TG_ Tech_ Gr 8_ 9 - People

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LEARNING AREA

T
ECHNOLOGY


T
ECHNOLOGY
G
RADE

AND

T
ECHNOLOGY
G
RADE

T
EACHER

S GUIDE




Phase synopsis (Grades 8 and 9)


D
EFINITION OF
T
ECHNOLOGY

Technology is defined as:



The utilisation of knowledge, skills and resources to
satisfy the needs and desires of people through the
development of practical solutions to problems, with
cons
ideration of social and environmental factors




This is not easily accomplished in the classroom. OBE
requires that we regard the learning process and the
content as equally important. Technology is
particularly suited to the OBE approach. It, in fact,
c
annot be taught by any other means. The process that
the learners follow, rather than the content, forms
the nucleus of the learning programme.




You therefore have to provide the learners with opportunities to solve problems by
employing their knowledge

and skills. If learners do not have the necessary knowledge
or skills, they must acquire what they need by means of research or tasks. You, as the
educator, have the task of identifying the gaps in the learners’ abilities and guiding them
through the en
hancement of their capabilities by means of the learning programme.



The steps, or the Technological Process, are the guidelines for learners to follow the
correct procedure. The main steps of the process involve Investigating, Designing,
Developing (makin
g) and Evaluating. It is important for learners to assemble portfolios in
the course of the learning programme. The steps that the learner follows to solve the
problem must be presented in the portfolio. This provides the basis for evaluation,
because i
t represents the learner’s own work. The following divisions must be
identifiable in the learner’s portfolio:



Research



Communication



Practical work



Knowledge of the technological process



Tests




It is most important that the learner’s portfolio be kept in
a folder in the classroom. Each
module is provided with an assessment sheet for recording all the results obtained for a
particular module. You are advised to keep a copy of this assessment sheet in your own
folder. Encourage learners to consult the ass
essment sheet regularly. The assessment
sheet will also help you to gain immediate access to the learner’s results in each of the
learning programmes, which will be particularly helpful during the process of moderation.
This method also enables learners
to obtain an overall view of the learning programme in
the particular phase.




Synopsis of Grades 8 and 9


You are advised to page further and examine the
summary of the policy framework for Technology Grades
4
-

9 before reading this synopsis. It will en
able
you to gain an overall view of Technology in the
school environment.




The two learning programmes (for Grade 8 and 9 respectively) are structured in terms of
Learning Outcome 2: Knowledge and Understanding.



The learning programme repeatedly covers the

three areas indicated by the assessment
standards of LO2, namely Structures, Processing and Systems and Control.



The learning programmes have been compiled in a way that exposes learners to as
many areas of technology as possible. Educators are often war
y of moving beyond the
boundaries of their own fields of knowledge, but you can rest assured that our package
will facilitate this because of the adequate amount of support material contained in it.




The learning programme for Grade 8 comprises four module
s:

1.

Structures (AS area
-

Structures)

2.

Food Processing / (AS area
-

Processing)

3.

Electricity / Electronics (AS area
-

Systems and Control)

4.

Recycling




The learning programmes for Grade 9 comprise three modules:

1.

Mechanical systems (AS area
-

Systems and Cont
rol)

2.

Architecture (AS area
-

Structures)

3.

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems




There is a constant focus on Graphic communication. With different aspects of graphic
communication being built into every learning programme it is therefore not treated as a
separate section.



Learning outcome 1 (Technological Processes and Skills: Investigate, Design, Make,
Evaluate and Communicate) and Learning Outcome 2 (Technology, Society and the
Environment) are not presented in separate modules. LO1 forms the basis for
all the
activities in Technology and therefore also for all the modules in the learning programme.
Throughout, the activities are also focussed on LO3 and this therefore is also included in
the modules.



Ensure that the critical outcomes that are relevant
to education in South Africa are
constantly borne in mind. It would be wise to display these outcomes in the classroom,
so that learners will also become aware of them. The relevant outcomes are listed in
Part 1 of this guide.





