RETs II Comparison Report

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RETs
II
Comparison Report

Final version


GNESD


Ma
y

200
7
RETs
II
Com
parison Report


Final

draft Ma
y

2007



Table of Contents



Executive Summary

________________________________
_________________________

2

1.

Introductory remarks

________________________________
____________________

6

2.

GNESD and RETs

________________________________
______________________

6

3.

Common framework

________________________________
____________________

7

4.

Regional findings

________________________________
_______________________

9

4.1 East Africa

________________________________
________________________________
_

9

4.2 Tunisia

________________________________
________________________________
___

17

4.3 Senegal

________________________________
________________________________
___

23

4.4 South Africa

________________________________
______________________________

32

4.5 Lebanon

________________________________
________________________________
__

37

4.6 Argentina

________________________________
________________________________
_

45

4.7 Brazil

________________________________
________________________________
____

53

4.8 China

________________________________
________________________________
____

59

4.9 Cambodia

________________________________
________________________________

67

4.10 India

________________________________
________________________________
____

75

5.

Common issues

________________________________
________________________

82

5.1 Niches and main associated barriers

________________________________
___________

82

5.2 Objectives, policies and instruments

________________________________
___________

88

5.3 Key findings and main recommendations

________________________________
______

91

Appendices

________________________________
_______________________________

98

Appendix 1.

Centres of Excellence
________________________________
___________

99

Appendix 2.

Terminology

________________________________
_________________

100



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Table
s


Table 4.1.1 Summary of objectives, policies and instruments for treadle and wind pumps in East Africa

..........

14

Table 4.2.1 Summary of objectives, policy out
lines and instruments for solar and wind pumps and improved
stoves in Tunisia

................................
................................
................................
................................
...................

21

Table 4.3.1 Summary of objectives, policies and instruments for improved biomass stoves in Senegal

.............

27

Table 4.4.1 Summary of objectives, policies and instruments for SWHs and Biodiesel in South Africa

............

34

Table 4.5.1 Summary of objectives,
policies and instruments for SWHs in Lebanon

................................
..........

39

Table 4.6.1 Summary of objectives, policies and instruments for SWHs and WECs in Argentina

......................

48

Table 4.7.1 Summary of objectives, policies and instruments for Vegetable Oil and PV in Brazil

.....................

56

Table 4.8.1 Summary of objectives, policies and instruments for biomass gasifica
tion in China

........................

64

Table 4.9.1 Summary of objectives, policies and instruments for promotion of RETs for poverty alleviation in
Cambodia

................................
................................
................................
................................
..............................

71

Table 4.10.1 Summary of objectives, policies and instruments for Biomass gasification in India

.......................

80

Table 5.1.1 Selected niches by region and country
................................
................................
...............................

82

Table 5.1.2. Summary of main barriers to the dissemination of selected RE Niches by country/region

..............

84

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Executive Summary


This report presents a compilation of the main findings and recommend
ations arising from the
study performed in ten developing countries on the
potential
role of the renewable energy
technologies
for

poverty alleviation (RETs). The study was carried out in the framework of the
Global Network on Energy
for

Sustainable Develo
pment (GNESD)
, conformed by

Developing and
Developed Countries Centres of Excellence

of Africa, Asia, Europe,
Latin America
,
Middle East,
and
North
America
.

One of the key strengths of the network is its ability to carry out a common
research subject in di
fferent regions of the World so as to extract useful lessons from the
comparison of the regional experiences.


The report is organised into introductory chapters desc
ribing the background for RETs s
tudy, the
rationale,
and
methodological framework (
1.
Intr
oductory remarks,
2.
GNESD and RETs,
3.
Common framework); ten regional chapters presenting the Centres findings and recommendations
(
sections 4.1 to 4.10 covering
East Africa, Tunisia, Senegal, South Africa, Lebanon, Argentina,
Brazil, China, Cambodia, In
dia); and summary chapters making comparisons between centres and
extracting common lessons (
5.
Common issues,
6.
Summary of key findings).


Each Developing Country Centre focused its assessment on one or two renewable energies niches,
which were selected
based on their potential significant role for poverty alleviation in each region.
For each niche the regional studies identify the main barriers to its widespread dissemination
, and
the policy outlines and instrument
s

for overcoming these barriers, making
recommendations which
could guide policy makers towards this aim.

The methodology used to formulate policy outlines
was based on a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats approach.


The selected niches
are
: tread
le and wind pumps (East Africa);

wi
nd
pumps, solar

pump
s and
improved stoves (Tunisia);

biodiesel and solar water
heaters (South Africa);

s
olar water heaters
(Lebanon
);

solar water heaters and wind turbines (Argentina
);

vegetable oil and photovoltaic
(Brazil
);

biomass gasification (China
, C
ambodia

and India)
.


The problems identified by the Centres
are described in the regional chapters (sections 4.1 to 4.10).
They
vary from region to region but in general terms they
refer mainly to:




Low level of policy attention, translating into weak or n
o legal and regulatory frameworks
supporting RETs dissemination.



Inadequate instituti
onal structure and
capacity, more
oriented to conventional energy
supply

options based on fossil fuels, centralised generation, and with more emphasis on
electric uses tha
n thermal ones. Lack of coordination between stakeholders.



Low level of affordability (usually a compound problem conformed by low income, high
investment cost, and no adequate financing mechanisms)



Low level of knowledge on RE system characteristics, adv
antages and limitations
conducing to low dissemination among planners, developers, professionals and technicians,
problems during O&M, and negative perception



Low technical and marketing capability for manufacture and selling of adapted
technologies and ma
intenance, no quality standards and certification. Low research level
and lack of coordination between manufacturers and research institutions. This prevents
lowering the cost of technologies and introduces in the market low quality technologies.



Weak O&M
infrastructure and post sale services


The proposed policies and instruments are
oriented

at overcoming the main barriers listed in the
previous section. Overall, they aim at:




Implementing incentives to improve affordability

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Developing an adequate institu
tional framework



Developing capacity at all levels



Improving awareness



Some of the policies and instruments proposed by the Centres are presented below.



RE Pumping (East Africa and Tunisia,
Tables

4
.1
.1

and
4
.2
.1
)


Among the common policies and instrum
ents proposed for the dissemination of these niches in
East Africa and Tunisia are:




Providing access to adequate financing mechanisms. Tax rebates and subsidies would be
the instruments to carry this out in East Africa which will require establishing a ru
ral
energy agency fund and the development of policies to facilitate access to credit to small
farmers. Loans and water economy subsidies could be used to promote wind and solar
pumps in the case of Tunisia.



Carrying out coordinated actions in order to pro
mote the technologies. This would require
convincing the different stakeholders through, for example, communication campaigns and
access to information. In the case of East Africa women are a main target of the
dissemination campaign, which should also add
ress cultural issues. Research and
technology adaptation is also recommended in East Africa through the creation of a R&D
fund from the electricity fuel levy. Establishing a rural energy agency is also proposed. In
Tunisia the communication campaign should

target the Ministry of Agriculture, NGOs,
farmers, experts on water resources, installers and operators.



Developing capacity for adequate operation and maintenance through technical training,
education and communication campaigns. Training of local end
-
us
ers and communities on
installing, repairing and maintaining pumps is proposed in the case of East Africa. Tunisia
recommends training consulting firms, installers and operators.



