Mammals,DetrimentalEffects
ofExoticSpecies. (3 Periods)

5. Endangered Species Conservation – TheUSEndangeredSpeciesAct,StateEndangeredSpeciesActs
SuccessesandFailuresoftheEndangeredSpeciesActRoleofESAinHabitatProtection,CriticalHabitat,
ProblemswiththeEndangeredSpeciesAct,HabitatConservationPlans.
(5 Periods)

6. Ethics of Conservation – Values of Biodiversity, Biopiracy, Hybridized plants, GM crops (benefits &
criticism), Economic Value of Biodiversity & Legal, Ethical and Conservation issues related to uses of
biodiversity,GlobalConservationIssues. (4 Periods)

7. Human Population Growth – Carrying capacity of the Earth, Primary productivity of the Earth, Regional
Differences in Population Problems, Regional Differences in Population Density and Growth Rate, Age
StructuresandtheDemographicTransition,EffectsofUnevenIncomeDistribution.
(3 Periods)

8. Basic concept of Taxonomy – Names and Naming: Essentials of Nomenclature, Classification, Construction
ofPhylogenetictree,Systematics,Cladistics,Cladograms,Phenetics.    
    (7 Periods)
9. Molecular phylogenies – Immunologicaltechniques,Aminoacidsequences,QuantitativeDNAmeasurements,
RepetitiveDNAsequences,Nucleicacidphylogeniesbasedon:DNA1DNAhybridizations,RestrictionEnzyme
sites & Nucleotide sequence comparisons and homologies, Combined Nucleic acid1Amino acid phylogenies,
rates of Molecular change: Evolutionary Clocks,
 Regulatory genes & some Evolutionary consequences.
(6 Periods)
10. Taxonomy in relation to Chromosomal morphology & Evolution –Chromosomalevolution,whylocation
of genes matter, evolutionary oddities about chromosomes, evolutionary effect of rearrangements of
chromosomes,karyotypicorthoselection,chromosomalevolution&speciation.
(6 Periods)

11. Molecular Taxonomy in relation to DNA characteristics & Protein sequences – modes of molecular
evolution, Neutral theory of Molecular evolution, genetic markers for taxonomic purposes, comparing total
genomebyDNA1DNA hybridization,comparingDNA sequences,Cladistics,biological identificationthrough
DNAbarcodes,chromosomepainting,establishingmolecularhomologyusingproteinsequences. (8
Periods)

MSGEN-205 : Quantitative Analysis


Mathematics:-
1. Differentiation
: (Function of single variable)
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


16
16
Derivative & its geometrical significance, algebra of differentiation (without derivation), monotonic function,
extremaoffunction,applicationinchemistry.  (5 Periods)
2. Differentiation
:(Function of two variables or more)
Partial differentiation, Homogeneous function & Euler’s Theorem, exact and inexact differentiation with
specificemphasisonthermodynamicproperties. (5 Periods)

3. Integration
:
Basic rules of integration (without derivations), Definite & indefinite integrals, Geometrical meaning of
integration,applicationinBiology&chemistry.(5 Periods)

4. Differential Equation
:
Separation of variables, Homogeneous1, extract1 & ordinary linear differential equations, Second order linear
differentialequations,applicationofdifferentialequationinchemistry&biology.   
  (5 Periods)
Probability & Statistics: -
5. Probability
: -
Definition of Probability, Relative frequency, Probability distribution (Binomial, Poisson & normal),
simpleexamples.   (5 Periods)

6. Statistics
: -
Measure of central tendency–Mean(forgrouped&ungroupeddata);
Measure of dispersion1StandardDeviation(forgrouped&Ungroupeddata);
Sampling theory–Statisticalpopulation,Samplefrompopulation,Randomsample;
Statistical Hypothesis1Testofsignificance,Testforproportion,means&standarddeviations,Chi1square
testofgoodnessoffit,t1test,F1test.
Correlation & Regression (linear) -Associatedtestof   
 significance,simpleproblems.     (5 Periods)

Computer Application :-
7. The Concept Of Information System: Theinformationsociety,PropertiesofInformation,Data,Approachesof
Information. Types of Information Flow, Scope of Information. Concept of Information System, Types of
InformationSystem.DataFlowDiagrams,Flowcharts.DataProcessingApproach,FileServerSystem,Client
ServerSystem.        
(2 Periods)
8. The Internet: Basic Concept of Internet, www, Internet Protocol, TCP/IP, Hosts, Hyper1link, Browsers,
Connectionaccess,Gopher,Netscape,FTPServer,RemoteLogin&Telnet,SearchEngine,ElectronicMail.
(1 Periods)
9. Hardware and Software: Evolution of Computers, Memory System, Various devices, High Input/Out put
Organization, I/O processors, Parallel Organization, Pipelining. Concept and Types of Software, Categories
Of Language, Operating System, Serial and Batch Processing. Types Of Operating System, Graphical User
Interface, Brief Concept of Software Development. Data Communications, Network Concept, WAN, LAN,
ISDN, NICNET, I1 Net. Computer Security & Virus, Risk Analysis, Backup, Branches and Measures Of
Security,Typesof Security, ComputerVirus,TheMENACE,ClassificationandTypes ofVirus,Pretension
andCure. (4 Periods)
10. Office Automation Applications: Office Systems, Telecommunicating Centers, Cyberspace, D.M.A, DBMS,
Using DBMS, ACCESS as DBMS. Nature of Computer Applications, Reports, Payroll, File Systems,
MultimediaApplication:ConceptonMultimedia,HardwareRequirements,SoftwareforMultimediausedin
BiologicalScience,ComponentsofGraphics,ApplicationOfMultimedia,LearningEnvironment,Authoring
Software & tools, Quick Time, Director X, Applications Of Hypertext, Elements of Hypertexts, Creating
WebPages,ServerConcept,HTML. (3 Periods)

11. Large Public Service Applications and Basic Tools For Bioinformatics:
Biological Research on Web: Using search engines, finding scientific Articles, Pub med search, Searching
biological database, PDB, Database & Visualization: Basic Ideas of FASTA & BLAST, Applying perl
bioinformatics,Applicationofdatabasesoftwareinbioinformatics.
(2 Periods)
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


17
17


MSc (Genetic Engineering) - SECOND SEMESTER


PRACTICAL PAPERS


MSGEN-206 : Microbiological Techniques


1.Samplingandquantificationofmicroorganismsinair,soilandwater.

2.Methodsofinoculationofdifferentmicrobesinselectivemedia.
Isolationofbacteria[Streakplate,spreadplate,pourplate,serialdilution]
          
3.Identificationofmicroorganismsfromthehabitats[simplestaining,differential
staining,acidfaststaining,capsulestaining,sporestainingandmotility]
Observationofmorphology1shapeandarrangementofcells. 
 
4.Microscopicmeasurements,micrometer(ocularandstage),haemocytometer.


5.Microscopicstudyofphytoplanktons&zooplanktons.  

6.PreparationofYoghurt.       
    
7.Citricacidproduction,itsrecoveryandpurification(labscale) 

8.Isolationandenumerationofphosphatesolubilising,cellulosedecomposingand
starchhydrolisingbacteriafromdifferenthabitats(platecountmethod).

9.DeterminationofpotabilityofwaterfollowingMPNmethods.Presumptiveand
confirmatorytestsofcoliforms.      
    
10.IsolationofsymbioticN
2
1fixingbacteriafromrootnodulesfromleguminous
plants. 

11.IsolationofAuxotrophic/AntibioticResistantmutantbyInducedmutagenesisin
Bacteriaby Replicaplatingtechnique. 

12.PreparationofBaker’sYeastfrommolasses.   
  

MSGEN-207 : Life Cycle Studies (Model organisms)


1. E. coli1Lifecyclestudy,isolation&identificationofmutants.

2. Yeast–Lifecyclestudy,isolation&identificationofmutants.

3. Drosophila1Lifecyclestudy,isolation&identificationofmutants.

4. Zebra fish1Lifecyclestudy,isolation&identificationofmutants.

5. Laboratory Mouse1Lifecyclestudy,isolation&identificationofmutants.

MSGEN-208 : Genetic Engineering Tools- I


1. TransformationinE.coliDH5 
    
2. Bacterialconjugation 
      
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


18
18
3. PhageTitration 
      
4. Plasmidpreparation 
      
5. Restrictionenzymedigestion 
     
6. Ligation 
      
7. DNAmolecularsizedetermination 
    
8. BacterialAntibioticsensitivity  
    
9. Bacterialgeneexpression(usingLacpromotersystem) 

MSGEN-209 : Genetic Toxicity Testing


1. Short1TermBiochemicalTestsforGeneticToxicity

2. Testforgenemutationsinbacteria1BacterialReverseMutationTest

3. in vitro/in vivotestwithcytogeneticevaluationofchromosomaldamage(ChromosomalAberrationTest)
usingmammalian(Lab.Mouse)cells

4. Amestest

MSGEN-210 : Computer Application

1. IntroductiontoWindows.
2. Microsoft Windows:WindowsFundamentals,FileManagingSystems,PrintinginWindows,Windows
Accessories.
3. Microsoft Word:MSWordBasics,TypingandEditing,FormattingText,PageDesignLayout,Mail1
Marge,DocumentManagement.
4. Microsoft Excel:Introduction,FormattingWorksheet,CustomizeWorkplace,Calculations,Charts,
DatabasePowerofExcel.
5. Microsoft PowerPoint:Presentations,Graphics,CreatingaPresentation,CustomizeaSlideShow,Editing
andSavingapresentation.
6. Image Editing Through Graphic Software and Transferring Into a Slide Presentation.
7. Microsoft Access: ConceptofDBMS.
8. ApplicationofGraphicsEditingSoftware1Photoshop.
9. IntroductiontoFlashandHTML.
10. Programming : C
a. Conceptsofflowcharting,algorithmdevelopment,pseudocodesetc.
b. Computerassignmentsbasedonthefollowingtopicsin‘C’programming:
Data types, operators and expressions, Hierarchy of operators, control statements including decision (if, if1
else),loops(while,do1while,for),branching(switch,break,continue),functions,arrays(1D,2D1allmatrix
operationsincludinginverseofamatrix),strings,filehandling,datastructuresetc.
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


19
19
MSc (Genetic Engineering) - THIRD SEMESTER

THEORETICAL PAPERS


MSGEN-301 : Engineering of Genes and Genomes


1. In Vivo Techniques of Genetic Manipulation
Introduction/Historicalperspective/CuttingandjoiningDNA/MolecularCloning/ConstructingDNAlibraries/
Probes/Libraryscreening/Expressionlibraries/Restrictionmapping/RFLP/DNAsequencing/Transposons.
      (8 Periods)