F
RAMEWORK FOR
T
ECHNOLOGY

G
RADES
4



9

LOs

ASs 4

ASs 5

ASs 6

ASs 7

ASs 8

ASs 9

LO1

TECHNOLOGICAL
PROCESSES AND
SKILLS

Investigate

Design

Make

Evaluate

Communicate

Investigate

Design

Make

Evaluate

Communicate

Investigate

Design

Make

Evaluate

Communicate

Investigate

Design

Make

Eva
luate

Communicate

Investigate

Design

Make

Evaluate

Communicate

Investigate

Design

Make

Evaluate

Communicate

LO2

KNOWLEDGE AND
UNDERSTANDING

Structures

Processing

Systems and
Control

Structure

Processing

Systems and
control

Structure

Processing

Systems and

Control

Structure

Processing

Systems and
Control

Structure

Processing

Systems and
Control

Structure

Processing

Systems and
Control▪

LO3

TECHNOLOGY,
SOCIETY AND
ENVIRONMENT

Indigenous
Technology and
Culture

Impact of
Technology

Prejudice in
Technology

Ind
igenous
Technology and
Culture

Impact of
Technology

Prejudice in
Technology

Indigenous
Technology and
Culture

Impact of
Technology

Prejudice in
Technology

Indigenous
Technology and
Culture

Impact of
Technology

Prejudice in
Technology

Indigenous
Technology
and
Culture

Impact of
Technology

Prejudice in
Technology

Indigenous
Technology and
Culture

Impact of
Technology

Prejudice in
Technology






Grade 8 Module 1


Time schedule



On average, 27,5 hours per week are available for physical instruction. Eight per
cent of this time, which comes to about 2,2 hours per week, must be allotted to
Technology. This should allow about three lessons per week, depending on how
periods are divided at your school. Our planning is aimed at 45
-

to 50
-
minute
periods. Each year

has approximately 40 weeks of school, including examination
times. Each of the modules (3 for Grade 8 and 3 for Grade 9) will require
approximately 10 weeks for completion, which should make it possible to work
through the programmes with relative ease.

Synopsis:

S
TRUCTURES



Week 1:

Activities 1 and 2



Week 2:

Activity 3



Week 3:

Activities 4 and 5



Week 4 to 8:

Activity 6



Week 9:

Activity 7



Week 10:

Activity 8




MEMORANDUM

Structures



The learners became acquainted with the theme of
Structures in Grades 4
-
7.

In Grade 4, the focus
was on strengthening structures by means of
folding, the creation of tubular and triangular
structures and firm joins. In Grade 5, the
emphasis was placed on different kinds of
structures and the relationship between the type of
mat
erial and the load that a structure could bear.
In Grade 6, the choice of materials and
reinforcement of structures were investigated. In
Grade 7, further attention was given to the
characteristics of specific materials,
reinforcement, stability and tech
niques for
creating joins.



In Grade 8, the above is continued. This makes it
important for the educator to determine what the
excising knowledge of the learners encompass by
means of questions, as they will be from a variety
of primary schools and may not

necessarily have
gained equal insight and skills. Module 1 was
written with the explicit aim of supporting the
learner with inadequate knowledge so that he/she
would not feel altogether left out. The emphasis
is on the application of knowledge and skill
s,
which means that the learner has ample opportunity
to be involved and that a fair amount of time will
have to be given to learner inputs and to
assessment. In many instances, the educator might
want to update activities.



Learner involvement may be faci
litated even where
no specific activities are suggested, by asking the
learners to provide additional examples or to
explain issues in greater detail.


...........................
ACTIVITY 1



The leaf (p. 1): Encourage the learners to mention further examples of natural
structures
and to record these in the vacant space surrounding the leaf. The same
is applicable to the crane on p. 2 and the examples used to illustrate particular
functions (p. 2
-
3).

A
SSIGNMENT
1



Consider letting each learner build a cardboard model of a house in a
dvance.




Allow a fair amount of time for discussion of the learners' tables so that a
maximum number of structures can eventually be listed. The list of examples
provided below is incomplete.




ITEM

CASING/FRAME

FUNCTION

Walls

Shell/casing

Support, prote
ction

Lintels

Frame

Reinforcement/strengthening

Door and window
frames

Frame

Support, bridging

Roof trusses

Frame/casing

Bridging, support

TV cupboard

Frame/shell

Protection

Roof

Shell

Protection

Door frames

Frame

Support

Railings

Frame

Support

Cur
tain rails

Frame

Support

Chairs

Frame

Support

Tables

Frame /shell

Support / bridging

Shelves

Frame

Support



...........................
ACTIVITY 2



Encourage the learners to illustrate the four types of force by means of additional
examples.


A
SSIGNMENT
2

1.

Let the learners offer o
ther ideas and discuss each idea (e.g. will a rectangular
'pillar' be stronger or weaker? Will a slender double
-
walled pillar (with the paper
overlapping) be stronger than a more stocky pillar with single
-
layer walls?)

2.

Let the learners decide which facto
rs determine strength: e.g. more shallow folds
or fewer deeper folds, the type of paper, etc.




Allow sufficient time for learners to name examples from their daily environment. The
class could discuss the examples and suggest improvements.



...........................
ACTIVITY 3

A
S
SIGNMENT
3



Square
: A triangle provides the strongest reinforcement; a single diagonal beam in
one direction will be stronger than any other kind of reinforcement.