Solar Water Heaters (South Africa, Lebanon and Argentina, Tables
4.
4
.1
,
4
.
5
.1

and
4
.
6
.1
)




Implementing standards and certification. This policy is proposed by the three countries as
a way to increase customer confidence in SWHs and reduce negative perception caused by
low equipment quality, inadequate installation,
bad
operation
and maintenance procedures.
Lebanon proposes to create national testing protocols

and identify centres that could carry
out testing activities
,

and adoption of European standards. Argentina proposes to link
certification of manufacturing procedures, equipm
ent and installation to the supply of
incentives and mass purchase agreements. In both cases the program will also include
training for manufacturers and installers. Standards and building codes and regulation
should seek compatibility. South Africa propos
es to carry out expedite testing and the
installation of a test facility. Argentina and Lebanon complement product certification with
adequate labelling.



Providing incentives. In the three cases promotion incentives are proposed through
investment subsidie
s for poor households (South Africa), tax credits, grants, soft loans and
government procurement commitments (Lebanon), mass purchase agreements, tax
reduction, loans under preferential conditions, and reduction of hidden costs (Argentina).
In the case of
South Africa, agreements between SWH companies and banks will also offer
financing based on electricity savings. Incentives also include the implementation of legal
instruments requiring the installation of SWHs in public buildings (Argentina) and new
hous
ing programs (Argentina, South Africa).



Raising awareness and developing capacity. Lack of knowledge about the potential and
characteristics of these systems is a common problem, affecting both the general public and
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other stakeholders. Information and edu
cation campaigns are proposed to overcome
general lack of knowledge but other more specific instruments are recommended for
technical and political stakeholders. Capacity development involves training for
manufacturers and installers and financial incentiv
es for technology development and
industrial upgrading. In the case of Lebanon, capacity building also extends to the political
level, while in Argentina it includes government bodies, public institutions and officials
responsible for updating building cod
es and regulations.



Biomass Gasification (China, Cambodia and India, Tables
4
.
8
.1
,
4
.
9
.1

and
4
.
10
.1
)




Providing adequate financing. In the case of India this would involve the use of community
based financing mechanisms, financial assistance policies aim
ed at SMiE upgrading and
sensitization of financing organizations. In the case of Cambodia targeted subsidies based
on the characteristics of the project may be appropriate as well as soft loans. Microfinance
promotion is also proposed through training and

a supportive legal framework. China
proposes to shift from government subsidies towards a more commercial approach through
tax and subsidies incentives for RESCOs and associated companies and the introduction of
private financing.



Supporting and developi
ng capacity of local manufacturers. This will involve training
courses for manufacturers in all three countries. In China technology transfer from
university research institutions and increased collaboration is proposed as a way to
decrease costs. India al
so proposes fostering partnerships in order to develop technology
and improve commercialization. In Cambodia financial assistance may be needed to start
new business, and also cooperation to profit from the knowledge where this industry is
more developed



I
mplementing an adequate policy framework. In the case of India through the development
of partnerships for the development of policies and a decision support framework. In China
and Cambodia through national biomass development plans to formulate and coord
inate
activities.



Improved Stoves (Tunisia and Senegal, Tables
4
.
2
.1

and
4
.
3
.1
)




Raising awareness. In both countries the different stakeholders involved have to be
informed about the advantages of the IS. In Tunisia the households have to be convinced
a
bout the financial value of the IS, while in Senegal the benefits in terms of energy bills
reduction can be demonstrated.



Improving coordination. An integrated strategy for the dissemination of the technology is
proposed, defining a guiding institution an
d the role of each of the stakeholders. Senegal
also proposes to coordinate the purchase of the materials for manufacturing the stoves and
to support the establishment of rural production and sale points associated to other products
and services.



Biodies
el / Vegetable Oil (South Africa and Brazil, Tables
4
.
4
.1

and
4
.
7
.1
)


In this case there are not many similarities since the niches are different. In the case of South Africa
biodiesel is presented as an option for substituting petroleum diesel at national

scale, while in
Brazil it is proposed as an option for the electrification of isolated rural communities.




South Africa. Finalisation of the biofuel strategy is perceived as instrumental for
facilitating the cooperation of different Ministries in order to

support the implementation of
biodiesel and increase awareness. Changing voluntary blending to mandatory is also
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important to attract capital investment. Training and technical assistance are also needed to
transfer knowledge to farmers on growing oil cro
ps and use of associated by products.



Brazil. The dissemination of the vegetable oil technology as a substitute for diesel fuel for
rural electrification requires the extension of subsidies to renewable fuels in general. The
legal framework needs modificat
ions to benefit these niches, and taxes incentives are
proposed for the development of local technologies. In all cases the systems must be
related to economic development of the community and income generating activities.



Wind Energy Converters (Argenti
na, Table
4
.
6
.1
)




Offering investment support. Strong financial incentives are proposed to stimulate the use
of WEC in rural isolated applications, including partial subsidies and soft loans linked to
local economic activities.



Improving system quality an
d performance. Standards and certification are needed for
manufacturing, installation and maintenance. Incentives should be tied to certification
compliance, capacity development programs and training. Improving post sale services
through local capacity de
velopment and use of existing infrastructure is required.



For large WEC, research on wind grid interaction, improved forecast, transmission
infrastructure requirements and uncertainty management methods is needed.



PV for rural electrification (Brazil, T
able
4
.
7
.1
)




To expand the use of the PV panels, it is necessary that Government takes part in the
process, and the users and the energy dealers as well. Government should provide
subsidies, fiscal incentives, lower interest rate and rules that demand that

a certain portion
of the generated total energy comes from alternative sources.



Detailed findings and recommendations are described in
sections

4
.1 to
4.10
. Though the niches
vary from country to country, most of the Centres make recommendations in rela
tion to the
formulation of national coordinated plans and policies, introduction of appropriate financing
mechanisms, increase awareness, facilitate training and capacity development, promote local
manufacturing, research and development, and introduce sta
ndards and certification. The following
paragraphs summarise and highlight a few of those findings and proposals.

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1.

Introductory remarks


Developing countries present an urgent need to satisfy the energy requirements of a growing
population and economic act
ivit
y

through modern and sustainable energy options. For the large
fraction of poor population inhabiting these countries, energy is an
indispensable

tool for the
satisfaction of basic human needs
, for
carrying out

productive activities

and for improving i
ncome
and
thus escaping poverty.


In this context, renewable energy technologies
(RETs)
present a unique opportunity to play this
role, taking into account their environmental
advantages over conventional energy sources
, their
suitability for being used in

rural areas and their potential as technological development niches.
However, these attributes
are confronted with many barriers which have impeded the massive
dissemination of RETs for some decades now
,

in spite of

large renewable energy resources
avail
able in developing countries
.

Among the most
fundamental barriers

is the lack of an adequate
institutional framework resulting in weak or inexistent policies, and an energy development pattern
based almost exclusively

on conventional energy sources, follow
ing the inertia of former energy
supply
schemes

prevalent in Industrialized Countries
.


Thus, tapping the renewable energy potential
present
in Developing Countries requires not only
solving technological issues
, but also, and more fundamentally, putting i
n place an adequate
institutional framework for the
creation and implementation

of policies that promote the use of
cleaner energy sources for the development of the
more relegated sectors of the population.
From
this point of view, advancing in the policy

formulation process constitutes one of the key activities
for the adequate dissemination of renewable energies in Developing Countries, and since each
country is unique in its framework conditions, this process must be carried out in each of them in
order

to be effective.