2. Tools for analyzing Gene Expression
Introduction/ Transient and stable transfection assays/ In vitro mutagenesis/ Analysis at the level of gene
transcriptions/ RNA expression and localization/ Analysis at the level of translation: protein expression and
localization/Antisensetechnology/AnalysisofDNA1Proteininteractions/Structuralanalysisofproteins/Model
organisms.  (10 Periods)

3. Genetically Modified Organisms-use in Basic & Applied Research
Introduction/Cloningbynucleartransfer/transgenictechnology/Transgenicmice/TransgenicDrosophila/
TransgenicCelegans/TransgenicZebraFish/TransgenicArabidopsis/TransgenicCattle/TransgenicChicken/
TransgenicGoat/Gene1targetedMousemodels/otherapplicationsofTransgenicAnimalTechnology/Transgenic
Plants.  (14 Periods)

4. Genome Analysis - DNA typing, Genomics & Beyond
Introduction/DNAtyping/TheHumanGenomeProject/Othersequencedgenomes/High1throughputanalysis
genefunctions/SingleNucleotidePolymorphisms.  (6 Periods)

5. Medical Molecular Biology
Introduction/MolecularBiologyofCancer/Genetherapy/Genes&HumanBehavior
(4 Periods)
Recommended Texts & References:
1)FundamentalMolecularBiology;AllisonLA;2007
2)RecombinantDNA,Watsonetal;5
th
Ed;2006
3)TechniquesforEngineeringGenes;CurellBRetal;2004
4)TechniquesforMolecularBiology;TaguD&MoussardC;INRA;2006
5)GeneCloningandDNAAnalysis;5
th
Ed;BrownTA;2006
6)AnalysisofGenesandGenomes;ReeceRJ;Wiley;2004
7)RecombinantDNAandBiotechnology;2
nd
Ed;KreuzerHandMasseyA;ASM;2006
8)HumanGeneticsandGenomics;KorfBR;3
rd
Ed;Blackwell;2007
9)MolecularCloning;3
rd
Ed;Sambrook&Russel:ColdSpringHarbourLaboratorypress,
NY;2001
10)ICRFHandbookofGenomeAnalysis;SpurrNK,YoungBD,BryantSP;1998

MSGEN-302 : Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics


Module I : GENOMICS
(14 Periods)

Largescalegenomesequencingstrategies.
Genomeassemblyandannotation.
PredictionofGenes,Promoters,Splicesites,
Regulatoryregions:Basicprinciples,applicationofmethodstoprokaryoticand
eukaryoticgenomesandinterpretationofresults.
Genenetworks.
StructuralGenomics(SG):theneedforSG,basicprinciples,approachesfortarget
selection.
FunctionalGenomics:applicationofsequencebasedandstructure1basedapproachesto
assignmentofgenefunctions,e.g.sequencecomparison,
structureanalysis(especiallyactivesites,bindingsites)and
comparison,patternidentification,etc.
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


20
20
Useofvariousderiveddatabasesinfunctionassignment.
DNAmicroarray:basicprinciples,usingthedatabases,understandingofmicroarray
dataandcorrelationofgeneexpressiondatatobiologicalprocesses
andcomputationalanalysistools(especiallyclusteringapproaches).

Module II : PROTEOMICS
(14 Periods)

Proteinarrays:basicprinciples;Bioinformatics1basedtoolsforanalysisofproteomics
data(ToolsavailableatExPASyProteomicsserver);databases(suchas
InterPro)andanalysistools.
Protein1proteininteractions:databasessuchasDIP,PPIserverandtoolsforanalysisof
protein1proteininteractions.
Identification of disease genes: basic concepts, need for identification of disease genes, Role of Bioinformatics 1
OMIMdatabase,referencegenomesequence,integrated
genomicmaps,geneexpressionprofiling;
IdentificationofSNPs,SNPsdatabases(DbSNP).
Metabolicpathways:databasessuchasKEGG,EMP.
Module III : BIOINFORMATICS
(14 Periods)

IntroductionofGenomicDataandDataOrganization.
SequenceDataBank–Introductiontosequencedatabanks–proteinsequencedatabank,
NBRF1PIR,SWISSPROT,Signalpeptidedatabank,Nucleicacid
sequencedatabank1GenBank,EMBL,nucleotidesequencedatabank,
AIDSVirussequencedatabank,rRNAdatabank.
Structuraldatabanks–proteinDataBank(PDB).
TheCambridgeStructuralDatabase(CSD).
Genomedatabank–Metabolicpathwaydata;MicrobialandCellularDataBanks.
IntroductiontoMSDN(MicrobialStrainDataNetwork).
NumericalCodingSystemsofmicrobes.
HybridomaDatabankstructure.
VirusInformationSystem,Celllineinformationsystem.
OtherimportantDatabanksintheareaofBiotechnology/LifeSciences/Biodiversity.
Sequenceanalysis–AnalysisofToolsforSequenceDataBanks.
Pair1wisealignment–NEEDLEMANandWunschalgorithm,SmithWaterman.
Multiplealignment–CLUSTAL,PRAS;BLAST.
FASTAalgorithmstoanalyzesequencedata.
Sequencepattern,motifsandprofiles.
SecondaryStructurepredictions;
PredictionAlgorithms.
Chao1Fasmanalgorithm,Hidden1Markovmodel.
Recommended Texts:
1)T.A.Brown;Genome3;2007
2)D.W.Mount:Bioinformatics;2
nd
Ed;ColdSpringharborLaboratoryPress;2004
3)SpurrNK,YoungBD,BryantSP;ICRFHandbookofGenomeAnalysis;1998
4)DunhamI;GenomemappingandSequencing;2003
5)MeyrsRA;GenomicsandGenetics;2007
6)SussmanHE&SmitMA;Genome;AsianEd;ColdSpringHarborLaboratoryPress;2004
7)S.B.PrimroseandR.M.Twyman;Genomics: Applications in Human Biology
8)R.WestermeierandT.Naven:Proteomics in Practice
(ALaboratoryManualofProteomeAnalysis)
9)BrandenandTooze“IntroductiontoProteinStructure”
10)R.R.Sinden,“DNAStructure&Function”
11)A.R.Leach“MolecularModelling1Principles&Function”
12)Mount“Bioinformatics”ColdSpringHarbour
13)ArthurLesk“IntroductiontoBioinformatics”
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


21
21
MSGEN-303 : Microbial Biotechnology


1. Principles of Microbial Biotechnology
Introduction/ Microbial production of Industrial Chemicals/ Microbial Fermentation/ Microbial Enzymes/
TransformationProcesses/DesignandoperationofaConventionalFermentor/IndustrialFermentor. 
       (4 Periods)
2. Genetic Engineering of Microorganisms 
Introduction/RecombinantMicroorganismsinBasicResearch/ImprovementofIndustrialOrganisms/Application
of Recombinant Microorganisms in Medicine/ Application of Recombinant Microorganisms in Agriculture/
ApplicationofRecombinantMicroorganismsinEnvironmentalProtection.    
   (5 Periods)

3. Potential Microbial Applications - Cleanup of toxic1wastes, Production of novel therapeutic and preventive
agents and pathways, Energy generation and development of renewable energy sources (e.g., methane and
hydrogen), Production of chemical catalysts, reagents, and enzymes to improve efficiency of industrial processes,
Management of environmental carbon dioxide related to climate change, Detection of disease1causing organisms
and monitoring of the safety of food and water supplies, Use of genetically altered bacteria as living sensors
(biosensors) to detect harmful chemicals in soil, air, or water, Understanding of specialized systems used by
microbialcellstoliveinnaturalenvironmentswithothercells. (5 Periods)

4. Bioconversions –OverviewofBioconversion,Enzymatichydrolysis,Synthesisgasfermentation 
        (2 Periods)
5. Microorganisms and Agriculture –ClassificationofSoilsbasedontheirMicrobiologicalproperties(Functions
of Microorganisms: Putrefaction, Fermentation, and Synthesis, Relationships Between Putrefaction, Fermentation,
andSynthesis),ClassificationofSoilsBasedontheFunctionsofMicroorganisms(Disease1InducingSoils,Disease1
Suppressive Soils, Zymogenic Soils, Synthetic Soils), Ice1Minus bacteria, Microbial pesticides, Utilization of
beneficial Microorganisms in Agriculture, Controlling the Soil Microflora for Optimum Crop Production and
Protection. (4 Periods)
6. Products from Microorganisms – Metabolites,Enzymes,Antibiotics,Fuels,Plastics
(4 Periods)
7. Bioremediation - Biotransformation of toxic wastes to harmless products, Oil1Spills, Wastewater treatment,
ChemicalDegradationofHeavyMetals.   (3 Periods)

8. Oil and Mineral Recovery - Oilrecovery,Metalextraction  (2 Periods)

9. EM Technology - EffectiveMicro1organisms,EM1BOKASHI,EM1COMPOST,EM15,EM1X, Recycling.
         (4 Periods)
10. Patenting Microbial Biotechnology – IPR, TRIPs & Patent Law, Patenting life, Patenting Microorganisms,
PatentingofGenes&DNAsequences,Microbialbiopiracy. (4 Periods)
11. Microbial Genomics – ModelMicrobes,WhyMicrobes,CriteriaforGenomeSelection,ResearchbyMicrobes,
Benefits,MicrobialGenomeDatabases. (5 Periods)

Recommended Texts & References:

1. LarrySnyderandWenndychampness;MolecularGeneticsofBacteria;ASMPress;2003
2. Channarayappa;MoleclarBiotechnology;2006
3. PepplerandPeriman;Microbialtechnology;2
nd
Ed;Academicpress;2004
4. BarnumSR;Biotechnology;Indianedition;Vikaspub.;1998
5. BakerKH;Bioremediation.McGrawHill,NewYork
6. Murooka Y and Imanaka T,eds; Recombinant Microbes for Industrial and Agricultural application; Marcel
Dekker,Inc,N.Y

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


22
22
MSGEN (MBT)-304 : Medical Biotechnology - I


Module I : HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
(20 Periods)

1. Introduction - OverviewofdifferentsystemsofHumanbody.

2. Neurobiology – Neurons&Glialcells,Neuronal function(Actionpotential,structure&formationofsynapses,
Neurotransmitter transporters, receptors & signaling mechanisms), Synaptic plasticity, Sensory systems, Neural
development.

3. Neurophysiology – Neurulation, Human Brain development, Neuronal migration (Radial & Tangential
migration),Neuraldevelopmentintheadultnervoussystem(Neuroregeneration),Electrophysiology,Neuroscience,
Brain,Neuralcoding,Neurology,Neuroregeneration inthePeripheralNervoussystem &CentralNervous system,
Neuroregenerationindiseases,Neurodegenerativediseases.

