Wax Facts - yimg.com

fallenleafblackbeansΠετρελαϊκά και Εξόρυξη

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 5 μήνες)

249 εμφανίσεις



Wax Facts



WHAT IS WAX?

The word "wax" usually refers to a variety of organic substances that are solid at ambient
temperature but become f
ree
-
flowing liquids at slightly higher temperatures. The chemical
composition of waxes is complex, but normal alkanes are always present in high proportion and
molecular weight profiles tend to be wide. The main commercial source of wax is crude oil but no
t
all crude oil refiners produce wax. "Mineral" wax can also be produced from lignite. Plants, animals
and even insects produce materials sold in commerce as "wax."



WHAT ARE TYPES OF WA
XES?

o

Paraffin

and

Microcrystalline

waxes are derived from petroleum. Th
ey are easy to
recover and offer a wide range of physical properties that can often be tailored by refining
processes. Most producers offer two distinct types of petroleum waxes: paraffins, which are
distinguished by large, well formed crystals; and microc
rystallines, which arehigher melting
waxes with small, irregular crystals.

Microcrystalline wax contains substantial proportions of
branched and cyclic saturated hydrocarbons in addition to normal alkanes.




Some producers also sell "intermediate" wax, in w
hich the boiling
range is cut where the transition in crystal size and structure occur.
Petroleum wax producers also characterize wax by degree of
refinement; fully refined paraffin has oil content generally less than
0.5%, and fully
-
refined micro
-
crystall
ine less than 3%. "Slack wax,"
precursors to the fully refined versions in either case, would have oil
content above 3%, and as high as 35% by weight. Paraffin wax
produced from petroleum is essentially a pure mixture of normal and
iso
-
alkanes without the
esters, acids, etc. found in the animal and
vegetable
-
based waxes.

o

Synthetic waxes

have entered the wax market in the past 50 years. Polyethylene waxes
are low molecular weight polyethylenes (less than 10,000 Mn) having wax
-
like properties
made by either h
igh
-
pressure or low
-
pressure (Zeigler
-
type catalyst) polymerization. All
such waxes have the same basic structure, but the various production processes yield
products with distinctly different properties, and these have a major impact on the use of
product
s. Products from one manufacturer may satisfy one particular application, while
product from a similar process will not work well.

o

Fischer
-
Tropsch (FT)

wax is a synthetic wax produced by the polymerization of carbon
monoxide under high pressure, a technolo
gy used in the emerging natural Gas to Liquid
(GTL) projects. The hydrocarbon product of FT reaction is distilled to separate the mix into
fuels products and waxes with melting points ranging from about 45
-

106ºC. Currently FT
waxes are commercially produ
ced in South Africa and Malaysia. It is estimated that the
overall synthetic wax consumption in North America in 2010 was 420 million lbs., of which
FT wax accounts for about 195 million lbs.

o

Alpha olefin waxes

are synthetically derived from ethylene via a

Ziegler
-
Natta catalyst.
The process results in a Schulz
-
Flory distribution of alpha olefins ranging from C4 through
C30+. These are distilled into the individual carbon fractions or carbon fraction blends. Due
to the high melting points of the waxes, C20
and higher carbon numbers are fractionated
into blends. Because of the linear double bond present in normal alpha olefins, these waxes
can be functionalized or reacted to create other derivatives. They can also be used for their
physical properties such as

hardness and melting point. End uses for alpha olefin waxes
include lube oil additives, PVC lubricants, candles, oilfield chemicals and personal care
applications.

o

Montan wax

is derived by solvent extraction of lignite. The earliest production of montan
w
ax on a commercial scale was in Germany during the latter half of the nineteenth
century.