Furthermore, the process must be tailored to each renewable energy niche,
defined as favourable combinations of
energy
requirements, resources, technologies, and capacities
which have good potential for poverty alleviation and which could

be implemented in the short and
mid term.


For the above mentioned reasons
, thi
s study aims at advancing in the policy formulation

process,

creating knowledge that could constitute
guidelines for policy makers

for the practical
dissemination of renewable
energy technologies among the poor population of Developing
Countries
.


2.

GNESD

and RETs


RETs is the second Theme of the Global Network on Energy and Sustainable Development

(GNESD)
. This Theme was divided into two
phases
, of which th
is
report constitutes
t
he
Comparison Report arising from the completion of the second
phase of the Theme
.


In Phase I

of the Renewable Energy Technologies Theme (RETs I)
,
D
eveloping
C
ountry Centres
participating in
GNESD performed a general
assessment

of the renewable energy sec
tor in different
regions/countries that h
elped identify potential niches

where renewable energies could make a
significant contribution towards poverty alleviation, not only through an improvement in the
quality of life of households but also through the d
evelopment of productive activities which
generate employment and extra income for this population. One fundamental result obtained was
the identification of
barriers

limiting the use of renewable technologies and resources in developing
countries, which
w
as

the main input for the design of strategic policy outlines that
has been

carried
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out and which help
ed

us move forward towards
the proposal of
c
oncrete instruments and actions
that are presented in this document.


Some of the preliminary results indicate

that two of the main problems that face the renewable
energy sector of Developing Countries are: lack of coherent long term policies, including a
specific role for RETs, and lack of an adequate institutional framework that allows the coordination
of acti
vities and the formulation and implementation of policies. However, we conclude
d

that each
country has its own national circumstances, priorities and conditions and that further work
was

needed to obtain results of concrete practical significance.


In this

sense,
RETs

I

is provided

interesting insig
hts, but being a broad study of

the renewable
energies
sector,
lacked

enough level of detail so as to allow concrete actions to be taken.
Additionally, in the policy area
RETs I only dealt

with the formulation of

policy outlines, but d
id

not indicate which instruments and strategies are to be used to reach the
proposed
objectives.



Consequently,

RETs II aims at filling these voids and going
one step
further in terms of the
assessment of selected niches and the fo
rmulation of policy outlines and instruments, performing
an in
-
depth study based on th
e main results of RETs I
.



3.

Common framework


RETs
II built upon
the results obtained in
RETs
I, following two parallel and complementary lines
of work that profit on
the

findings

of RETs I
:




E
ach Centre selected

one or two of the niches identified in
RETs

I and perform
ed

an in
depth analysis of them. This selection
was

based on the potential for large
-
scale
implementation, population benefited and other sustainability
ind
icators. The selected
niches

contribute mainly to the achievement of the specific objective stated by RETs
Theme, i.e. poverty alleviation. This task involve
d
, among other things, analysing the costs
of energy, the impacts, financing possibilities, institu
tional, legal and organizational issues,
specific problems, etc.


T
he analysis
takes into account
the articulation of the technology itself to the productive
system (as supplier of equipment and/or components) so as not to leave aside an important
argumen
t to
promote

RETs and also a barrier for them (foreign currency impact, for
example).




In parallel but connected with the first item, each Centre move
d

forward in the policy area
by performing a more detailed analysis of the results of
RETs

I, formula
ting specific
objectives, policy outlines and instrument
s for the niches selected.


In summary,
RETs II phase further developed the general framework of RETs I in the specific
context of a few selected niches. RETs

include
d

fundamental technical knowledge
and
recommendations necessary to take concrete actions in order to overcome some
of the main
barriers and develop specific renewable niches through national/regional programmes.


The methodology for the identification of specific problems, objectives, poli
cy outlines,
instruments and activities is described in
(GTZ, 2000)
1
.

This is
also

the methodology used in RETs
I, but includes new elements that are descr
ibed in the mentioned document.






1

Energy and Sustainable Development in Latin America
and the Caribbean

-

Guide for Energy Policymaking. GTZ,
OLADE, CEPAL, 135 p., 2000.

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The policy design process

start
s

from the Vision that one intends t
o attain, and
advances towards

the activities level. The assessment of the reaction of players and conflicts between players
constitute a key element of the methodology, since
it
allow
s

assessing the viability of the proposal
before it is carried out.


As
in the case of RETs I,
the methodology
begin
s

by the identification of the specific problematic
si
tuations of each selected niche
, trying to distinguish between the definition of the problem itself,
its causes and its manifestations. Strictly speaking the
problems tend to form an interrelated tree
structure, where causes and manifestations are also problems themselves. For this reason, one key
issue
is selected
when identifying the problem definition.

Once the problem situations
we
re
identified, we proce
e
d
e
d

as in RETs I with the formulation of the objectives and the strategic
policy outlin
es in the context of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.


Having defined the specific objectives and policy outlines, we proceed
ed

to the identification of
i
nstruments to carry them out, and the specific activities that should be planned to do this.

At the
instruments level it
was

possible to assess the potential reaction of each relevant stakeholder
(Support, conditioned supp
ort, opposition, indifference.).



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4.

Regional

findings


The following sections present a summary of the findings of the ten Developing Countries Centres
participating in RETs II study.



4
.1
East Africa


Assessment of selected Niches


High poverty levels especially in rural areas constitut
e a major challenge facing East Africa. In
spite of the recognized role of energy in poverty reduction, energy services for productive purposes
in agricultural, small
-
scale agro
-
processing and small and medium enterprises (SME) are yet to be
adequately add
ressed. The limited access that rural people have to adequate, affordable and
convenient energy sources ranks amongst the greatest impediments to their social and economic
well being and development.


Rural electrification levels in East Africa are woefull
y low. In cases where electricity is provided
in rural areas, it is often unaffordable to the poor, who therefore cannot access it. With the bulk of
the region’s poor resident in dispersed rural settlements, conventional grid electrification is, in the
ne
ar term, considered too costly. As a result, the use of modern and improved energy options is
very limited in rural areas. Traditional biomass energy dominates major consumption sectors,
namely, household, agriculture and small enterprises. This state o
f affairs contributes significantly
to the high poverty levels in rural areas of the region.


Renewable energy technologies (RETs) can play an important role in poverty reduction in rural
areas in the region. This is especially true for RETs that operat
e on the basis of solar, thermal,
mechanical and animate power, i.e. non
-
electrical RETs. These energy options are not only
affordable to the poor, but can also play a major role in national development in terms of job
creation and income generation, as w
ell as providing environmentally sound energy services. A
growing number of energy analysts perceive non
-
electrical renewable energy options as important
for productive uses and poverty reduction.


This study focuses on agriculture in rural areas with spec
ial emphasis on selected non
-
electrical

RETs (and in particular, treadle and wind pumps) for irrigation and rural water supply.


The rationale for the study’s focus on agriculture and irrigation is three fold. First, the agricultural
sector is the backbo
ne of the rural economy in East Africa. The majority of the poor rely on
agriculture for provision of basic food requirements as well as income generation. The importance
of the agricultural sector to the survival of the rural poor can, therefore, not be

overemphasised.
Secondly, agriculture is a major contributor to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). If the output of
agro
-
industries is included, the contribution of agriculture to national GDP becomes dominant in
most sub
-
Saharan African countries (the e
xception would be oil producing countries). The limited
use of mechanised energy technologies in agriculture is an indication that the sector is not getting
the required attention at policy level, despite its importance to the economy. The agricultural
s
ector is, therefore, an ideal entry point for poverty reduction initiatives in the region.