4. Cell physiology – Cellular electrophysiology, physiology of membrane transport, neuron transmission, muscle
contraction.
5. Cardio-vascular physiology - The heart, Electrophysiology of the heart, Normal circulation (Cardio1vascular
pressure, Heart rate & Stroke volume), Cardiac cycle, Coronary circulation, Cardiac output, Systemic circulation,
Bloodflow:Hagen1Poisseuilleformula,Controlofsystemiccirculation,Controlofarterialpressure,Cardiovascular
responses to anaesthesia, Clinical Determination of Mean1Cardiovascular Pressure, Arrhythmias, Cardiac Valve
disease (heart murmurs), Coronary artery disease, Edema, Abnormal circulation (Heart failure, Shock,
Hypertension,Arterio1venusfistula),Peripheralarterydisease(Intermittentclaudication).

6. Physiology of Circulatory system – Blood flow through Heart, Heart rate & stroke volume, Blood pressure,
changesoccurtothemammalianfetusafterbirth.
7. Gastro-intestinal physiology – Methods of feeding, functions of different parts of alimentary system, types of
Endocrine&Exocrinesecretions,Gastrichormones,Anabolism&Catabolism,Metabolicrates.

8. Respiratory Physiology –RespiratoryVolumes(lungvolumes,vitalcapacity,functionalresidualcapacity,dead
space,spirometry,bodyplethysmography,peakflow meter),MechanicsofRespiration, Circulation,Ventilation &
Perfusion (pulmonary circulation, positive pressure ventilation, hypoxic vasoconstriction, ventilation (physiology),
perfusion,ventilation/perfusionratio(V/Q),and ventilation/perfusionscan,shunts:right1to1left(tetralogyof fallot),
left1to1right (patent ductus arteriosus), respiratory rate and respirometer), Transport of respiratory gases (O2 &
CO2), gas exchange, Dalton's law, oxygen1haemoglobin dissociation curve, Bohr effect, Haldane effect, carbonic
anhydrase, oxyhemoglobin, respiratory quotient, arterial blood gas,  Control & Response (control of respiration,
reticular formation, pons (apneuistic and pneumotaxic), chemoreceptors (medulla, carotid body, aortic body),
Hering1Breuer reflex, involuntary control of respiration, exercise, hyperoxia, hypoxemia (hypoxic hypoxia),
Disorders (altitude sickness, asthma, carbon monoxide poisoning, COPD, emphysema, infant respiratory distress
syndrome,pulmonaryedema)
9. Renal physiology – FunctionsofKidney(regulationofpH,secretionofHormones,ExtracellularHomeostasis),
production of Urine, Mechanisms of Filtration (Renal Plasma threshold), Mechanisms of Reabsorption (Indirect
reabsorption&Secretion),measurementofRenalfunction.

10. Endocrinal physiology - Functionofendocrineorgans,hormonesandreceptors,Chemicalclassesofhormones,
AminesPeptideSteroid,Neuro1endocrinology,Reproductiveendocrinology.
11. Reproductive physiology – physiologyofmaleandfemalereproductivesystem,roleoftheendocrinesystemin
the control and maintenance of reproduction, Andrology, Gynaecology, Ovulatory mechanism, Ovarian cycle,
Pituitary&Ovarianhormones,PhysiologyofConception&PrenatalDevelopment,CausesofInfertility.
12. Physiology of Musculo-Skeletal system 1 Muscle Energetics, Muscle metabolism during exercise, Neural
ControlofSkeletalMuscle,functionsofSmooth&Cardiacmuscles,Fatigue,Rigormortis.

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


23
23
13. Pathophysiology – Dermatopathology, Immunodermatology, physiology of Skin (skin layers & components,
functions,variabilityinskintone,diseases)&Hair(typesofHair,Growth,texture,agingandpathologicalimpacts
onHair)

Module II : HUMAN DEVELOPMENTAL GENETICS
(22 Periods)

1. Principles of Developmental Biology - Geneticapproaches,Geneticmarking,Geneticmalformations. 
       (2 Periods)

2. Developmental patterns – Developmentaldynamicsofcellspecification(Autonomous,Syncytial&Conditional),
Morphogeneticfields.     (2 Periods)

3. The Genetic core of development - TheEmbryologicaloriginsofGeneTheory,EarlyattemptsatDevelopmental
Genetics, Genomic equivalence, determining the function of genes during development, Gene targeting  (Knockout)
experiments,determiningfunctionofamessage:AntisenseRNA.     
   (2 Periods)

4. Genetics of cell-cell communication in development - JAK1STAT pathway, Hedgehog pathway, ‘Canonical’
WNTpathway,“non1Canonical”WNTpathway,SMADpathway,celldeathpathways,Juxtacrinesignaling&Cell
patterning. (2 Periods)

5. Differential gene expression from the same nuclear repertoire – differentialgene transcription,selectivenuclear
RNA processing, Selective mRNA translation, differential protein modification, DNA methylation & gene activity,
chromatin modification induced by DNA methylation, dosage compensation, X1inactivation in Human female,
miRNAintranscriptionalgeneregulation.         (2
Periods)
6. Developmental mechanisms of Evolutionary change–‘UnityofType&‘ConditionsofExistence’,preconditions
for Macroevolution through developmental change – Modularity & Molecular parsimony, mechanisms of
macroevolutionary change, Homologous pathways of development, Developmental constraints (Physical,
Morphogenetic&Phyletic). (2 Periods)

7. Genetics of Metamorphosis, Regeneration & Aging – Compensatory regeneration in the Mammalian Liver,
CausesofAging, GeneticallyregulatedpathwayofAging. (2 Periods)

8. Developmental Biology in Human - Structure, chemistry, dynamics and regulation of sperm locomotion,
capacitation and egg 1surface targeting. Molecular biology, Cytology and Biochemistry of oogenesis: Synthesis and
storageof maternaltranscripts,proteinsandcellorganelles.Ovulationandhormonalcontrolin mammals.Molecular
andcellularbiologyoffertilization:acrosomereactionandsignaltransduction,monospermyandspecies1specificity.
Eggactivation,earlycleavagesandblastocystformationinmammalsandbiochemicalandcellularchangesduringthe
passage down the oviduct to the uterus. Gastrulation in mammals 1formation of primitive streak, morphogenetic
movementsandneuralinduction. (5 Periods)

9. Medical implications of Developmental Biology –GeneticerrorsofHumandevelopment,inbornerrorsofnuclear
RNA processing & translation, identifying the genes for Human developmental anomalies, Teratogenesis –
environmentalassaultsonHumandevelopment.       
    (3 Periods)
Recommended Texts & References:

1.DevelopmentalBiology,NJBerrill(TataMcGraw1Hill)
2.DevelopmentalBiology,ScottFGilbert
MSGEN (ABT)-304 : Animal Biotechnology - I


Module I : ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
(20 Periods)

1. Animals and Environments - TheImportanceofPhysiology,Animals&Environments.
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


24
24
2. Molecules and Cells in Animal Physiology1CellMembranesandIntracellularMembranes,Epithelia,Elements
ofMetabolism,EnzymeFundamentals,RegulationofCellFunctionby,Enzymes,CellSignaling:SignalReception
andCell1SignalTransduction.
3. Transport of Solutes and Water 1 Passive Solute Transport by Simple Diffusion, Passive Solute Transport by
Facilitated Diffusion, Active Transport, Modulation of Channels and Transporters, Osmotic Pressure and Other
ColligativePropertiesofAqueousSolutions,Osmosis.
4. Food, Energy, and Temperature 1 Nutrition, Feeding, Digestion, Absorption, Responses to Eating, Energy
Metabolism, Why Animals Need Energy: The Second Law of Thermodynamics, Fundamentals of Animal
Energetics,MetabolicRate:MeaningandMeasurement,FactorsThatAffectMetabolicRates,BasalMetabolicRate
and Standard Metabolic Rate, The Relation between Metabolic Rate and Body Size, The Energetics of Aerobic
Activity, Thermal Relations (Temperature and Heat, Heat Transfer between Animals and Their Environments),
Poikilothermy (Ectothermy). Homeothermy in Mammals and Birds, Warm1Bodied Fish, Endothermy and
Homeothermy in Insects, Costs & benefits of Ectothermy & Endothermy, Circadian Rhythms, Hibernation &
Aestivation,ThermoregulatoryControl,FeverandBehavioralFever.
5. Aerobic and Anaerobic Forms of Metabolism 1 Mechanisms of ATP Production and Their Implications,
Comparative Properties of Mechanisms of ATP Production, Two Themes in Exercise Physiology: Fatigue and
Muscle Fiber Types, The Interplay of Aerobic and Anaerobic Catabolism during Exercise, Responses to Impaired
O2InfluxfromtheEnvironment,TheBiochemistryofCouplingandUncouplingofOxidativePhosphorylation:The
Chemiosmotic Theory, Genetic Engineering as a Tool to Test Physiological Hypotheses, Human Peak O2
ConsumptionandPhysicalPerformanceatHighAltitudes.
6. Integrating Systems -
Neural and Endocrine Control, Nervous Systems, and Biological Clocks - ThePhysiologyofControl:Neurons
and Endocrine Cells Compared, The Organization and Evolution of Nervous Systems, The Vertebrate Nervous
System:AGuidetotheGeneralOrganizationalFeaturesofNervousSystems,BiologicalClocks.
Neurons 1 The Cellular Organization of Nervous Systems, The Ionic Basis of Membrane Potentials, The Action
Potential,PropagationofActionPotentials.
Synapses 1 Synaptic Transmission is usually Chemical but can be Electrical, Synaptic Potentials, Kinds of
Neurotransmitters, Synaptic Receptors, Synaptic Plasticity: Synapses Change Properties with Time and Activity,
NeuropeptidesandPain.
7. Sensory Processes 1 Organization of Sensory Systems, Receptor Functions and Their Control, Photoreception,
Visual Sensory Processing, Arthropod Visual Systems, Extra1ocular photoreception, Photo1behavioral response,
Olfactory (smell) mechanism, Gustatory  (taste) mechanism, Mechano1reception, mechanoreceptors in Fish &
Insects,Chemoreception,ThermoreceptioninSnake,Electro1reception,Echolocation.
8. Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Physiology - Introduction to Endocrine Principles, Synthesis, Storage, and
Release of Hormones, Types of Endocrine Glands and Cells, Control of Endocrine Systems: The Vertebrate
Pituitary Gland, The Mammalian Stress Response, Endocrine Control of Nutrient Metabolism in Mammals,
EndocrineControlofSaltandWaterBalanceinVertebrates,HormonesandOtherChemicalSignals,Pheromones&
theirfunctions,InsectMetamorphosis.
9. Reproduction 1 Sexual and Asexual Reproduction, Mammalian Reproduction, Hormonal Control of Female
Reproduction,HormonalControlofMaleReproduction,Fertilization,PregnancyandBirthinEutherianMammals,
Lactation,MaximizingReproductiveSuccess,“MaleMenopause”inaMarsupialMouse.
10. Muscle and Movement 1 Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle, Excitation1Contraction Coupling, Whole Skeletal
Muscles, Muscle Energetics, Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle, Vertebrate Smooth Muscle, Vertebrate Cardiac
Muscle, Electrifying Fishes: Electric Fish Exploit Modified Skeletal Muscles to Generate Electric Shocks, Insect
Flight, Control of Movement: The Motor Bases of Animal Behavior, Behavioral Background: Reflexes and Fixed
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


25
25
Action Patterns, Neural Circuits Mediating Reflexes and Fixed Acts, Action Patterns: Neural Generation of
RhythmicBehavior,ControlandCoordinationofVertebrateMovement.

11. Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 1 The Properties of Gases in Gas Phases and Aqueous Solutions,
Diffusion of Gases, Convective Transport of Gases, The Oxygen Cascade, The Oxygen Debt, Expressing the
Amounts and Partial Pressures of Gases in Other Units, The Contrasting Physical Properties of Air and Water,
Respiratory Environments, External Respiration: The Physiology of Breathing, Fundamental Concepts of External
Respiration,
Principles of Gas Exchange by Active Ventilation, Introduction to Vertebrate Breathing, Breathing by Fish,
Amphibians, Reptiles, Mammals, Birds, Aquatic Invertebrates and Allied Groups, Insects and other Tracheate
Arthropods,TheBookLungsofArachnids,TheChemicalPropertiesandDistributionsoftheRespiratoryPigments,
TheO21BindingCharacteristicsofRespiratoryPigments,TheFunctionsofRespiratoryPigmentsinAnimals.
12. Circulation – Types of Hearts in Animals, Principles of Pressure, Resistance, and Flow in Vascular Systems,
Circulation in Mammals and Birds, Circulation in Fish, Amphibians and Reptiles, Concluding Comments on
Vertebrates,InvertebrateswithClosedCirculatorySystems,InvertebrateswithOpenCirculatorySystems.
13. Water, Salts, and Excretion 1 Water and Salt Physiology: Introduction and Mechanisms, The Importance of
AnimalBodyFluids,TheRelationsamongBodyFluids,TheTypesofRegulationandConformity,OrgansofBlood
Regulation, Osmoregulation in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial animals, major structures involved in
osmoregulation and excretion, Responses to Drying of the Habitat in Aquatic Animals, Animals on Land:
FundamentalPhysiologicalPrinciples,ControlofWaterandSaltBalanceinTerrestrialAnimals.
14. Kidneys and Excretion1BasicMechanismsofKidney Function,UrineFormationin Amphibians,Mammals,
Other Vertebrates, Decapod Crustaceans, Molluscs and Insects, Nitrogen Disposition and Excretion, Mammals of
the Deserts and Dry Savannahs, Water Balance in Deserts and Dry Savannas, Adaptations of Large Mammals to
AridEnvironments.
Module II : ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL GENETICS
(22 Periods)

1. Principles of Developmental Biology - Geneticapproaches,Geneticmarking,Geneticmalformations. 
       (2 Periods)

2. Developmental patterns – Developmentaldynamicsofcellspecification(Autonomous,Syncytial&Conditional),
Morphogeneticfields.     (2 Periods)

3. The Genetic core of development - TheEmbryologicaloriginsofGeneTheory,EarlyattemptsatDevelopmental
Genetics, Genomic equivalence, determining the function of genes during development, Gene targeting  (Knockout)
experiments,determiningfunctionofamessage:AntisenseRNA.     
   (2 Periods)

4. Genetics of cell-cell communication in development - JAK1STAT pathway, Hedgehog pathway, ‘Canonical’ WNT
pathway, “non1Canonical” WNT pathway, SMAD pathway, cell death pathways, Juxtacrine signaling & Cell patterning.
(2 Periods)
5. Differential gene expression from the same nuclear repertoire – differentialgene transcription,selectivenuclear
RNA processing, Selective mRNA translation, differential protein modification, DNA methylation & gene activity,
chromatin modification induced by DNA methylation, dosage compensation, X1inactivation in Human female,
miRNAintranscriptionalgeneregulation.         (2
Periods)
6. Developmental mechanisms of Evolutionary change–‘UnityofType&‘ConditionsofExistence’,preconditions
for Macroevolution through developmental change – Modularity & Molecular parsimony, mechanisms of
macroevolutionary change, Homologous pathways of development, Developmental constraints (Physical,
Morphogenetic&Phyletic). (2 Periods)

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


26
26
7. Genetics of Metamorphosis, Regeneration & Aging – MetamorphosisinInsects,
MetamorphosisinAmphibia,MorphallacticRegenerationinHydra,EpimorphicregenerationofSalamanderlimbs,
CompensatoryregenerationintheMammalianLiver,CausesofAging, GeneticallyregulatedpathwayofAging.
(2 Periods)
8. Environmental regulation of Animal development – Phenotypic plasticity, Environment – as part of normal
development,Polyphenisms&Plasticity,environmentallyadaptivenervoussystem,Endocrinedisruptors. 
     (2 Periods)
9. Genetic analysis of developmental pathways in model organisms – Drosophila,
C.elegans,Xenopus,Zebrafish,Chick&Mouse.     (6 Periods)
            
Recommended Texts & References:

1.DevelopmentalBiology,NJBerrill(TataMcGraw1Hill)
2.DevelopmentalBiology,ScottFGilbert
MSGEN (PBT)-304 : Plant Biotechnology - I


Module I : PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
(20 Periods)

1. Plant Anatomy (Phytotomy) - Floweranatomy(Calyx,Corolla,Androecium,Gynoecium),Leafanatomy,Stem
anatomy, Fruit/Seed anatomy (Ovule, Seed structure, Pericarp, Accessory fruit), Wood anatomy (Bark, Cork,
Phloem,Vascularcambium,Heartwoodandsapwood,branchcollar),Rootanatomy.
2. Plant Morphology (Phytomorphology) - A comparative science (Homology & Convergence), Vegetative and
reproductive characters (use in identification), Alternation of generations, Plant development (Plant growth,
Juvenility,Environmentaleffects).
3. Transport and Translocation of Water and Solutes 1 Water and Plant Cells, Wilting and Plasmolysis,Water
BalanceofPlants,WaterMovementinXylemandPhloem,LeafTranspirationandWaterVaporGradients,Solute
Transport.

4. Photosynthesis – Overview, In Plants, Algae and Bacteria, The Light Reactions, Redox Reactions, Oxygen
Evolution,PhotosystemI, CarbonFixation,Calvin1BensonCycle,Rubisco:AModelEnzymeforStudyingStructure
andFunction,Factorsaffectingphotosynthesis,CarbonDioxide:SomeImportantPhysicochemicalProperties,C
4
,C
3

andCAM,ThreeVariationsofC
4
Metabolism,CircadianrhythminPlants.

5. Respiration - Aerobic respiration (Glycolysis, Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, Citric Acidcycle/Krebs
cycle, Oxidative phosphorylation, Theoretical yields of ATP (Pyruvate carrier, Phosphate carrier, Adenine
nucleotidecarrier),Anaerobicrespiration,OxidativePhosphorylationofPlantMitochondria.

6. Plant Nutrition – Processes,essentialnutrientsofplants,AssimilationofMineralNutrients.

7. Growth and Development - EmbryonicDormancy, ShootBranching,Phytochrome and LightControlofPlant
Development,StomatalMovementsandMorphogenesis.

8. Phytohormones – Characteristics, Classes of plant hormones, Auxin (The Growth Hormone) 1 The Structural
Requirements for Auxin Activity, Gibberellins (Regulators of Plant Height), Auxin1GA Interaction, Cytokinins
(Regulators of Cell Division) 1 Cytokinin Can Promote Light1Mediated Development, Ethylene (The Gaseous
Hormone),Abscisic Acid (ASeedMaturationandAntistressSignal).

9. Dormancy & Germination 1Germinationrate,Seedgermination,Dicotgermination(Epigeous&Hypogeous),
Monocot germination, Precocious germination, Requirements for seed germination, Hormonal control in
germination,Pollengermination,SporegerminationinRestingspores,Zoospores,Fernsandmosses,earlyseedling
development, Photomorphogenesis and skotomorphogenesis, Seedling growth and maturation, Sporeling
development,Seedsthatcanbesprouted,Sprouting.

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


27
27
10. The Control of Flowering – Photoperiodism,GenesthatControlFloweringTime,TheDifferentEffectsofTwo
DifferentGibberellinsonFlowering(SpikeLength)andElongation(StemLength),TheInfluenceofCytokininsand
PolyaminesonFlowering,TheContrastingEffectsofPhytochromesAandBonFlowering,AGeneThatRegulates
theFloralStimulusinMaize.
11. Plant pathology & biological control of Plant diseases - Plant Disease Epidemiology and Management,
Currentconceptsandapproachestomanagingplantpathogensanddiseasesincropsandnaturalplantcommunities
bymeasuresthathaveminimalimpactontheenvironment,naturally1occurringbiologicalcontrol(suppressivesoils
andinducedhostresistance),useofmicrobialagentsandtheirmodesofaction,transgenicdiseaseresistance,useof
organicsoiltopromotemicrobialdiversityandsuppresspathogens,andeffectsofsanitation,cropsequences,tillage,
flooding,soilsolarizationandotherculturalpracticesonmicrobialcommunities,includingpathogensandondisease
epidemics..
Module II : PLANT DEVELOPMENTAL GENETICS
(22 Periods)

1. Principles of Developmental Biology - Geneticapproaches,Geneticmarking,Geneticmalformations. 
       (2 Periods)

2. Developmental patterns – Developmentaldynamicsofcellspecification(Autonomous,Syncytial&Conditional),
Morphogeneticfields.     (2 Periods)

3. The Genetic core of development - TheEmbryologicaloriginsofGeneTheory,EarlyattemptsatDevelopmental
Genetics, Genomic equivalence, determining the function of genes during development, Gene targeting  (Knockout)
experiments,determiningfunctionofamessage:AntisenseRNA.     
   (2 Periods)