Germany continues to lead the world in production of montan wax; although some
montan wax is produced in the United States from the Ione lignite bed in California. T
he
composition of montan wax varies geographically with production, but includes varying
amounts of wax, resin and asphalt.

o

Other mineral waxes

include peat waxes, ozokerite and ceresin waxes

o

Beeswax

has been traded for over 2,000 years and references to "
wax" before the 19th
century typically meant beeswax. Yellow beeswax is secreted by bees to build honeycombs;
the empty comb is melted in boiling water to recover the wax.

o

Other animal
-
based waxes

include lanolin from the wool of sheep; ambergris produced
in the intestines of sperm whales; and tallow from beef fat.

o

Carnauba wax

is recovered from a variety of palm tree which grows almost exclusively in
northeastern Brazil. Carnauba wax forms on the fronds of the trees and is recovered by
cutting and drying t
he fronds, then mechanically removing the wax. Impurities are removed
from the wax by melting and filtering, or centrifuging.

o

Candelilla wax

is harvested from shrubs grown in the Mexican states of Coahuila and
Chihuahua and in Texas. The entire mature plan
t is uprooted and immersed in boiling water
acidified with sulfuric acid; the wax floats to the surface for recovery.

o

Other vegetable
-
based waxes

include Japan wax, produced on the berries of a small
tree native to Japan and China; ouricury wax, obtained f
rom the fronds of another type of
palm tree growing in Brazil; rice
-
bran wax, extracted from crude rice bran; and jojoba,
obtained from the seeds of the jojoba plant grown in parts of Costa Rica, Israel, Mexico and
the United States, and soy wax which is p
roduced by hydrogenated soybean oil.


Source:


Global Wax Industry 2010: Market Analysis and Opportunities, Kline & Company





o


Product

Source

Melt Pt/Pen 25C

Main Uses

Petroleum
--

Paraffin

Crude Oil

46
-
68/10
-
20

Various

Petroleum
--

microcrystalline

Crud
e Oil

54
-
102/3
-
100

Various

Fischer
-
Tropsch waxes

Synthesis

45
-
106/1
-
41

Various

Polyethylene

Synthesis

85
-
140/3

Various

Montan

Lignite

80/10

Carbon paper ink

Waxes from insects, plants and animals

Bees, soy, palm trees, plants, beef fat, etc.

40
-
84/2
-
63

Inks, Polishes

o


O

THE VERSATILITY OF W
AXES



As supplies of limited minerals have declined, innovators have developed ways to
replace the functionality of these materials by modifying other waxes; this is a
trend that continues today.



Microcrystalline hydroc
arbon and synthetic waxes may be modified to meet specific
market needs, most often to match performance characteristics of animal or
vegetable waxes. In most cases, the first step is air oxidation of the wax, with or
without catalysts. An alternative appr
oach is to react the wax with a carboxylic acid
at high temperature. Oxidized wax can be further modified by saponification or
esterification at the carboxyl sites. Oxidized wax is easily emulsified in water
through the use of surfactants or simple soaps,
and is widely used in many coating
and polish applications. Petroleum waxes modified in this way can compete in
specific areas with vegetable and insect waxes.



Polymers of higher olefins (e.g. Carbon Number>20) have wax
-
like properties and
are sold as synt
hetic waxes. The polymerization process yields highly branched
materials with broad molecular weight distributions. Properties of the individual
products are highly dependent on the olefin monomers and polymerization
conditions. Melting points range from 5
4
-

74oC. The unique structure makes these
products very effective when used in additive amounts to modify the properties of
paraffin wax, primarily for use in candles. The products can increase the hardness
and opacity of the paraffin with minimal impact
on cloud point or viscosity. Other
uses include mold release for polyurethane foams, additives for casting wax, and
additives for leather treating.



The wax market has an interesting history, one over 2,000 years old where
vegetable, mineral and synthetic m
aterials come together to serve a wide variety
of needs. Wax is truly a versatile product whose unique properties pave the way for
a myriad of uses. The most interesting part of this is the ability of wax to re
-
invent
itself over time. If you look back ove
r the last 40 years you would recognize wax
products in every home as part of bread wrap, waxed paper food wraps, cold drink
cups and milk containers. Walk into your kitchen today, and you will still find wax
used in most of these applications, including i
n the materials used to build that
room. New uses for wax have been found time and again, and the wax market is as
vital today as it was since before the Romans walked the Via Appia.


WHAT ARE THE MAJOR W
AX MARKETS?

North American wax consumption is estima
ted at approximately 3 billion pounds a year,
split between two major markets, packaging materials and all others. Although packaging
represents only 30% of the market, the world has historically viewedthis segment as the
entire wax business, and continues

to today. Think of how wax was used thirty years ago,
and how it is still being used
-

waxed paper, milk cartons, paper drinking cups, etc.
Packaging was and still is one of the primary markets for wax. However, packaging uses for
wax are currently foreca
st to continue to decline, while overall wax demand is expected to
grow in line with economic growth (currently 2
-
3% per annum).