Thirdly, Africa, with the exception of the Congo/Zaire river basin is the driest continent (apart from
Australia) and suffers from the most unstable rainfall regime
. Droughts are frequent in most
African countries and each year more people are at risk from the effects of inevitable droughts of
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greater or lesser severity (FAO, 1997)
2
.The prolonged rainfall shortage has often led to serious
food shortages (and in some

cases, famine) and increased food insecurity. Most climate change
scenarios for the region project adverse impacts on food security in the region.


Treadle and wind pumps have a significant potential for enhancing agricultural productivity, food
security

and water supply among the poor. Irrigation is still an embryonic practice in Africa. Sub
-
Saharan Africa lags far behind the rest of the world in proportion of irrigated arable land and its
contribution to the total food supply. In fact, 85% of the sub
-
Saharan Africa’s irrigation potential
remains untapped. The International Irrigation Management Institute estimates that irrigated land
could be tripled. The main challenge is to capture more of the available water resources (MacLean
and Voss, 2006)
3
.


Studies undertaken by FAO have shown that irrigation increases yields of most crops by 100 to 400
percent. Even with limited water supplies, irrigation can vastly increase agricultural productivity
and is crucial to improving food security (FAO AQUASTAT,
2001)
4
.


While large
-
scale irrigation schemes play an important role in improving food security, benefiting
farmers who have more land, many low
-
cost small
-
scale techniques can be used by poorer farmers
to increase yields. The large
-
scale irrigation scheme
s of the past have lost favour because of their
social, environmental and financial costs (FAO AQUASTAT, 2001).


Lower
-
cost, more water
-
efficient irrigation technologies have the potential to greatly expand small
-
sale irrigation in East and Southern Afri
ca and significantly improve food security and family
incomes (Purcell, 1997)
5
. This crucial development is the first key reason the study focussed on
treadle and wind pumps.

A second key reason is that, from the evidence presented in the previous
study,
the technologies are viable renewable energy options for poverty alleviation.


Thirdly, initial case studies indicate that both treadle and wind pumps increase incomes and
productivity. In addition, they are locally manufactured and assembled thus creat
ing employment
opportunities. Compared to large
-
scale irrigation systems, they incur little or no irrigation fees,
result in little or no resettlement, and offer protection from seasonal drought.


Depending on the irrigated acreage, the type of crops cult
ivated and their market prices, during
their economic lifespan, treadle pumps could generate sufficient income for poor farmers to enable
them to procure more advanced pumps such as petrol pump sets, electrically
-
driven pumps or wind
pumps which are not on
ly more effective but also have the potential to generate higher levels of
income for these farmers.


The reported impacts
of treadle pumps
on farming practices have been substantial and include
(FAO/IPTRID, 2000)
6
:




Increased land area under irrigation




2

FAO (1997) ‘Irrigation Potential in Africa: A Basin Approach’, http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4347E/w4347e03htm,
Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation
s (FAO), accessed on 10
th

August 2006

3

MacLean, R. and Voss, J. (2006) ‘Allocating Water Resources in Africa: Potential for Moving Water’,
http://www.idrc.ca/en/en
-
31102
-
201
-
1
-
DO_TOPIC.htm
l
, accessed on 10
th

August 2006

4

FAO AQUASTAT (2001)
Water and Food Security
, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
(FAO)

5

Purcell, R. (1997) ‘Potential for Small
-
Scale Irrigation in sub
-
Saharan Africa: The Kenyan Example’,
http://www.fao.org/docrep/W7314E/w7314e07.htm
, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations (FAO), accessed on 10
th

August 2006

6

FAO AQUASTAT (2001)
Water and Food Security
, Rome,
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
(FAO)

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R
educed work time compared with bucket irrigation



Full irrigation of fields resulting in improved crop quality



Reduced frequency of irrigation to two or three times a week



Less strenuous irrigation work compared to bucket irrigation



Additional and new crops

grown each season



Increased number of growing cycles as crops are able to grow faster with full irrigation



Improved farm incomes


In areas where they have been installed and are in use, wind powered water pumps have
contributed in alleviating poverty in v
arious sectors. For instance, it has led to increased
agricultural activity in rural areas, and improved water supply for remote rural populations. In
addition, wind pumps have contributed to industrial development by giving rise to a new
manufacturing ind
ustry



Problems

Several barriers have been identified which limit the promotion and adoption of treadle pumps
technology. Seven barriers are discussed below.

Lack of Capital for Small
-
Scale Farmers

Poverty is probably the greatest challenge to the adopti
on of small
-
scale irrigation technologies.
Although treadle pumps cost less than other irrigation technologies, a number of people in rural
areas still cannot afford these pumps due to extreme poverty levels. More than 70% of the pump
owners purchase them

on cash basis from savings previously made while employed or in
businesses. The majority of poor people in rural areas have low and sporadic incomes and savings,
and thus cannot afford even the low cost treadl
e pumps.

Inadequate Dissemination and Promotio
nal Strategies

The Swiss concrete treadle pump has not been promoted well and as a result, its uptake has been
low. By the year 2002, only 10 pumps had been disseminated in Kenya. The success of the
ApproTEC pumps can be attributed to the
company’s commer
cial approach.
However, there is a
problem of reaching very remote farmers mostly due to poor infrastructure and lack of resources.
Some farmers who have purchased these pumps do not have adequate knowledge of operating the
pumps, or lack knowledge on bet
ter irrigation practices and general skills to manage crops under
irrigation.

Box 4.1.1. Treadle Pumps in Kenya


According to KickStart, the following are some of the impacts of MoneyMaker pumps to date:



45,000 pumps are currently in use by poor farmers



29,000 new waged jobs have been c
reated



About US$ 37 million per year in new profits and wages generated by the pumps



More than 50% of the pumps are managed by women entrepreneurs



There are four 4 manufacturers producing the pumps



More 200 retailers are selling pumps in Kenya, Tanzani
a and Mali


The success of the KickStart pumps can be attributed to the commercial approach. The pumps are being promoted to
those individuals who access demonstration centres, those who can read and write, those who can purchase
newspapers, those who can

visit agrovet centres, etc. KickStart targets a population that can afford a range of their
products.


Source:
www.kickstart.org

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Limited Land and Water Resources

There are landless farmers who are not likely to invest and use treadle pumps. Others have limited
land available. Availability of water for irr
igation poses a challenge for rural areas with deep water
table and peri
-
urban pump users who mainly depend on shallow wells or swamps. A drop of the
local water table by one or two metres will put the water beyond reach of many treadle pumps.

Research a
nd Adaptation of the New Pumps

The available treadle pumps on the market have limitations and performance is affected by certain
conditions. Researching on new approaches will help adapt pumps to these conditions.


Quality of water is also a main concern t
o users located in the areas where sources of water are
s
alty, silted or contain debris
. Salty water may interfere with fertility of the soil if used repeatedly
for irrigation. During the dry season, when water for irrigation is required, most of the sourc
es of
water dry up.

Social

and Cultural Factors

Pumps are mostly operated by women and children, as they tend to do all work in the garden.
Because an operator is elevated above the ground some women do not feel comfortable standing on
the pumps for long
periods. They feel exposed and consider it undignified (FAO/IPTRID, 2000).