4. Genetics of cell-cell communication in development - JAK1STAT pathway, Hedgehog pathway, ‘Canonical’ WNT
pathway, “non1Canonical” WNT pathway, SMAD pathway, cell death pathways, Juxtacrine signaling & Cell patterning.
(2 Periods)
5. Differential gene expression from the same nuclear repertoire – differentialgene transcription,selectivenuclear
RNA processing, Selective mRNA translation, differential protein modification, DNA methylation & gene activity,
chromatinmodificationinducedbyDNAmethylation,miRNAintranscriptionalgeneregulation.  
 (2 Periods)

6. Developmental mechanisms of Evolutionary change–‘UnityofType&‘ConditionsofExistence’,preconditions
for Macroevolution through developmental change – Modularity & Molecular parsimony, mechanisms of
macroevolutionary change, Homologous pathways of development, Developmental constraints (Physical,
Morphogenetic&Phyletic). (2 Periods)

7. Environmental regulation of Plant development –Environment–aspartofnormaldevelopment, 
        (4 Periods)
8. Genetic analysis of developmental pathways in model plants – Yeast, Arabidopsis    
       (6 Periods)
          
Recommended Texts & References:

1.DevelopmentalBiology,NJBerrill(TataMcGraw1Hill)
2.DevelopmentalBiology ,ScottFGilbert

MSGEN (EBT)-304 : Environmental Biotechnology - I


Module I : ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY
(20 Periods)

Ecology & Environment

TheEcosystem Concept,Biomes, Autotrophs,Heterotrophs,trophiclevels,Bio1geo1chemicalcycles, Competition,
predation, succession, symbiosis, Coevolution, Energy flow in ecosystems, Biogeochemical cycles, Population
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


28
28
Dynamics, genetic responses to niche & competition (isolating mechanisms, character displacement, resource
partitioning,nicheshift&nicheexclusion),Microbialecology.
Communityclassification,Communitystructure&measurementofassociationsbetweenspecies,Diversityindices,
hierarchicalclassification.
Surveymethods,Relative&absolutemethodsforestimatingplantpopulationsizes&communitystructure,survey
design,distributionpatterns&quadratsizes,Designofthesurveyprogramforsinglespecies&communities.

Ecologicalsamplingtheory,samplesizes,locationsofsamplingeffort,methodsofsampling,Naturalresourcesand
theirconservation.
HumanImpactsonEcosystem,DeforestationDesertification

Restoration ecology 1 Rationale for Restoration, Approaches, Focuses of Conservation Biology and Restoration
Ecology,EthicalConsiderations.
Environmental Pollution


Majorprimarypollutantsproducedbyhumanactivities,
Air pollution – Pollutants, Sources of air pollution, Indoor air quality (IAQ), Acid rain, Air Quality Index,
Atmosphericdispersionmodeling,Chlorofluorocarbon,Globaldimming,Globalwarming,Haze,Indoorairquality,
Ozonedepletion,Particulate,Smog,GreenHouseEffect,OceanAcidification,Healtheffects.
Water pollution 1 Eutrophication, Hypoxia, Marine pollution, Ocean acidification, Oil spill, Ship pollution, Soil
erosion,Surfacerunoff,Thermalpollution,Wastewater,Waterbornediseases,Waterquality,Waterstagnation.

Soil Pollution–byHerbicide&Pesticide,SoilGuidelineValues–SGVs.

Radioactive contamination1Actinidesintheenvironment,Environmentalradioactivity,Fissionproduct,Nuclear
fallout, Plutonium in the environment, Radiation poisoning, radium in the environment, Uranium in the
environment.
Other types of pollution - Invasive species, Light pollution, Noise pollution, Radio spectrum pollution, Visual
pollution.

Module II : ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY
(22 Periods)

Ecophysiology -Ecophysiologyofplants&animals,EcologicalHealth.

Environmental Physiology in Animals - Nature and Levels of Adaptation, Fundamental Mechanisms of
Adaptation,
Comparative Physiology - Water, Ions, And Osmotic Physiology, Animal Water Balance, Osmoregulation and
Excretion, Metabolism and Energy Supply, Respiration and Circulation, Temperature and its effects, Excitable
TissuesNervousSystemsandMuscles,HormonesandChemicalControlSystems.

Coping with the Environment –Introduction,MarineLife,ShorelinesandEstuaries,FreshWater,SpecialAquatic
Habitats,TerrestrialLife,ExtremeTerrestrialHabitats,ParasiticHabitats.

Environmental Chemistry – Concepts,Environmentalindicators,methods&applications

Major organizations & Inter-government treaties – DEFRA, EPA, Global Atmosphere Watch, Greenpeace,
NationalAmbientAirQualityStandards,MontrealProtocol,NitrogenOxideProtocol,KyotoProtocol,CLRTAP.

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


29
29
Recommended Text:

1.Ecology,Theexperimentalanalysisofdistributionandabundance,KrebsC.J.
2.FundamentalsofEcology,OdumE.P.
3.EnvironmentalScience,E.Enger&B.Smith
4.Environment,P.H.Raven,L.R.Berg,andG.B.Johnson
5.GeneralEcology,HD.Kumar,VikasPub.
MSGEN (MBT)-305 : Medical Biotechnology - II


Module I : HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS
    (22 Periods)

Inherited Human diseases1singlegenediseases,complextraits.

Identification and isolation of disease genes–positionalcloning,functionalcloning,DNAandCdnamicroarrays,
Yeasttwo1hybridsystem.
Pre-natal diagnosis - chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, Pre1implantation genetic diagnosis, Genetic
Counseling.
Methods for genetic study in man – pedigree analysis, chromosomal analysis, biochemical analysis, Statistical
methodsforgeneticanalysisofcomplextraits.
Somatic cell Genetics 1 somatic cell hybrids, radiation hybrids, monochromosome, hybrid panels, gene mapping,
moleculargeneticanalysis.
Congenital abnormalities 1 clinical aspects of autosomal and sex chromosomal disorders; inborn errors of
metabolism,haemoglobinopathies.
Human Genome and its relationship to other genome1Genomeprojectsandmodeledorganisms/organization
ofhumangenome/Humangeneexpression/Instabilityofhumangenome(mutationandDNArepair)

Sequencing Genome – Useofgenomicdata,Geneticscreening,applications.

Mapping and identifying disease genes and mutations - Gene mapping of Mendelian characters/ Identifying
human disease genes/ mapping and identifying genes conferring susceptibility to complex diseases/ Molecular
Pathology/Cancergenetics
Genetic manipulation of cells and animals - Overview/ principle of gene transfer/ methods of gene transfer to
animalcellsculture/selectablemarkersforanimacells/Isolationandmanipulationofmammalianembryonicstem
cells/ Using gene transfer to study gene expression and function/ creating disease models using genetransfer and
genetargetingtechnology/potentialofanimalformodelinghumandisease

New Approaches to treating disease - Treatment of genetic disease is not the same as genetic treatment/
Treatmentofgeneticdisease/principleofgenetherapy/methodsofinsertingandexpressingageneinatargetcell
ortissue/Methodsforrepairingorinactivatingapathogenicgeneinacell

Gene therapy 1 concept, vectors, gene targeting and tissue1specific expression, Ethics and human genetics,
Introductiontopharmacogenomicsandtoxicogenomics.

Recommended Text:


Module II – IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY
(20 Periods)

Immunology – Overview:conceptofselfandnonself,antigens,antibodies;immuneresponse,
evolution of immune response, immunological tolerance, hypersensitivity, humoral and cell1mediated immunity,
activeandpassiveimmunization,Allergy,immunoprophylaxis.

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


30
30
Antibody-Immunoglobulins – classes and subclasses, structure1function relationship, isotypes, idiotypes and
allotypes.
Immunobiology – development of the immune system, development of the lymphoid tissue, cellular basis of
immunity,Tcellreceptor.
Antigen-antibody reactions – complement fixation, agglutination, precipitation, immuno1diffusion, immuno1
electrophoresis,Immuno1fluorescence,enzyme1linkedimmunosorbantassay(ELISA),radioimmunoassay(RIA).

Immunogenetics – blood groups and transplantation antigens, HLA and disease association, Immune deficiencies
and disorders, immunological diseases including AIDS, antigen processing and MHC, Theories of antibody
synthesisandgenerationofantibodydiversity1molecularbasis.

Regulation of immunoglobulin gene expression – clonalselectiontheory,allotypes&idiotypes,allelicexclusion,
immunologicmemory,heavychaingenetranscription,geneticbasisofantibodydiversity,hypotheses(germline&
somatic mutation), antibody diversity, alternate pathways of transcript splicing, variable joining sites & somatic
mutation,roleofantibody(alone,incomplementactivation&witheffectorcells),monoclonalantibodies.

Immunity to infections–byviruses,bacteria,fungiandparasitesandimmunitytotumors,autoimmunediseases–
aetiology,pathogenesisandtreatment.

Vaccines - adjuvants,cytokines,DNAvaccines,recombinantvaccines,bacterialvaccines,viralvaccines,vaccines
tootherinfectiousagents,tumorvaccines,principlesofvaccination,passive&activeimmunization,immunization
programs&roleofWHOinimmunizationprograms.

Drugs - Antimetabolites,corticosteroids,anti1inflammatoryagents

Cytokinins - Cytokinins regulating immune inflammation: interleukin 14, interleukin110, interleukin112, The
interferons:BasicbiologyandtherapeuticpotentialTreatmentofinflammatorydiseases

Macromolecules - Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, Treatment of angioedema resulting from Cl inhibitor
deficiency
Antibodies and antibody based therapy - Characteristicsofanimalcellsandtheirimplicationonprocessdesign,
Nutritional requirements and serum free culture of mammalian cells, Kineti cs of growth and product formation.
Reactor systems for large 1scale production using animal cells. Production of Polyclonal antibodies with different
types of antigens: antigen preparation and modification, adjuvant, dose and route of antigen administratio n,
collection of sera, purification of antibodies, Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor, targeting the IL2 receptor with
antibodiesorchimerictoxins,monoclonalantibodiestoCD3

Hybridoma technology –productionandapplicationsofmonoclonalantibodiesfordiagnosis
andtherapy.
Immunotherapy for allergic diseases - SpecificandnonspecificimmunotherapyforAsthmaandallergicdiseases,
insectstingsetc.
Vaccine & peptide therapy in Transplantation - Renal, pancreas, cardiac, lung, liver transplantation,
xenotransplantation.
Cellular & Drug therapy in HIV - TumorImmunology,AIDSandotherImmunodeficiencies.

Recommended Texts :

TherapeuticImmunology,authors..KFrankAusten,StevenJBurakoff,FredRosen,
TerryBStrom,Publisher:BlackwellScience
MSGEN (ABT)-305 : Animal Biotechnology - II


Module I : GENETIC ENGINEERING IN ANIMALS
    (22 Periods)
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


31
31

Animal biotechnology -anoverview,Applicationsofbiotechnologytoanimalproduction(Reproduction,selection
andbreeding;Animalhealth;Feedingandnutrition;Growthandproduction).