This growth in demand is driven by a number of new uses for the material. Markets for wax
are truly diverse, ranging from simpl
e fuel in manufactured fire logs and candles, to
practical applications such as adhesives, anti
-
oxidation agents in tires, and sizing in
construction materials, to even more exotic uses in cosmetics and foods. Although, the
largest single consumer of wax i
n North America remains the packaging area, followed by
candles,

and then

building materials.

Here with some examples:

Building materials:

wax is added as a water repellent in the production of wood
-
based
manufactured composite boards such as particle bo
ard, medium density, oriented strand
and other board products.

Candles:

one of the oldest uses of wax, but still vital. No longer used for primary
illumination, candles are the fastest growing segment of the wax market with new
decorative and therapeutic u
ses.

Chlorinated paraffins:

chemicals manufactured by chlorination of paraffin waxes. The
largest application for chlorinated paraffins is as a plasticiser and flame
-
retardant in flexible
PVC. It is also used as an extreme pressure
-
additive for metalworkin
g fluids and other
lubricants.


Corrugated board:

food
-
grade

wax

is applied to corrugated containers in order to provide
strength and waterproofing for food packaging during transportation.


Coatings:

wax can be used to form a coating that allows oxygen to

pass but not water;
generating numerous applications in such diverse areas as cosmetics, food, packaging,
furniture, time release properties, etc.


Flexible packaging:


Food
-
grade waxes and wax blends are used in laminating
compounds and surface coatings
to provide strength, to waterproofing,


and improve
appearance and moisture
-
vapor transmission.

Cosmetics and

pharmaceuticals:

fully
-
refined wax is non
-
toxic, and many products are
approved for direct use in food and personal care formulations. Waxes are w
idely used in
the cosmetic industry in products such as lipstick, mascara, moisturizing creams and
sunblock.

Chewing gum:

chewing gum base is a compound of elastomers, resin and food
-
grade wax
to which other materials are added to produce chewing gum. Hard
, high melt
-
point waxes
are used in this application, including microcrystalline and candelilla waxes.

Crayons:

Food grade wax provides the solid structure for a crayon and, since most crayon
users are young children, its non
-
toxic characteristics are crit
ical.

Fire logs:

a modern convenience product, wax acts as both a binder and as fuel.

Food:

Food grade wax is used to cover certain types of cheese that would dehydrate if not
properly protected.

It is sprayed on citrus and other fruit to protect from oxi
dation and
enhance appearance, and in meat and bone wraps.

Hot melt adhesives:

waxes are present in most hot melt adhesive formulations to control
the viscosity of the adhesive and contribute to open time, flexibility and elongation.

Inks:

graphical printi
ng inks include wax in their formulation as an anti
-
scuff agent.

Investment casting:

in the "lost wax" method of casting jewelry, and other industrial
products, a wax model of the piece is made and used to create a clay mold. The wax is
melted out and the
clay is used to cast the final piece.

Polishes:

the application of waxes to wooden floors to improve their appearance and
provide protection dates back several hundred years. It serves to retard the penetration of
air and moisture, thereby increasing the l
ife of the flooring material as well as preventing
abrasion by surface grit.

PVC:

two different lubricants are used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride
thermoplastic: internal and external; and two different types of wax are used in the
lubricants. In
ternal lubricants are formulated to help PVC flow in the manufacturing process
by forming a solution with PVC. External lubricants are not soluble in PVC and can produce
a film between the PVC and its extrusion equipment.

Tire and rubber:

wax is a vital co
mponent in rubber tire formulations and is added for
protection from atmospheric ozone that will "dry" unprotected rubber, causing cracking that
compromises the strength of the tire. Wax creates a physical barrier between the tire
surface and the atmospher
e.




