Snatching Victory from

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Snatching Victory from
the Jaws of Defeat :
The Bio
-
Oil Research
Team at UNH

Project Funded by

NH Industrial Research Center

UNH TEAM:


Dr. Ihab Farag

Christopher Barrett
Caitlin LaClair

January 2002
-

Present

Coatings, Composites & Green Chemistry Workshops and Poster Sessions,


MUB Strafford Rm, UNH, Durham, NH , June 5, 2002

Bleak
Horizons…


Closing of the Berlin
-
Gorham paper mills


Faltering wood chip
electric plant


Many left unemployed


Excess low grade
wood in NH


Uses Low Quality Excess
Wood


Produced by Fast Pyrolysis.


Dynamotive Yield 60
-
80 wt%



Viscous dark oil (looks like
espresso coffee).


HV = 7,500 Btu/lb

(about half
of #2 fuel Oil HV).

Bio
-
Oil:Promise
of the Future

Why look to Bio
-
Oil Vs.
Wood or Fuel?


Environmental Considerations


No SOx Emissions


CO
2

Neutral


No HG or Dioxin emission


50% lower NOx emissions than diesel fuel.



Renewable and Locally Produced


CO
2

credit / Alternative fuel credit


Storage and Transportation


Additional Products (green chemicals)


Northern NH Economy





Why NH North Country?


NH Forest
-
based
industry employ more
11,500 person, and
generate $3.9 B in goods
and service.



Wood, water, and labor
are available.



Opportunity to introduce
Bio
-
Oil technology

Coos County

Carroll County

Partnering for
Success


Collaborate with
stakeholders to
investigate production
of Bio
-
Oil in NH.


UNH Bio
-
Oil, PSNH,
NH DRED, US DOE,
BEDCO, IRC, ECS,
SBDC, USDA Forest
Service, and UNH
cooperative extension

Goals of the UNH Bio
-
Oil Team


Study the economic, social
environmental, and technical
aspects of Bio
-
Oil Production.


Research Markets for Bio
-
Oil.


Educate local communities
about Bio
-
Oil.


Fast Pyrolysis Products


Bio
-
Oil


Heating, power generation, green chemicals stock


Other end uses are being explored.



Char


Energy Source


Charcoal briquettes



Non
-
Condensable Gases


Recycled to provide heat for pyrolysis and drying.

Pyrolysis Process Diagram

Wood
Chip
Feed

Pyrolysis
Reactor

Bio
-
Oil
Storage
Unit

Quencher

Wood
Grinding

Wood Chip
Drying

Char collector

Recycled non
-
condensable gases

Challenges of Fast Pyrolysis
to Produce Bio
-
Oil


Drying of Bio
-
mass


Small particle size necessary


Reactor Scale
-
up


Secondary Cracking


Coaly matter separation


Liquid gathering


Bio
-
Oil: Other Incentives


The HB 284
-
FN
-

Bill (NH Clean Power Act)


75% lower S0
2

emissions;


70% lower NO
x
emissions;


75% lower Hg emissions;



7% lower than 1990 C0
2
emissions


By 2007.


Environmental Action Programs (EAP)


Rural Development


Economic Recovery


Forest Products Conservation


Wood in Transportation


Farm Bill 2002
-
The Forestry Title
www.pinchot.org/pic/farmbill


Forest Land Enhancement Programs (FLEP)


Sustainable Forestry Outreach Initiative


Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP)


Environmental Action Programs (EAP)


Independent Preliminary Economic
Analysis by UNH


Consistent with studies by Cole Hill and
Associates.


On
-
going Research of technical and
environmental impacts and issues.


Market Feasibility of Bio
-
Oil End Users

Bio
-
Oil Progress

Cog RW

Locomotives


Research Feasibility
of Replacing Coal




Bio
-
Oil Markets on the Horizon





Coal Dust

Suppression


Dust Suppression


and Btu Enhancement
for Coal Piles.

.






Paving Applications


Exploring Bio
-
Oil as


environmentally
-

friendly
substitution in Paving
Applications.





Areas Currently Being
Researched




Storage and longevity


Low pH/ high acidity


Immiscibility with non
-
aqueous
liquids


Combustion/Co
-
Firing


Market Feasibility

Composition & Properties


Storage Stability
Problems
-

viscosity
increases with time.