Limited Policy Attention to Small Scale Irrigation Systems

Governments have put a lot of effort into crop and livestock research; much less effort has gone
into support for agricul
tural engineering. Thus knowledge and capacity for technology
development and application are lacking.
S
ome government policies and financing has favoured a
private sector that depends on expensive equipment imported from abroad (Purcell, 1997).

Poor Mai
ntenance

Treadle pump breakdowns are a major problem. Farmers are not trained to maintain pumps and do
not generally carry spare parts (Purcell, 1997).


Other barriers include lack of information and l
imited knowledge on irrigation methodologies;


FAO/IPT
RID (2000) identifies four preconditions for the sustained success of treadle pumps:




A market
-
driven demand and sustainable environmental and economic conditions and a
significant population able to afford the pump and sustain local demand for horticultur
e



A well
-
designed pump that is appropriate for the local farming, economic and
manufacturing systems



A local private sector capability for mass production and quality control



Effective private
-
sector distribution networks for agricultural inputs and equipm
ent,
including transport, infrastructure and retailers


The following have been identified as barriers to the wider dissemination of wind pumps in East
Africa, and Kenya in particular:

High Investment Cost of Buying Wind Pumps

Although the lifetime cost o
f wind pumps is often less than diesel o
r

petrol
-
powered pumps, the
c
ost of purchasing a wind pump is usually higher than that of diesel pumps. The

cost of wind
pumps varies from

US$ 3,000 to US$ 19,000 depending on the size of pump purchased. With GDP
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pe
r capita of about US$ 300, the cos
ts of purchasing wind pumps are

too high for majority of the
population who live below poverty line and earn less than a dollar a day. As a result, the majority
of the pumps are bought and installed as projects by donors,
churches and institutions.


The extra investment costs in preparing water sources, storage and distribution makes wind pump
systems even more expensive for potential users (Karekezi et al, 2005)
7
.

Budgetary Limitations for Research and Development (R&D)

La
ck of funds to develop wind
-
pumping technology has been a major barrier. A few donors have
been forthcoming in augmenting financial resources from wind pumps sold to raise the cash for
research and development of pumps. However, in some circumstances it ha
s been impossible to
mobilize the funds to support development of pumps.

As a result, the pace of research and
development of wind pumps has been slow. In addition, most private entities always want to
recover costs incurred in R&D and thus push up the pr
ice of wind pump products beyond the reach
of most of the population.

Poor Maintenance

Technicians and buyers are often unfamiliar with wind pump technology, and pumps in remote
locations often break down because of a lack of servicing, spare parts, or tr
ained work force. In
reality, wind pumps are less maintenance
-
intensive than diesel pumps. However, the wind pump
technology is "strange" to many people and there is a
need to train maintenance staff
.


Despite training the communities on wind pump installa
tions and maintenance, pumps in remote
areas have not been maintained to the required standards since the trained technicians either leave
the area to seek employment elsewhere or are not technically competent to ca
rry out their work
effectively
.

Poor Diss
emination Strategies

Wind pumps were considered old and inappropriate technology by government and other
developers. This has been as a result of lack of understanding of the role these pumps can
contribute to support water supply and irrigation initiative
s in areas where wind regimes are
reliable and where there is no feasible future of introducing grid electricity. This sector has been
neglected by the government, as there has been no motivation and support to help develop
infrastructure for local manufac
turing, leaving it to private sector, which is mainly under funded.


Th
e

poor reputation of the technology in some circumstances has prevented widespread use of
wind pumps. There have been quite a few short
-
sighted projects that introduced inappropriate
te
chnology or did not set up long
-
term maintenance and repair infrastructure. The poor track record
of such pumps has meant that policy makers do not want to take the risk of installing technologies
that could fail.

Inadequate Policy on Irrigation Developmen
t

A comprehensive policy on irrigation taking into consideration the role of small
-
scale technologies
in agriculture development needs to be developed. This provides a framework upon which
government and investors can support the development of s
uch techno
logies. This role has

been
left to the commercial and private sector alone. Other sectors such as energy are too conventional
and have not accounted the role of mechanical energy sourced from such technologies.





7

Karekezi, S., Kimani, J., Wambille, A., Balla, P., Magessa, F., Kithyoma, W. and Ochieng, X. (2005) The Potential
Contribution of Non
-
Electrical Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) to Poverty

Reduction in East Africa,
Nairobi, AFREPREN/FWD

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Policy outlines

Table 4.1.
1

Summary of objec
tives, policies and instruments for
treadle and wind pumps in East
Africa

Niche

Objectives

Policies

Instruments

Treadle
Pumps

• To make the treadle pumps
more affordable

• To create appropriate
financing/credit mechanisms

• Creating incentives that will t
rigger affordability

• Developing appropriate financing/credit
mechanisms

• Developing policies and mechanisms that
facilitate access to credit by small
-
scale farmers

• Tax rebates

• Investment subsidies

• Policy

• Establish a rural energy agency fund


To develop appropriate
dissemination & promotional
strategies

• To create awareness of treadle
pumps among stakeholders

• Launching national action oriented programmes
for the promotion of treadle pumps

• Expanding rural electrification programmes to
rural

energisation programmes so that they
encompass treadle pumps

• Awareness
-
raising campaigns

• Dissemination campaigns

• Facilitating access to information

• To create awareness

• Launching national action oriented programmes
for the promotion of treadle
pumps. This would
also address cultural issues

• Awareness
-
raising campaigns

• Facilitating access to information

• To create an environment for
efficient use of land and water
resources

• Developing/strengthening irrigation policy to
streamline efficie
nt use of water and land
resources

• Streamlining location/use of treadle pumps to
reduce negative impact on water levels

• Restriction in number of pumps per
area

• To accelerate research &
adaptation of treadle pumps

• Creating an R&D fund from the ele
ctricity or fuel
levy that would be used to undertake the
necessary research

• Allocating a portion of the rural energy agency
funds to R&D

• Assisting local universities to strengthen their
programmes on agriculture and irrigation

• Establish a rural ener
gy agency fund

• Awareness
-
raising campaigns

• Grants

• To create awareness on the
potential role of treadle pumps in
irrigation and poverty reduction

• Developing/strengthening irrigation
development policy which addresses small
-
scale
irrigation systems

• Awareness
-
raising campaigns

• To improve repair and
maintenance of treadle pumps

• Strengthening the responsibilities of the
agricultural extension workers to include training

• Empowering users to repair and maintain the
pumps

• Technical training


Education

• Facilitating access to information

• To create awareness of proper
irrigation methods

• Launching public aware campaigns on irrigation
methods

• Awareness
-
raising campaigns

• Facilitating access to information

• To streamline and harmonise
institutional responsibility

• Creating a rural energy agency (as opposed to
a rural electrification agency). One of the
agency’s responsibilities would be treadle pumps

• Establish a rural energy agency


Niche

Objectives

Policies

Instruments

Wind Pumps

• To make the wind pumps more
affordable

• To create appropriate
financing/credit mechanisms

• Creating incentives that will trigger lower prices

• Developing appropriate financing/credit
mechanisms

• Tax rebates

• Investment subsidies

• To develop appr
opriate
dissemination & promotional
strategies

• Launching national action oriented programmes
for the promotion of wind pumps

• Dissemination campaigns

• Access to information

• To create an environment for
efficient use of available land and
water reso
urces

• Create awareness on the
impact of wind pumps on water
resources

• Developing/strengthening irrigation policy to
streamline efficient use of available resources

• Streamlining location/use of water pumps to
reduce negative impact on water levels