Principles of animal cell and tissue culture 1 Techniques of animal cell and tissue culture, Enzymes in Genetic
Engineering(NucleicAcidEnzymology).
Gene Transfer methods in Animals - Gene cloning vectors, Techniques for genetic engineering, Gene cloning,
Gene transfer and expression of induced genes, Microinjection, Embryonic1stem cells Transfer, Retro1virus and
Genetransfer,Xenografting.
Transgenic Animals – Development of Transgenic Science, Transgene DNA Preparation, Microinjection
Technique, Embryo Transfer, Transgenic Animal Models 1 Mice, Cows, Pig, Sheep, Goats, Birds, Fish, Insects,
BiotechproductsfromTransgenicanimals.
Animal Propagation and Development of transgenic livestock - ArtificialInsemination, Animalclones, Animal
Pharming:TheIndustrializationofTransgenicAnimals.
Conservation Biology - Artificialanimalbreeding,Embryotransfer.

Animal Health Biotechnology – ProtectionofExperimentalAnimals,AnimalBiosafety(UseofBiologicalAgents
in Animals, Use of Mammalian Cultures, Use of Transplantable Cells and Tumors in Animals, Use of Biological
Derived Toxins and Chemicals in Animals), Animal Bites and Scratches, Animal1associated Allergies, Procedures
forBiologicaldecontaminations,InternationalAnimalHealthOrganizations.

Regulation and Biosafety of Animal testing – History, Animal testing on invertebrates, Rodents, non1Human
Primates,RegulationsinEurope,France,UnitedKingdom,Japan,UnitedStates,SpeciesofAnimalsused,Typesof
experiment on Animals (Pure research, Applied research, Xenotransplantation, Drug testing, Cosmetics testing),
Controversy, Alternatives to animal testing, Advocates of animal testing, Governmental and medical group
statements,Opponentsofanimaltesting.

Regulation and Biosafety of transgenic animals - ValueofTransgenicAnimals,BiosafetymeasuresinTransgenic
Animal Research, Compliance with NIH Guidelines, Policies & Protocols, Disposal of Transgenic Animals,
TransferofRecombinantDNAandTransgenicMaterials.

Patenting Genetically Engineered Animals - Trends in Biotechnology Patenting, Biotech Patent Processing,
PharmaceuticalBiotechPatents,GeneticEngineeringPatents,PTOAnalysis,Patentprotectionoflivingorganisms,
Genetechnologylawsinothercountries.
Recommended Texts :

AnimalBiotechnology:M.M.Ranga.Reprint.Jodhpur,StudentEdition,2007,

Module II – IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY
(20 Periods)

Immunology – Overview:conceptofselfandnonself,antigens,antibodies;immuneresponse,
evolution of immune response, immunological tolerance, hypersensitivity, humoral and cell1mediated immunity,
activeandpassiveimmunization,Allergy,immunoprophylaxis.

Antibody-Immunoglobulins – classes and subclasses, structure1function relationship, isotypes, idiotypes and
allotypes.
Immunobiology – development of the immune system, development of the lymphoid tissue, cellular basis of
immunity,Tcellreceptor.
Antigen-antibody reactions – complement fixation, agglutination, precipitation, immuno1diffusion, immuno1
electrophoresis,Immuno1fluorescence,enzyme1linkedimmunosorbantassay(ELISA),radioimmunoassay(RIA).
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


32
32

Immunogenetics – blood groups and transplantation antigens, HLA and disease association, Immune deficiencies
and disorders, immunological diseases including AIDS, antigen processing and MHC, Theories of antibody
synthesisandgenerationofantibodydiversity1molecularbasis.

Regulation of immunoglobulin gene expression – clonalselectiontheory,allotypes&idiotypes,allelicexclusion,
immunologicmemory,heavychaingenetranscription,geneticbasisofantibodydiversity,hypotheses(germline&
somatic mutation), antibody diversity, alternate pathways of transcript splicing, variable joining sites & somatic
mutation,roleofantibody(alone,incomplementactivation&witheffectorcells),monoclonalantibodies.

Immunity to infections–byviruses,bacteria,fungiandparasitesandimmunitytotumors,autoimmunediseases–
aetiology,pathogenesisandtreatment.

Vaccines - adjuvants,cytokines,DNAvaccines,recombinantvaccines,bacterialvaccines,viralvaccines,vaccines
tootherinfectiousagents,tumorvaccines,principlesofvaccination,passive&activeimmunization,immunization
programs&roleofWHOinimmunizationprograms.

Drugs - Antimetabolites,corticosteroids,anti1inflammatoryagents

Cytokinins - Cytokinins regulating immune inflammation: interleukin 14, interleukin110, interleukin112, The
interferons:BasicbiologyandtherapeuticpotentialTreatmentofinflammatorydiseases

Macromolecules - Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, Treatment of angioedema resulting from Cl inhibitor
deficiency
Antibodies and antibody based therapy - Characteristicsofanimalcellsandtheirimplicationonprocessdesign,
Nutritional requirements and serum free culture of mammalian cells, Kineti cs of growth and product formation.
Reactor systems for large 1scale production using animal cells. Production of Polyclonal antibodies with different
types of antigens: antigen preparation and modification, adjuvant, dose and route of antigen administratio n,
collection of sera, purification of antibodies, Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor, targeting the IL2 receptor with
antibodiesorchimerictoxins,monoclonalantibodiestoCD3

Hybridoma technology –productionandapplicationsofmonoclonalantibodiesfordiagnosis
andtherapy.
Immunotherapy for allergic diseases - SpecificandnonspecificimmunotherapyforAsthmaandallergicdiseases,
insectstingsetc.
Vaccine & peptide therapy in Transplantation - Renal, pancreas, cardiac, lung, liver transplantation,
xenotransplantation.
Cellular & Drug therapy in HIV - TumorImmunology,AIDSandotherImmunodeficiencies.

Recommended Texts :

TherapeuticImmunology,authors..KFrankAusten,StevenJBurakoff,FredRosen,
TerryBStrom,Publisher:BlackwellScience
MSGEN (PBT)-305 : Plant Biotechnology - II


Module I : PLANT TISSUE CULTURE & APPLICATION
   (20 Periods)

Introduction to Plant cells & Organelles -Plasmamembrane,CellWall,Endoplasmicreticulum,GolgiApparatus,
Vacuoles,Nucleus,Peroxisomes,Plastids,MitochondriaandChloroplasts

Plant Tissue Culture -Micropropagation,Fromcallustoplant,Somaticembryogenesis,Thecultureenvironment,
Plant Cell culture media, Plant growth regulators and their biosynthesis and function, Culture types 1 Callus,
Cellsuspension culture, protoplasts, Root culture, Shoot tip and meristem culture, embryo culture, microspore
culture,Somaclonalvariation,Polyploidy,Geneticallyengineeredplants,PlantmadePharmaceuticals,Plasticityand
Totipotency.
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


33
33

Plant secondary metabolites - Introduction to primary and secondary metabolism, important pathway leading to
thebiosynthesisofsecondarymetaboliteinplants,Metabolicproductsproducedbyinvitroculturingofplantcells,
selection of plant cells/tissues for the production of a specific product, Culture system in secondary plant product
biosynthesis 1batch continuous cultures and immobilized plant cells, Biotransformation of precursors by cell
culturing.Metabolicengineeringforproductionofsecondarymetabolites

Module II : GENETIC ENGINEERING IN PLANTS
(22 Periods)

Plant Genome : Organization and expression of plant genes - Gene structure and expression, translation,
regulation of gene expression, Implication of plant transformations, Plant promoters, terminators, reporters,
selectablemarkers

Plant Transformation Techniques – Planttransformationtechniques,CloningofPlantCellsandManipulationof
PlantGenes,AbouttheCloningVectorthatWorkswithPlantCells,Agrobacteriummediatedgenetransfer1Biology
and molecular basis of Agrobacterium mediated plant transformation and its application, Overcoming the Limited
RangeofA.TumefaciensInfection,Directgenetransfermethods,Developmentofplantvectorsfortransformation
andfeatures,cleangenetechnology,PlantBreedingvsGeneticEngineering.

Mutagenesis and Cloning of Genes - MendelianGenetics,Conceptofforwardandreversegenetics,Principlesof
conventional breeding, Generation of Mutants in plants1TDNA and transposon based gene knockouts, chemical
mutagenesis,Linkageanalysis,CalculationofMapdistance,DNApolymorphicmarkers,MapbasedCloning

Application of Plant Genetic Engineering - Crop improvement, Herbicide Resistance, Insect resistance, Virus
Resistance, Tolerance of environmental extremes in crops 1 drought, cold, salinity, flooding, Aluminium, Plant as
Bioreactors, Genetically engineered food, manufacture of pharmaceutical products in plants using modified plant
viruses,BiofuelsandBioplasticsfrom geneticallyengineeredoilseedrapeandothercropsassubstitutesforfossil
fuels,whichshouldnotworsentheGreenhouseeffect.

Gene silencing in plants - Posttranscriptionalandtranscriptionalgenesilencing,mutantsofgenesilencing,RNA
virusinplants,virusinducedgenesilencinganditsapplication

Signal Perception and Transduction - Overview, Plant receptors, G protein and phospholipids signaling, cyclic
nucleotides,RoleofCalciuminsignaling,Proteinkinasesasprimaryelementsinsignaling,Particularpathwaysof
signaltransductionassociatedwithplantgrowthregulators

Plant disease resistance - Types of pathogen and their mode of action, Plant defense system, Constitutive and
inducible defense, Genetic basis of plant pathogen interaction, R genes and R gene mediated resistance,
BiochemistryandMolecular biologyofdefensereactions, Systemicacquiredresistance, Controlofplantpathogen
bygeneticengineering,RoleofSalicylicacidJasmonicacidandethyleneinplantdefense

Plant Abiotic stress response - Osmotic adjustment and its role in drought and salinity tolerance, ABA in stress
tolerance,ABAdependentandindependentgenes,cisandtransactingfactorsfreezingandheatstress,Strategiesfor
geneticengineeringofstresstolerance

Improvement of crop yield and quality - Role of Ethylene in fruit ripening, Mutants in fruit ripening, Genetic
manipulation of fruit ripening, Molecular Farming & Plantibodies, Reversible male sterility in plants, Antisense
RNA,Agriculturalapplicationsindevelopingcountries.

Genetic Engineering and public Concerns – Ethical&EnvironmentalconcernsonGeneticEngineeringofplants.

Plant Genetic Engineering Future - Genetically Engineered Foods, Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods,
Labeling,FutureFoodsandRegulatoryChallenges,'Pharm'FactoriesoftheFuture.