Combustion
Problems Associated
with Aging
-

particulate
size increases because of
polymerization reactions in
heated bio
-
oil causing
equipment clogs or frequent
filter changes.

From DynaMotive.com

Concentrations wt%
Pine/Spruce
53 / 47 ww/bark
Water
23.4
Methanol Insolvable Solids
& Lignin
24.9
Cellubiosan
1.9
Glyoxal
1.9
Hydroxyacetaldehyde
10.2
Levoglucosan
6.3
Formaldehyde
3
Formic Acid
3.7
Acetic Acid
4.2
Acetol
4.8
Storage Effect on Bio
-
Oil Viscosity

61%
16%
4%
6%
6%
5%
2%
Purchasing Wood
Payroll
Supplies & Services
Maintenance
Utilities, production
Property Taxes
Utilities, other
Estimated Operational Cost of
Bio
-
Oil Facility

NH Fuel Cost Comparison

Cole-Hill
Fuel Type
Oil
Kerosene
Propane
Natural
Electric
Wood
Bio-Oil
Gas
Cost per Unit
$1.116
$1.468
$1.414
$0.700
$0.104
$185
$0.40
per gal
per gal
per gal
per therm
per kWh
per cord
per gal
BTU per Unit
138,000
134,000
91,000
100,000
3412
24,000,000
70,503
per gal
per gal
per gal
per therm
per kWh
per cord
per gal
Heating System
80%
80%
80%
80%
100%
60%
80%
Efficiency
Cost per 100,000 BTU
$1.01
$1.37
$1.94
$0.87
$3.06
$1.28
$0.71
The values for Cole Hill Associates analysis was done in conjuncture with
DynaMotive and is a base price.

Fuel Type
Bio-Oil
Moisture Content of Wood
25%
35%
55%
25%
35%
55%
Plant Size
50 tpd
50 tpd
50 tpd
400 tpd
400 tpd
400 tpd
Base Cost per Unit
0.55
$

0.67
$

1.06
$

0.50
$

0.61
$

0.98
$

per gal
per gal
per gal
per gal
per gal
per gal
BTU per Unit
70,503
per gal
Heating System Efficiency
80%
Cost per 100,000 BTU
$0.98
$1.19
$1.88
$0.89
$1.08
$1.74
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
1.10
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
Tons Per Day Woodchips
$/gal
Size of Plant vs. Production
cost per gal Bio
-
Oil

25% moisture
content

35% moisture
content

55% moisture
content

Future Bio
-
Oil Considerations


Chemical feed stock


Mixture with diesel


Retrofitting of fuel burning equipment


Emulsion of Bio
-
Oil and Fuel Oil


“Greener” pavings


Replacing Creosotes in utility poles


Industrial Boilers and Kiln Market

Acknowledgements


Henry Mullaney, IRC


Ron Tetu, PSNH


Dennis Cote, BEDCO


Arthur Greenberg, CEPS


Craig Wright, DES


Michelle Andy, DES


Gerald Stewart, Cole Hill Associates


References


http://www.dynamotive.com


SciTechLibrary.com.
The Review of Modern Tehcnologies of
the Production of Liquid Fuel from Biomass using Fast
Pyrolysis
. June 12, 2000.


Bridgewater, Prof. Tony.
A Guide to Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass
for Fuels and Chemicals.

PyNe Guide 1. March 1999.


Cost Analysis Assumptions based also based on Patent
5,853,548


NH Department of Resources and Economic Development.
Identifying and Implementing Alternatives to Sustain the Wood
-
Fired Electricity Generating Industry in New Hampshire.

January
2002


J.P. Diebold.
A Review of the Chemical and Physical
Mechanisms of the Storage Stability of Fast Pyrolysis Bio
-
Oils.
Thermalchemie, Inc. Lakewood, Colorado. January 2000.


http://www.pinchot.org/pic/farmbill/




UNH Bio
-
Oil Team Contacts

Ihab Farag, UNH ph: 1
-
603
-
862
-
2313
ihab.farag@unh.edu


Christopher Barrett ph: 1
-
603
-
862
-
4395


cbarrett@cisunix.unh.edu


Caitlin LaClair ph: 1
-
603
-
862
-
4395


claclair@cisunix.unh.edu


Chemical Engineering Dept, University of New Hampshire

255 Kingsbury Hall, Durham, NH 03824
-
3591, USA, fax: 603
-
862
-
3747