• A
wareness
-
raising campaigns

• Restriction in number of pumps per
area

• Access to information

• To increase budget/financial
allocations for wind pump R&D

• Creating an R&D fund from the electricity or fuel
levy that would be use to undertake the necessar
y
R&D

• Allocating a portion of the rural energy agency
funds to R&D

• Assisting local universities to strengthen their
programmes on agriculture and irrigation

• Awareness
-
raising campaigns

• Establishing a rural energy agency
fund

• Grants

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• To strengt
hen/develop the
policy on irrigation development

• Initiating the process of
strengthening/developing a policy on irrigation
development

• Awareness
-
raising campaign

• To improve repair and
maintenance of wind pumps

• Empowering local end
-
users to repair

and
maintain the pumps

• Technical training

• Education

• Access to information

• To streamline and harmonise
institutional responsibility

• Expanding the rural electrification programmes
to rural energisation programmes so that they
encompass wind pump
s

• Creating a rural energy agency (as opposed to a
rural electrification agency) which would, among
others, address wind pumps

• Awareness
-
raising campaigns

• Forums




K
ey findings and recommendations


The key limitation of the study was limited access
to adequate data and information. The available
data, case studies and analysis was not sufficient to undertake a conclusive assessment of the
potential of treadle and wind pumps in poverty reduction. However, the available information and
data revealed
the following:

Assessment of Treadle
and wind
Pumps



Treadle pumps are locally manufactured and all the
materials used to make them are

s
ourced locally. The components

can be locally s
ourced and the

pump locally assembled




Wind pumps are locally manufactur
ed and assembled in some of the countries and most of
the materials used to make them can be sourced locally.




Treadle
and wind
pumps increase land area under irrigation, reduce work time, reduce time
taken in fetching water, result in improved crop qualit
y, reduce the frequency of irrigation,
are less strenuous compared to bucket irrigation; and, improve farm incomes




One of the key prerequisites for successful uptake of treadle pumps is local manufacturing
capacity




Key impact of treadle
and wind
pumps o
n poverty reduction are: increased incomes from
increased yields, crop quality and cycles, and new crops grown; employment opportunities
due to increased land area under irrigation; and, employment opportunities for artisans,
distributors and manufacturers




Main barriers faced in promotion and adoption of treadle
and wind
pumps are: lack of
capital for small
-
scale farmers; inadequate dissemination and promotional strategies;
limited land and water resources; research and adaptation of the new pumps; social
and
cultural factors; poor maintenance; and, limited policy attention to small
-
scale irrigation
systems




Introduction and success of any RETS, to a large extent, is dependent on the existing
government policy. Government policies are an important factor i
n terms of their ability to
create an enabling environment for RETS dissemination and mobilising resources as well
as encouraging private sector investment


T
he following are some of the proposed recommendations for increased promotion and
dissemina
tion of

treadle and wind pumps.


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Recommendations for Policy Makers

Introduction and success of any RETS, to a large extent, is dependent on the exis
ting government
policy
. The study’s key recommendations to policy makers include




Promote small and medium
-
scale r
enewables that
improve agricultural production,

thus
increasing the incomes of the rural poor and eventually reducing poverty levels




Develop a comprehensive policy on irrigation development that addresses the role of
energy technologies in promoting small
-
scale irrigation systems in agriculture development




Expand rural electrification programmes to rural energisation programmes so that they
encompass non
-
electrical small and medium
-
scale technologies




Lower duty on treadle and wind pump components to redu
ce the overall cost of the pumps




Concentrate on developing an industry that m
anufactures low cost renewables.
Energy
planners, investors and policy makers need to develop innovative ways to mobilize local
capital as well as minimise the total cost per uni
t produced.




Allocate funds for research and development of identified low cost renewables.




Streamline location/use of treadle or wind pumps to reduce negative impact on water levels


Recommendations for Implementers



Research Institutions/Manufacturers:
To be profitable, a technology must have a low
overall cost


low enough not to overexpose the owner to debt. It must then make money




Financial Institutions/Manufacturers: Adopt a commercial approach when promoting
treadle and wind pumps.




Research Insti
tutions/Manufactures: More work on the development of low
-
cost wind
pumps could potentially deliver significant benefits to Africa’s rural poor as well as local
manufacturers.




NGO/Manufacturers: Develop an information pack on small and medium
-
scale renewa
bles
and their impact on poverty reduction, environmental sustainability and gender and
distribute them widely to create awareness among key stakeholders




NGOs/Manufacturers: About 70% of treadle pump users are women. Better targeting of
women will go a l
ong way in making this technology contrib
ute to poverty reduction




NGOs/Manufacturers: Training should be targeted at women to help them develop
mechanical skills to assist them to deal with routine maintenance and simple breakdowns
of treadle pumps


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4
.2
Tunisia



Assessment of selected Niches

The secured and cheap access to basic commercial public services and particularly energy has
always been an important keystone of Tunisian policy. Within the framework of this policy, the
renewable energies could be
a fundamental element for economic optimization and for durable
access to energy in a context characterized with soaring conventional energy prices.


The new national energetic situation of Tunisia is marked by a continuously worsening imbalance,
inducing
an increasing dependence on international resources.


Thus, Tunisia has since year 2000, entered into a phase of chronic energy deficit. This new
situation, together with the boosted prices of oil which seem irreversible is penalizing Tunisia on
both socia
l and economic sides

In this context, energy conservation, especially the increase of RE
T
s use, is becoming an urgent
need as to ensure sustainable economic and social development.


Despite the efforts made since more than 2 decades, the contribution of R
Es in energy balance
remains very small. Apart

traditional biomass, REs represent nowadays less than 1% of energy
consumption in Tunisia although the country is endowed with a high potential of valuable REs.


A
part
from large scale wind and solar plants

pr
ioritized for their
potential
energetic contribution,
there are others niches having a lower energy impact,
b
ut are to be developed for strategic, social
and environmental reasons. Some of these niches
are:




Wind and solar pumping for small irrigation that

can have both social and economic
justification.



Rationalizing the consumption of wood (fire
-
wood) that can have both social and
environmental justifications.


Wind and solar pumps


The choice of th
e wind and solar pumps

niche is justified by the basic st
ructural characteristics of
agricultural sector in Tunisia and of its population.


In spite of its low contribution to G
D
P, agriculture still has an undeniable social and economic
importance:




It provides about 28% of the jobs among the active population.



It helps to maintain the rural population in situ; thus slowing down the rural exodus toward
cities.



It ensures food supplies and provisions for the local markets with basic products.



It provides living revenues for a large social vulnerable peasant’s cla
ss whose sole income
comes from farming. This category of small farmers represents the majority of the farming
population


M
ore than half of the farmers exploit small areas
that do not exceed 5 ha
s.
, and
about 3/4 of
farmers exploit an average of 10 ha sur
faces.

The under 10 ha ones represents respectively
46%

of
the vegetable productions. On the economic and social level these productions ha
ve a

fundamental
role. It ensure
s

about 24.6 millions working days, almost 20% of the employment offered by the
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agric
ultural sector. It ensures also an income of 435.25 MD (1990), which counts for 18% of the
added value of agriculture and fishing activities.

However, vegetable farming, which seems to be the most attractive activity for small farmers with
its social and e
conomic impact, is at risk in the

coming years because of the competition of south
European products, and the coming into effect of the free exchange agreement for agricultural
products with EU in 2008.