Recommended Texts :

Buchanan, Taiz& Zeiger
Buchanan,Slater
Buchanan, Alberts
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


34
34

MSGEN (EBT)-305 : Environmental Biotechnology - II


Module I : BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENT
(20 Periods)

Control of Pollution - Pollutionmonitoring&environmentalmanagement,Biologicalmonitoringofwaterquality
and indicator species, algal indicators, blooms and toxins, macro1invertebrate indicator species, water1borne
parasitesanddiseaseorganisms.

Pollution and pollution testing 1 toxicity testing, bioaccumulation of pollutants, solid waste  management and
disposal,regulatinghazardousmaterials,Environmentalriskassessment.

Air Pollution - Air pollution control, Air pollution dispersion modeling, Reduction efforts, Control devices,
Particulate control, Scrubbers, NOx control, VOC abatement, SO
2
 control, Mercury control, Dioxin and furan
control,otherassociatedequipment.
Environmental technology (Green Technology) - Alternative energy, Biofuel, Composting, Ecoforestry, Energy
conservation, Energy development, Environmental design, Environmental impact assessment, Environmental
preservation,Greenbuilding,Hydrogentechnologies,Industrialwastewatertreatment, Naturalbuilding,Recycling,
Renewable energy, Renewable energy development, Remediation, Solid waste treatment, Sustainable architecture,
Sustainable energy, Sustainable development, Waste water treatment, Water purification, Waste management,
Related technologies (Alternative energy, Energy Saving Modules, Green building, Green syndicalism, Hybrid
vehicle,Solarpower1Solarcell&Solarheating).
Bioremediation - Overview and applications, Genetic engineering approaches, Advantages, Monitoring
bioremediation, Phytoremediation, phytoremediation processes, Advantages and limitations, Mycoremediation,
applicationsformycoremediationtechnologies,Mycofiltration,Bioaugmentation,Biosorption,Bioleaching.
Bioreactors for Waste Water Treatment - Biological Processes for Industrial Effluent Treatment, Aerobic
BiologicalTreatment,AnaerobicBiologicalTreatment,PeriodicBiologicalReactors,MembraneBioreactors,Useof
ImmobilizedEnzymesandMicrobialCells.
Environmental Engineering - Developmentofenvironmentalengineering,Scopeofenvironmentalengineeringin
Environmental impact assessment and mitigation, Water supply and treatment, Wastewater conveyance and
treatment, Air quality management, Contaminated land management and site remediation, Risk assessment,
Environmental policy and regulation development, Waste management methods (Landfill, Incineration, Resource
recovery, Recycling, Composting and anaerobic digestion, Mechanical biological treatment, Pyrolysis &
gasification), Solid waste management, Hazardous waste management, Environmental health and safety, Natural
resourcemanagement,Noisepollution.
Module I : BIOTECHNOLOGY IN ENVIRONMENT
(22 Periods)

Role of Biotechnology in Environmental Management - in leather processing, Enzymes and microbiological
pretreatments of oil industry wastes for biogas production in batch digesters, Lignin biodegradation: a clean
technologyforpaperindustry,Microbialtechnologyforcompostingmunicipalsolidwaste,Bioenergyfromwaste:
an alternative to reduce the impact of environmental pollution, Probiotics: a tool for management of aquaculture
environment, Treatment and recycling of domestic sewage through aquaculture, Vermicomposting as a
biotechnologicaltoolforrecyclingorganicwastes,Productionofsinglecellproteinfrommicroorganisms,Abilityof
polyacrylamide1grafted banana stalk (musa paradisiaca) to remove lead (II) and cadmium (II) ions from aqueous
solutions, Biosensors as tools in environmental biotechnology, Biotechnological applications of cyanobacteria in
developmentofclean
technologies for environmental management, Reduce, reuse, recycle and recover: biotechnological approach in
managementofsolidwasteoffruitandvegetableprocessingindustries,FoodCropPestManagement,
Role of Biotechnology in Environment Protection - What is Environmental Biotechnology? Current Status of
BiotechnologyinEnvironmentProtection.
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


35
35
Biotechnology for Hazardous Waste Management - Xenobiotic Compounds, Recalcitrance, Hazardous Wastes,
Biodegradation of Xenobiotics, Biological Detoxification, Biotechnology Applications to Hazardous Waste
Management,ExamplesofBiotechnologicalApplicationstoHazardousWasteManagement.
Biotechnology for Pesticide Industry - TanneryIndustryandBiotechnology.PaperIndustryandBiotechnology.
Biotechnology for Waste Treatment of Food and Allied Industries - Biological Treatment Methods, SCP and
BiomassfromWaste,DistilleryIndustry.
Biotechniques for Air Pollution Abatement and Odor Control - Deodorization Process, Applications, Solid
WasteManagement.

Recommended Texts :

1.BiotechnologyinEnvironmentalManagement/editedbyG.R.PathadeandP.K.Goel.
Jaipur,ABD,2004
2.BiotechnologyinEnvironmentalManagement/editedbyT.K.Ghosh,T.ChakrabartiandG.
Tripathi.NewDelhi,A.P.H.Pub.,2005
3."WastewaterEngineeringTreatmentandDisposalandReuse"byMetcalf&Eddy.
4."WaterPollutionManagementHandBook"byLepathak.
5."WasteWaterManagement"byArceivala.
6."EnvironmentalBiotechnology"byC.F.ForsterandD.A.J.Wase.
7."New Processes of Waste water treatment and recovery" by G. Mattock (ED) Ellis Horwood. 8."Biochemical
Engineeringfundamentals"2nded.byJEBaileyandDFOllis,McGraw1Hill
(1986).Chapters13&14.
9."EnvironmentalBiotechnology"byJogdand.

MSc (Genetic Engineering) - THIRD SEMESTER


PRACTICAL PAPERS


MSGEN-306 - Genetic Engineering Tools- II


Analysis of Gene Expression


1. Screening & Analysis: 
a) GFPCloning
b) BacterialGeneExpression
c) SouthernHybridization.      (10 Periods)

2. PCR Application: SingleNucleotidePolymorphism(SNP)  (5 Periods)

3. DNA Fingerprinting:
 a)DNAFingerprinting(UsingRAPDtechniques)
 b)RicevarietyidentificationbyRAPDanalysis
c)GenotypingAnalysisinHuman (15 Periods)

MSGEN-307 - Bioinformatics


MSGEN-308 - Microbial Biotechnology


Paper Code: MSGEN–308 (Practical) Full Marks: 100

Paper Name: Microbial Biotechnology
Practical period: 30

1. Isolationandselectionmethodstocollectimportantbacterialstrainsfromthe
environment,i.e.soil,waterandalsofromcompost.(6 Periods)

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


36
36
2. Learningoftheirpreservationmethods;i.e.(i)Slants,(ii)Vials,(ii)Glycerinbaseddeep
freeze,(iv)N2basedglasssealing.(3 Periods)

3. PreparationofEthylalcoholinlaboratoryscale  (6 Periods) 
4. a)Citricacidproduction,itsrecoveryandpurification(labscale) (3 Periods)
b)1Amylaseproduction,itsrecoveryandpurification(labscale) (3 Periods)

5.PreparationofGeneticallyEngineeredbacteriabyTransduction,Transformation
andConjugation(9 periods)

6.StudiesofbacterialgrowthvariationsincaseofwildtypeDonorstrainsand
hybridGeneticallyEngineeredstrains(3 Periods)

7.CharacterizationsofproteinsinSpectroscopicanalysisandenzymaticreactions,namely
[S]+[E]￿[SE]￿[E]+[P]forAlkalinePhosphataseisolatedfromE.coli.(6 Periods)

8.Isolationofheavymetalresistantbacteriafromsoil.(3 Periods)

MSGEN (MBT)-309 - Medical Biotechnology - I


Immunology
Practical period : 20

1.Antigen1Antibodyreactions–Agglutination(Bloodgroupingtesting). (4 Periods)
2.Antibodytitration(OuchterlonyDoubleDiffusion).   (4 Periods)
3.Antigen1Antibodyreactions–Immuno1electrophoresis,
Rocketimmuno1electrophoresis.  (8 Periods)
4.Antigen1Antibodyreactions–Coomb’stest.    (6 Periods)
5.Antigen1Antibodyreactions–ELISA.     (8 Periods)

MSGEN (PBT)-309 - Plant Biotechnology – I


MSGEN (ABT)-309 - Animal Biotechnology - I


Immunology
Practical period : 30

1.Antigen1Antibodyreactions–Agglutination(Bloodgroupingtesting). (4 Periods)

2.Antibodytitration(OuchterlonyDoubleDiffusion).   (4 Periods)

3.Antigen1Antibodyreactions–Immuno1electrophoresis,
Rocketimmuno1electrophoresis.  (8 Periods)

4.Antigen1Antibodyreactions–Coomb’stest.    (6 Periods)

5.Antigen1Antibodyreactions–ELISA.     (8 Periods)

MSGEN (EBT)-309 - Environmental Biotechnology – I


MSGEN (MBT)-310- Medical Biotechnology – II


MSGEN (PBT)-310 - Plant Biotechnology – II


MSGEN (ABT)-310 - Animal Biotechnology - II


MSGEN (EBT)-310 - Environmental Biotechnology – II

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


37
37

4
th
Semester

MSGEN-401 : GENETIC ENGINEERING IN BUSINESS

Genetic Engineering as Commercial venture


1. SizeofindustryinUSA&inIndia
2. ScopeofBusinessinIndia
3. Medical&non1Medicalmarketsforproducts
4. Taxpolicies
5. Research&Experimentationcredit
6. ‘OrphanDrug’credit
Global Biotech Products - A Blooming Market for Transgenic Animals and Plants

1. GMFoodandGMCrops
2. AnimalandDairyProducts
3. PoultryandFisheries
4. HumanHealthProducts
Production of Plant made pharmaceuticals (PMPs)-
Biopharmaceuticals Used in Molecular Medicine
1. Transgenicplantsinthebiopharmaceuticalmarket
2. Biopharmaceuticalsderivedfromtransgenicplantsandanimals
3. ProductionofrecombinantProteins,Antibodies,Vaccines&othertherapeuticagentsinplants
4. ExpressTec:High1levelexpressionofbiopharmaceuticalsincerealgrains
5. Biopharmaceuticalproductioninculturedplantcells
6. Producingbiopharmaceuticalsinthedesert
7. MakingpharmaceuticalsinGManimals
8. Thefirstbiopharmaceuticalfromtransgenicanimals:ATryn®
Market of Industrial Enzymes


1. InDrugdevelopment(Penicillin Amidases, Carbohydraseenzymes,ChymosinfromStomach)
2. InTextiles(applicationsofgeneticengineeringintotextiles,naturalpolyestersuchaspolyhydroxybutyrate
(PHB)production)
3. Innewindustrialprocesses
4. Inrenewablerawmaterials
5. Ingeneticengineeringandeffluentmanagement.