U.S. WAX PRODUCTION
DATA

U.S. wax production grew at a compound rate of about 3.1% per annum from 1982 to 1998, when the
impact of industry consolidation and new base oil technology became significant. The production peak in
1996 is exaggerated due to
product definition issues, but the trend line is true. Between 1998 and 2002,
annual wax production fell from 2,480 MM# to 1900 MM#, about 23% as several small base oil plants shut
down and another large one converted from MEK dewaxing process to wax hydro
isomerization technology in
order to manufacture higher quality Group II base oils. Wax imports have grown steadily throughout this
period, about 6.1% per annum according to Energy Information Agency (EIA) reporting, while wax exports
grew at an annual rat
e of 9.1%. In 1953, there were 67 base oil plants in the U.S., about half of them
producing some type of wax. Today, there are eight U.S. wax producers.

WHO ARE THE AMERICAN

WAX PRODUCERS?

Refiner

Location

Finished
(1)

Unfinished2

American Refining Group

Bradford, Pa.



0.6

Calumet Lubricants Company

Shreveport, La.

1.2

0.6

Sonneborn

Petrolia, Pa.

0.1



Ergon


West Virginia

Newell, W.Va.



1.1

ExxonMobil Corporation

Baton Rouge,

La.

2.2



ExxonMobil Corporation

Beaumont, Texas

1.4

0.5

Flying J

N. Salt Lake City, Utah



2.4

The International Group

Smethport, Pa.

1.2

0.3

Holly Corp.

Tulsa, Okla.

1.0

1.2

Total
-

US



7.1

6.7









Imperial Oil Ltd.

Strathcona, Alberta



0.5

The International Group

Toronto, Ontario

1.5



Petro
-
Canada Lubricants

Mississauga, Ontario



1.8

Total
-


Canada



1.5

5.5









Total Mexico





1.7

GRAND TOTAL



8.6

18.9

(1)

Thousands of barrels per calendar day

Source: NPRA

In North America, eight companies currently manufacture finished or semi
-
refined waxes at nine
locations in North America; not all companies produce both semi
-
refined and fully refined waxes.
Pro
duct distribution is about 40/60 between finished and semi
-
refined, though this can be
misleading because semi
-
refined is sold as feedstock to fully
-
refined producers, as well as being
sold into end
-
use markets. A typical wax producer in North America prod
uces wax concurrently with
base oils at an integrated solvent dewaxing/deoiling unit, although there are also "stand
-
alone"
deoiling plants producing finished wax from purchased feedstocks. An average finished wax plant
produces about 1,000 barrels a day o
f product, or 100 MM pounds a year. About half of U.S. wax
manufacturers produce low oil content, finished waxes, and the rest simply recover slack wax from
their operations (although one producer sells residual material from waxy crude without further
pro
cessing). Curiously, no integrated Canadian refiner or Caribbean plants produce finished wax.
North American producers operate only solvent deoiling processes. There are other technologies
available for deoiling, including sweating and fractional crystalli
zation; the latter process is the only
practical alternate for large scale production. After deoiling, product wax is typically finished by
hydrogenation or clay treating to decolorize it and assure FDA compliance where required.


With the exception of 20
00, wax imports stayed within 1,000 barrels per day of exports
from 1999


2005.


This ratio began to change in 2006 with the tariff on parrifin wax
candles imported from the People’s Republic of China.


However, in subsequent years, the
delta narrowed as
imports, particularly from Southeast Asia, entered the U.S. market.










Source: International Trade Agency



HOW WILL WAX MANUFAC
TURING DEVELOP IN TH
E FUTURE?

Given the current state of flux in the North American lubricants business, there are three
strat
egic concerns for its wax co
-
products: attrition of base oil manufacturing facilities, the
rising trend of imports and the advent of new process technologies, specifically Gas
-
to
-
Liquids (GTL) and Coal
-
to
-
Liquids technologies capable of co
-
producing premiu
m waxes
along with sulfur free fuels and premium lubricants.