The increase of the conventional energy price and i
ts impact on the irrigation water cost, knowing
that these irrigations consume a lot of water, may contribute to the deterioration of the competition
ability of those small farmers and thus their vulnerability.


In the same context, and considering the sma
ll size of exploitations reserved to vegetable
production, REs pumping mainly Wind energy could be in certain cases a reliable alternative that is
more economically competitive than currently used technologies, particularly diesel pumping.



Improved Stove
s


Firewood constitutes an important part of Tunisia energy balance. This part has not diminished
since 20 years as wood energy represents the same proportion as in 1984
(
8
)
. In the future, this
traditional energy resource will continue to play an importan
t role in supplying the country with
energy but will decrease. Indeed, according to the GFD previsions, it would only represent 10% of
the final energy consumption in 2010
.


On the social level, more than 800 thousand rural homes still use wood or charcoal

for domestic
purposes, particularly in rural areas, where the petrol distribution network is not well
-
developed,
92% o
f homes use fire
wood mainly to bake bread.


It is to be noted that wood collecting is mainly a women's task. Time and distances undergone

to
gather wood are sometimes important which prove the hardships of this task.


On the economic level, the balance supply/needs on the regional level shows that only the central
region of Tunisia has an excess of wood and that all other regions have a def
icit, with covering
rates varying from 50% to 65%.

This Imbalance is really detrimental to the ecosystems which are
already very degraded in the North
-
East, North
-
West and the South of Tunisia.


Hence, the wood energy issue in Tunisia has to be considered

from a point of view of rationalizing
its consumption not its valorisation. Efforts are to be oriented to set up actions and mechanisms
aiming at reducing consumption in order to minimize the oppressiveness of rural population
especially women and to pres
erve local ecosystems
.



Nevertheless, in reality, the diffusion of this technique remains limited compared to the number of
Tabouna in Tunisia (about 200 000
(
9
)
).
ANME has not succeeded up to now to find the adequate



8

Doctorate, Samir Amous and Ezeddine Ouarghui, 1984.

9

According to the strategic study for the development of REs in Tunisia, ANME, 1996.

Box 4.2.1. Improved Tabouna firewood stove


ANME in collaboration with the German cooperation developed since the ea
rly 90s the concept of an ameliorated
technique used to bake bread (Tabouna). The new technique consists of a lid or a cap that would decrease the heat
loss from the Tabouna. This tool could reduce 40% to 68% of wood consumption for baking bread which repr
esents
50% of fire wood uses in rural homes.

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mechanism to help the diffusion of th
is technique in rural areas despite its simplicity and
efficiency.



Problems

Wind and solar pumping for small irrigation


Until recently, the use of wind and solar pumping has remained very limited in Tunisia. Indeed, the
government has not set up an ambi
tious program to diffuse these technologies. Today there are
less than 70 PV pumps and less than 10 wind pumps installed. These pumps are just used to extract
fresh drinkable water.


Actually, most of these tools are out of use because of technical proble
ms caused by the wrong
sites choice or inefficient technical reception of these devices. These receptions are held by
officials of Regional Agricultural Development Agencies (CRDA), who are not skilled to uphold
this responsibility.


This slow progress cou
ld be explained by various constraints encountered by this niche.

A limited knowledge of technologies


The PV and wind pumping are not well known by farmers and rural populations. Beside that, the
planning officials, the engineers and vulgarization agents
in charge of providing fresh water for
irrigation in rural areas are not aware of the interest of wind and solar pumping as an economical
and technical efficient solution under certain conditions.


In addition there is no of information and awareness actio
n around these niches.

Besides,
there is no local supply able to develop a market on a commercial base and to participate
in the dissemination of technologies.

Absence of national program

As mentioned before and to today there is no a coherent national p
rogram to equip with solar or
wind pumping devices. In fact, ANME has managed to persuade some consumers to use solar
energy to supply electricity in addition to the electric grid. Nevertheless, PV and wind pumping has
remained marginal in the national pro
grams of fresh water production and irrigation.


It's therefore essential to reinforce partnership between different agencies such as ANME and
CRDA so as to set up development program for this sector.

Insufficient local skills

The absence of a clear and re
liable market has hindered the emergence of local skilled people, thus
the technologies have not been easily introduced. Specific skills related to solar and wind pumping
remains underdeveloped within private companies and governmental offices (CRDA), as w
ell, few
and even no training programs has been made available in this activity .

Unrecogniz
ed

wind potentia
l

Nowadays, there is not a precise evaluation of the wind potential in Tunisia; there is not
particularly a precise enough wind Atlas to suggest f
easible solution for wind pumping for farmers.


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This issue could be solved by 2007 after the elaboration of an Atlas by ANME with Spanish
collaboration.

Costly investment

Finally, one of the major handicaps to the diffusion of wind and solar pumping is th
e amount of
money that should be invested. Indeed, even if in some cases these pumping technologies are more
fruitful for small farmers; they opt for the solution of diesel pumping as its initial investment is
cheaper.


Also, there is no current financial
mechanism that would help overcome the constraints of initial
investment so as to put the progress in this field on the override.


Ra
tionalizing consumption of fire
wood


The problem
s

of the energy wood field can be summarized in the following points:




The
Tabouna covered with a lid is a useful and cheap technique; its energy performances
are confirmed. Still, the diffusion of this technology in rural areas remains low compared to
the potential of Tabouna that can be equipped.



The penetration at a high level

of this technique is facing an absence of an innovating
mechanism for expansion; the initial idea of ANME to lean on market mechanisms for the
diffusion of the lid correspond to a sustainable approach of the dissemination of this
technology in rural areas
. Unfortunately, the conditions for the settling of this approach
have not been gathered together.



Although the lids are not costly (9 DT), the commercial diffusion of this device is facing a
structural problem linked to the dominating characteristic of au
to
-
supply of fire wood from
forests. "Free" wood doesn't make it easy to give a financial value for a big quantity of
wood that could be saved when using the Tabouna lid.



The valorisation can only be in term of reduction of difficulties related to wood col
lecting
and the economic valorisation of saved time.



Another difficulty is related to a dispersed market, which makes the distribution costs high.



The recent approach adopted by ANME to rely on NGOs for the distribution of Tabouna
lids seems adequate. The

distribution cost of the lids would therefore be reduced if it were
integrated as a simple component of the NGOs classical tasks.



Independently from diffusion approach, the awareness rising is still the weak point of the
actions of institutional actors in

this field. An important effort must be made for awareness
rising and the communication for the aimed population and the partners to the diffusion
(NGOs, Forestry Agencies, Managing groups of Forests).



Currently the lid is totally financed by the governme
nt. It seems important to give it a price
in order to make house holds partners.



The wood energy field is situated between the administration of energy (management of
needs) and the administration of forestry (management of wood supplies). This situation
u
sually causes problem of coordination between the administrations and impedes the
setting up of a coherent policy in this field.

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Finally, this field has always lacked financial means for its development and progress.


Policy outlines

Table 4.2.
1

Summary of

objectives, policy outlines and instruments for
solar and wind pumps and
improved stoves in
Tunisia

Niches

Objectives

Policies

Instruments

Solar and
Wind pumps

• Improve the knowledge and the
acceptability of these technologies by the
concerned partners
: farmers, agricultural
facilities
-
sellers, administration, banks, etc.

• Facilitate the access to loans to
finance solar and wind pumping.