Stem cells – worldwide markets


1. MarketsforTransplantation
2. MarketsforCordbloodbanking
3. MarketsforDrugdevelopment

Bio-Engineering Products & their markets


1. Markets for Monoclonal Antibodies, DNA probes, Biosensors, Casein, polymers for industrial
fermentation,bioplastics,engineeredwood,
2. Marketsforbioremediationtechnologies&Superfundprograms

Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


38
38
MSGEN-402: BIOETHICS & BIOSAFETY
BIOSAFETY


1) Regulatory Aspects of using Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) ; Introduction / potential risk /
risk of invasiveness
a)
Direct non-target Effects on beneficial and native organisms
b)
Indirect Effects
c)
New Viral Diseases.
d)
Variability and Unexpected results

2) Regulating Recombinant DNA Technology
a) Approaching the biohazard problem
b) Environmental and Regulatory Aspects of Using Genetically Modified
plants
c) Relevance of multiple Environment Testing
d) Environmental and Regulatory aspects of using GMMS

3) International Biosafety protocol
4) International Activities in Biosafety Capacity Building
5) Biosafety Regulations in India
6) Biological Weapons
7) Biosafety and Ethical Issues

BIOETHICS :


Intellectual property rights and Social-legal Aspects of Genetic Engineering and biotechnology


1. A commercial view of Genetic Engineering and its application in Industry
2. Intellectual Property rights and patenting
3. Forms of protection
4. Patenting Biological material
5. International Conventions and Cooperation
6. The World Intellectual Property Organization
7. General Agreement of Tarrifs and Trade (GATT) and trade related IPRS (TRIPS)
8. Implication of Patenting
9. Opposition to patents in Biotechnology.
10. Special issues ( Public opinions against the technologies)
11. Legal Issues ( legal guide lines of different countries)
12. Ethical issues ( against the technologies).
MSGEN(MBT)-403 : MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY-III

1. Human Origins and Evolution
Humanorigins/Molecularevolution/Molecularclocks/Eugenics
2. Human Chromosomes and Chromosome Behavior :
Humanbeingshave46Chromosomein23pairs/Chromosomeabnormalitiesarefrequentinspontaneous
abortions/Chromosomerearrangementscanhaveimportantgeneticeffects/polyploidyspecieshavemultiplesets
ofchromosomes/Genomeevolution
3. Matters of Sex :
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


39
39
Sexualdevelopments/Traitsinheritedonsexchromosomes/XInactivationEqualizesthesexes/Genomic
Imprinting
4.The Genetic basis of Complex Inheritance :
Multi1factorialtraitaredeterminedbymultiplegenesandtheenvironment/variationinatraitcanbeseparatedinto
geneticandenvironmentalcomponents/artificialselectionisaformof“managedevolution”/geneticvariationis
revealedbycorrelationbetweenrelatives/Pedigreestudiesofgeneticpolymorphismareusedtomaplocifor
quantitativetraits
5. Genetic factors in Common Diseases :
Geneticsusceptibilitytocommondisease/Diabetesmellitus/Hypertension/Coronaryarterydisease/
Epilepsies/Schizophrenia/Affectivedisorders/Alzheimerdisease/Haemochromatosis/VenousThrombosis/
ThalassaemiaandSicklecellAnaemia/Mentalretardation
6. The Genetics of Behavior :
Genescontributetomostbehaviortraits/Eatingdisorders/Sleep/Intelligence/DrugAddiction/Mood
Disorders/Schizophrenia
7. Congenital abnormalities and Dysmorphic syndromes :
Incidence/definitionandclassificationofbirthdefects/Geneticcausesofmalformation/EnvironmentalAgents
(Teratogens)/Malformationofunknowncause/counseling
8. Age of Genomics :
HowGeneticsbecameGenomics/Humangenomeprojectsbegins/technologyDrivesthesequenceEffort/
ComparativeGenomics/Intofuture/Treatmentsofgeneticdiseases/Genetherapy
MSGEN(PBT)-403 : PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY-III

1) Plant breeding-from classical to marker-aided selection:-
Molecularmarkers,theirapplications,specialapplicationincerealbreeding

2) Genetic modifications, transgenic plants and potential of medicinal plants in biotechnology:-
Biotechnologicalmethodsforselectionofhighyieldcelllinesandproductionof
secondarymetabolitesinmedicinalplants,BiotechnologyofSolanaceae
alkaloids1amodeloranindustrialperspective!Glycosylationofrecombinant
proteinsinplants.

3) Genetic variation in wild and agricultural population, Genetic consensus.

4) The importance and targets of plant biotechnology:- Commercial micropropagation, Acclimatization
of tissue cultured plants, Photoautotrophic Micropropagation, Achievement of cost effective Tissue
culture technology, Use of DNA-microchip in plant tissue culture industry.


5) Cryopreservation and distribution of clonal material

6) Genetically Engineered Food:-"GE Technologies will solve world hunger", Food Patents—Stealing
Indigenous Knowledge? Functional Foods—the next wave of GE foods, Terminator Technology,
Monsanto—a major player in GE Technology, A Huge Wave of Public Concern
7) Biotechnology of Horticultural Crop:- Improvement Achievements, opportunities and limitations.
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


40
40
8) Application of plant cell tissue and organ culture- Camptothecin production in cell cultures,
biotechnology of flavor compounds and essential oils, Paclitaxol production in plant cell culture
9) Increasing productivity;- Lipids, Oilseeds, Starches & Cereals, transgenic Plants with increased
nutritional value, Increased levels of Vitamins, Minerals, fatty acids & Essential Amino Acids.
10) Plants used as renewable resources;- Potato starch for industry, Soybean oil for industrial use,
Drought tolerance maize variety, Genetic engineering in paper industry using Eucalyptus.
11) Transgenic plants for phytoremediation of polluted areas and water sources.
12) Alternatives to Genetic Engineering:- Biotechnology and the world food supply. Biotechnology and
sustainable agriculture
13) Current status of Genetically modified crops-a global perspective.
14) Transgenic crops;-Priorities and strategies for India
MSGEN(ABT)-403 : ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY-III
1.Gene transfer methods in animals
Microinjection,EScellmediatedgenetransfer,Retroviralgenetransfer,Genetransferbyspermvectormethod.
2.Transgenic animals
1Potentialapplicationsoftransgenicanimalsinagriculture,medicineandpharmaceuticals.
1Detailprotocolsofcreationtransgenicanimals1Mice,cow,goat,sheep,pig,zebrafishandtheirapplications.
3.Animal cloning
- Animalcloningtechnologies1TheRoslynTechnique,TheHonolulutechnique
1Benefitsofanimalcloning
1Creationof‘Dolly’
4.Xenotransplantation in human
1Choosingthedonorspecies
1Immunologicalbarrierstoxenotransplantation
1Biologicalbarrierstoxenotransplantation
1Methodofattenuatingantibodymediatedxenograftrejectioninhumanrecipients111Methodof
attenuatinggraftrejectionbyexp[raisinghumanspecificproteinsintransgenicorgandonor.

5.Current developments in animal biotechnology.
1Impactsofgenomicsonanimalagriculture
1Agriculturalapplicationsoftransgeniclivestocks.
1Livestockcloning
1Newvaccinetechnologies.
6.Animal reproductive biotechnology
- Basicanatomyofcattlereproduction,Theestruscycle,factorsaffectingcattlereproduction
7.Assisted reproduction biotechnology:
1Estrus synchronizationusingprostaglandin,GnRH1PGFbasedsynchronization

_Physiological basis ofsuperovulation,Factorsinfluencingsuperovulatoryresponses,Hormononal
inductionofsuperovulatoryresponsesinfarmanimals.

-Artificial insemination(AI)infarmanimals(Processingofsemen,ThetechnicaldetailsofAI,Timingof
inseminationformaximumconception,benefitsofAI.

11The embryo transfer technology(invitromaturationofspermandovum,invitrofertilization,transferof
embryotorecipient,cryopreservationofembryo,Micromanipulationofembryo1embryosplitting

-Embryo sexing(Noninvasivemethods:assayofHYantigen,quantificationofx1linkedenzymes,differential
growthofmaleandfemaleembryos.Invasivemethods:ObservingBarrbodies,Chromosomeanalysis,Y1specific
DNAprobe,y1specificDNAprimerandPCR1Sperm sexing by flow cytometry
Immunological methods to control reproduction:
Antifertility vaccines
Syllabus for two-year
M.Sc COURSE in
GeneticEngineering


41
41
-ImmunizationagainstgonadotropinsandGnRH
1Immunizationagainstgametesurfaceantigens
Fecundity vaccines
MSGEN(EBT)-403 : ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY-III

1.DivisionofEnvironment:
(a)AIR,WATERandSOIL
(b)DomesticandIndustrial.
(c)MunicipalandMarket
(d)MedicalandSoundPollution.
2.Globalwarming.
(a)Thecause.
(b)Theprevention.
(c)Thecures.
(d)TheAreasofCO2reduction.
(e)Technologicalinnovationinfuelandcombustiontechnology.
(f)BiodieselandNCER
3.Wastewater.
(a)TheimportanceofWastewater.
(b)ThemeasuringdevicesofBODandCODandtheircharacteristics
correspondingtoSS(Suspendedsolid),TIC(TotalInorganic
carbon),TOC(Totalorganiccarbon),DO(Dissolveoxygen),and
themethodstomeasure
(c)MBSTandcostestimationatvariousindustrialandmunicipal
effluents.DesalinationandrecyclingofusedwaterinDomesticand
Industries.

4.SeparationtechnologyapplicableinEnviron.Biotechnology.
(a)Typesofseparationtechnology.
(b)Costeffectiveseparation.
(c)MBSTandtheircosteffectiveapplication.
(d)ThereasontoMBSTincosteffectiveseparationandthereasonto
applythesaidseparationtechnologyinBiotechnologyandFood
industries.
(e)Physico1chemicalpropertiesofmembrane.
(f)Differentmembranemodulesandtheirapplications.

5.IndustriallyImportantMicrobes,applicableinwastetoEnergyRecovery.
(a)Taxonomy.
(b)Pheno1genotypes.
(c)Methodstoprepareindustriallyimportantmicrobes.
(d)PresearvationofIIM(IndustriallyImportantMicrobes).
(e)ThemethodtouseIIMfromlaboratoryscaletoindustrialscale.