Base oil refinery attrition is the factor with the most influence on wax production in
the past twenty years. A historical view of North American paraffinic base oil
manufacture shows a clear tre
nd to consolidation. This consolidation is bad news
for the wax buyer since bigger plants have installed hydroisomerization technology
that converts wax to base oil and eliminates wax as a co
-
product. To the extent
that increasing demand for low volatility
, high VI stocks for engine oil drives
investment in lubricants, there may be further conversion of existing capacity to
isomerization with resultant decrease in wax manufacturing. NPRA estimates that
approximately 25% of finished wax capacity could be con
sidered "at risk" for such
conversion, and about the same proportion of semi
-
finished wax. This represents
approximately 500 MM pounds per year of wax products, roughly twice the present
import amount. However, many current wax manufacturers are independen
t
operators and not major international integrated companies. These players are
considered less likely to move to the new technology than the integrated majors.
The two major integrated companies among wax producers have already
committed themselves to tec
hnology choices, one reducing its capacity by a
hydroisomerization conversion, and the other maintaining its wax capacity by
developing alternate processing for its base oil products. Given that the capacity of
one production plant is dedicated to the "exp
ort gap" defined previously, it is
believed that further rationalization, if it occurs, will not seriously affect supply, and
that supply shortages can be made up by imports. The other side of the supply
question is how much can domestic supply be expanded
? Given the relatively high
cost of building process units and the low price of import waxes, it is unlikely that
there would be grassroots construction of a wax deoiling plant. However, one can
expect to see the usual "capacity creep" through debottleneck
ing, but no
grassroots construction.



Imports are a growing part of the North American wax picture. China has large
production volumes of waxy crude and a fairly large processing capability, and is a
ready source of wax to meet the needs of the North Americ
an and other markets.



The third strategic influence on wax is the potential new supply that could be
introduced by large
-
scale Gas
-
to
-
Liquid (GTL) operations, based on Fischer
-

Tropsch (FT) synthesis. There are presently a number of GTL projects announced
to build large
-
scale commercial units, although not all have wax plants. The
technology of producing wax by FT synthesis has been proven for many years and
there are presently two FT
-
based plants operating in South Africa and Malaysia.
GTL could multiply t
he supply of these waxes many times. A basic GTL plant uses
FT to synthesize a wide
-
boiling paraffinic "gas oil" that is then refined into finished
products. The main interest in GTL is to produce environmentally friendly fuels, in
which case the FT produc
t is hydrocracked and dewaxed: expected fuels yield
would be about 50
-

80% from such a feedstock. The remaining material can be
processed for ultra
-
high VI lube base oil or wax. A world
-
scale GTL plant thus has
the capability to produce a large volume of
wax.


However a proliferation of GTL
plants would depend on many factors, including the vagaries of crude and natural
gas markets. With the past and current changes to the wax market described
above, one may expect in the future to see the same evolution t
hat has taken
place for the past 2,000 years. Smart operators will continue to find new ways to
take advantage of the special properties of this unique material, and smart
producers will continue to find ingenious and efficient methods to meet their
custom
ers’ requirements.

ASTM/IP Standards Applicable to Petroleum Waxes

ASTM


IP

Title

D 87

55

Melting Point of Petroleum Wax

D 127

133

Drop Melting Point of Petroleum Wax, Including Petrolatum

D 156



Saybolt Color of Petroleum Products (Saybolt Chromo
meter Method)

D 445

71

Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and the Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)

D 612



Carbonizable Substances in Paraffin Wax

D 721

158

Oil Content of Petroleum Waxes

D 937

179

Cone Penetration of Petrolatum

D 938

76

Congealing Point of Petroleum Waxes, Including Petrolatum

D 1160



Distillation of Petroleum Products at Reduced Pressure

D 1321



Needle Penetration of Petroleum Waxes

D 1465



Blocking and Picking of Petroleum Wax

D 1500

196

ASTM Color of

Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale)

D 1832



Peroxide Number of Petroleum Wax

D 1833

185

Odor of Petroleum Wax

D 2008



Ultraviolet Absorbance and Absorptivity of Petroleum Products

Source: ASTM

D 2423



Method for Surface Wax on Waxed Paper or Cardboard

D 2
534



Coefficient of Kinetic Friction for Wax Coatings

D 2669



Apparent Viscosity of Petroleum Waxes Compounded with Additives (Hot Melts)

D 2887



Boiling Range Distribution of Petroleum Fractions by Gas Chromatography

D 3235



Solvent Extractable
s in Petroleum Waxes

D 3236



Apparent Viscosity of Hot Melt Adhesives and Coating Materials

D 3344



Total Wax Loading of Corrugated Paperboard

D 4175



Petroleum, Petroleum Products, and Lubricants

E 179



Selection of Geometric Conditions for Measu
rement of Reflection and Transmission Properties of Materials

D 3954



Dropping Point of Waxes