• Mechanism permitting middle term
bank loans

• In depth evaluation of conditions for
financial partners interven
tion

• Launch a pilot project for micro
-
loans

• To imply the local authorities extensively in
the promotion of the PV (photovoltaic)
pumping and wind.

• Make Wind and Solar pumping
benefit from Water economy
subsidies



• To encourage the progressive o
ccurrence
of qualified and competent operators and
widely an embedded national field for these
technologies.

• Convincing the Ministry of
Agriculture and the RADA.

• Launching a communication
campaign

• Periodic organization of seminars and
workshops





Convincing Non Governmental
Organizations.


• Communication campaign



• Sensitizing farmers and rural
population.


• Communication campaign



• Communication targeting experts
in this field.


• Communication campaign



• Communication campaign
tar
geting experts of water
resources.


• Communication campaign



• Training consulting firms.

• Well targeted training sessions



• Training and approval of installers
and operators of maintenance.

• Identify technicians and craftsmen in
rural areas



• Elaboration of a decision making
help tool for the choice of pumping
mode.

• Evaluate irrigated area, type of
cultivars
, soils properties,
agro climatic

data, etc.



Niches

Objectives

Policies

Instruments

Improved wood
stoves

• Setting up of simple an
d
efficient mechanisms for the
diffusion in rural areas of the
lid.

• Convincing rural homes that the
lid have a financial value. Users
should participate even
symbolically in the cost of the lid
purchase.

• 20% of the cost to be covered by the user

• 80%
of the cost to be covered by the Forest
Service

• Expansion of the use of the
lid.

• Sensibilisation of NGOs for rural
Development.

• Incorporate into NGO sustainable development
program (improvement of
women’s

living conditions,
preservation of the envi
ronment and ecosystems,
creation of local jobs, etc.)

• Set up a partnership between NGOs and ANME for
communication

• Trivialization of the lid offer in
rural area.

• Sensibilisation of the forest
services.

• Specific awareness actions for forest servic
es

• Forest services to play a central role in the
diffusion of the lid



• The ANME to play a role of
guidance and assistance to
different partners.





• The General Management of
Forests (DGF) and the regional
forest services to finance and
distrib
ute the lids.





• The NGOs for rural development
to play an important role in
sensibilising the rural population
and in the expansion of the use of
the Tabouna lids.





• The association for Agricultural
Development to manage the
ultimate handing ov
er of Tabouna
lids





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Key findings and recommendations


Wind and solar pumping for the small irrigation


Actions to be undertaken in
the
sh
ort term aim

at triggering the process of negotiations between
partners in order to converge quickly toward the lau
nching of the proposed pilot program. It’s
essentially the following activities:




To create an adhoc working group including representatives of the ANME and DGGR to
launch the reflection on the development of the niche and to define the intervention
framew
ork of each of the two institutions;



To organize a workshop on the development of the niche widened to all concerned
partners: Ministry of the agriculture (DGGR, DGFE, DGRE), ANME, UTAP,
Banks,
NGOs, consulting firms
;



To work out a “concept paper” definin
g the essential features of the pilot program;



To work out requests for financing on the basis of the concept paper



To present and to follow up the requests made to main financial bankers;



To prepare a Project Information Note (PIN) in order to launch the

CDM process.


Rationalizing fire
wood consumption


In the same way as previously mentioned, the program aims at a good preparation of the execution
of the program through feasibility evaluation and dialogue between the main concerned partners, it
should b
e essentially based the following activities:




To create an adhoc working group including representatives of the ANME and DGF to
launch the reflection on the development of the niche and to define the intervention
framework of each of the two institutions;




To organize a workshop on the development of the niche widened to all concerned
partners: DGF, ANME, CRDA, Ministry of Finances, Development NGOs...;



To work out a “concept paper” defining the essential features of the pilot program based on
the current
document;



To work out requests of financing on the basis of this concept paper



To present and to follow up these requests to the main financial backers;



To prepare a Project Information Note (PIN) in order to launch the CDM process.


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4
.3
Senegal


Assessm
ent of selected Niches


Huge numbers of Africans are still deprived of access to basic social services (health, water,
education, etc.) and face serious problems with regard to food security, employment and wealth
creation. Economic policies and reforms pu
rsued in the past have failed to achieve the development
goals they set. Now, amid high demographic growth, poverty is spreading


it now affects not just
rural areas but also urban and peri
-
urban ones. African poverty hits women harder than men.


This st
udy relates
to
the new dynamic engaged in the countries of West Africa for the reduction of
poverty through the national Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) which is an appropriate
platform to re
-
launch a sustainable development that integrates all of
the sectors bearing the
economy. These poverty alleviation strategies are also an opportunity for the consideration of the
energy dimension in development through a better articulation of energy with other strategic
sectors of development: Health, Agricult
ure, Water, Education…etc, while integrating the gender
and environment dimensions.


This new dynamic fits within the energy context which is marked by three major trends: i) a
commercial energy demand highly dependent on the importation of oil, ii) an ove
r exploitation of
the ligneous resources which contributes for more than half of the final energy consumption; which
leads to harmful impacts on the environment, iii) the marginalisation of renewable energies in spite
of the significant potentials that the
y present.


To this effect, th
is

study underscores the need to mobilise different energy resources and to
particularly reposition the renewable energy field within the framework of an overall development
vision based on the strengthening of energy access
for the improvement of living conditions and
the development of productive activities.


Rationalising
the
use of biomass fuel
, which is the most common source of fuel in the sub
-
region,
is one cornerstone of the energy policies of West African countries an
d represents one crucial way
in which women’s health can be improved and their workloads lightened. The biomass sector, in
which an array of actors are active both in terms of supply and demand, offers considerable
opportunities in terms of tackling povert
y and stimulating income
-
generating activities.


Since more than two decades, several experiences have been carried out in West African countries
and has also made it possible to confirm that the
improved biomass stove
technology is now mature
and can cont
ribute towards the improvement of access to basic social services and to the
development of income generating activities, that the acquisition by users is feasible and its use is
adaptable to local conditions.


In Senegal
a
ll of the rural population and a

sizeable section of the urban population draw on forest
resource
s

to satisfy their basic energy needs, particularly for cooking purposes. This creates intense
pressure on forest resource and exacerbates deforestation and desertification


This was the cont
ext in which Senegal adopted policies and measures aimed at influencing both the
supply (through participative land planning schemes and forestry actions) and demand (promoting
the rational use of fuel wood and alternative fuels such as LPG and renewable e
nergies
10
.


The introduction of LPG spurred a dynamic whereby d
omestic fuels were diversified
. However, th
e

strong increase in LPG consumption did not translate into a corresponding drop in biomass



10

ENDA Energy ‘FINESSE Study’ for ADB, (2005)


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consumption
.

This trend is likely to persist, or even inten
sify, as demographic growth in rural and
peri
-
urban areas (poverty pockets) continues to climb and compound
with
the continuous hikes in
the price of oil products.


If nothing is done to alter this situation, forest resources will drop from 250 million m3
in 2005 to
200 million m3 in 2015
.


The dissemination of improved stoves represents an important part of efforts to instil the rational
use of biomass. The fact that forest resources are dwindling, suitable technology has been
developed and adopted and a c
ommercial market for biomass has emerged means conditions are
ripe for the implementation of actions aimed at rationalising demand by introducing efficient
equipment


notably improved stoves.


The overall

goal of distributing the IS is
to make consumptio
n of ligneous biomass for cooking
purposes more efficient so as to preserve forest resources, improve people’s living conditions in