Triangle
: Which of the beams in the illustrated structure bears the most weight?
Do all the

beams bear equal weight? Let the learners decide. How could this be
tested? Remove beams in turn and check whether the structure is weakened.





Learners could also use pipe cleaners to represent a bicycle frame. Let the
learners name further examples

and allow class discussion.

A
SSIGNMENT
4

1.

Which factors determine the strength of the strut? The thickness of the strut, the
joins and the distance between the joins and the ends.

Encourage the learners to list examples in common practice and discuss this
.

2.

The forces of both stress and compression. Force from above causes vertical
compression (right down) and stress on the rope (horizontal) to keep the legs from
shifting. If the force is not applied from above but from the side, one of the legs
will be a
ble to move. It can be rectified by replacing the rope with a solid bar.



...........................
ACTIVITY 4

1.

The learners must draw lines by linking dots. An additional suggestion: work from
both dots for lines to meet in the middle (By doing this, it is less likely that the
line
will miss the dot).

2.

and 3.

Suggest that learners practise drawing straight freehand lines on loose
sheets of paper.

4.

and 5.

Bear in mind that these are freehand sketches. Adequate opportunity for
practising freehand drawing on loose paper is the
refore important. Also
encourage learners to practise in context, e.g. by drawing the wheels of a
vehicle, etc.



...........................
ACTIVITY 5



Allow learners to discuss beams, pillars, struts, crossbeams and anchor lines and
to list examples. Let them explain where the st
resses are exerted and what the
application of a specific structure is, why it is suitable for the application and how
it could be improved. In the case of a crossbar, the stress, for instance, is exerted
below; a pillar bears vertical stress that is equa
lly strong all over.


A
SSIGNMENT
5



It is important to use correct terminology when discussing examples:




Bow and arrow
:

Problem: It was necessary to hunt to get food. Animals could not be caught by hand. It
became necessary to design a weapon.

The bow an
d arrow as a structure: The string is used to exert the force of stress on the
bow. The bending of the bow makes it possible to transfer this force to the arrow as the
force of compression. The arrow, as a beam, causes the force to work in the direction
of the arrow point to penetrate the prey.




Crossbow

Like the bow and arrow, but more accurate and more powerful.





Shield and spear

The spear serves as a beam, which means that the force is exerted in the direction of
the point, which can therefore penetrat
e the prey. The shield forms a shell structure,
with the skin as shell and the wood as a frame.




Sword

The blade works as a beam.




Ordinary hut

A shell structure, with the woodwork as frame and the grass as shell.




Rondavel and thatch
-
roofed houses

Like o
rdinary huts, but with the clay forming part of the shell.

A
SSIGNMENT
6



Skyscrapers
: larger numbers of people are able to inhabit a specific space. This
facilitates urbanisation and makes demands on urban transport, sewerage, electricity
supply, removal o
f storm water: problems that had to be solved by means of technology
and have created job opportunities, which lead to further urbanisation.




Aeroplanes
: great distances can be covered in brief periods of time, which means that
both people and goods can be

transported quickly. This, however, has implications
with regard to pollution and the utilisation of natural resources. It also increases the
tempo of living.




Roof trusses
: For people who live in inhospitable climatic regions, roof trusses prevent
roof
s from collapsing when there are heavy snowfalls and hail.




Railway lines and trains
: As with aeroplanes, but trains have also enabled people to
spread civilisation across the globe.




Bridges
: as with aeroplanes and trains.



...........................
ACTIVITY 6



Refer to the framew
ork included in the module for the assessment of the work. You
could extend the framework to meet all possible portfolio requirements, e.g. by
ordering research results by means of tables and by means of graphic
presentations.



...........................
ACTIVITY 7



Ensure that the

learners are given sufficient opportunity to master this important
drawing skill. Neatness is particularly important and the use of light construction
lines and basic sketching skills (Activity 4) will enable the learner to meet these
requirements.




Gra
de 8 Module 2

Food Processing

Overview / Memorandum


...........................
ACTIVITY 1

Introduction:



The module deals with food processing. Seeing that only a few schools have the
necessary facilities to cook food, a fast
-
food dish has been chosen as learners can
prepare it at

home and put it together in the classroom. It would be very helpful if a
microwave oven were available during the production process. Learners must be
encouraged to develop sound business principles during the course of this module. It is
for this reas
on that entrepreneurship is emphasized. The module could also be linked to
possible market days.

1.1

Processing can involve any material or product that undergoes a process in order to form
a new product. That entails the processing, combining, colouring
, packaging, etc. of
materials and products.

1.2

Any example that is distinctive of your environment, e.g. grapes to wine, wheat to bread,
etc. can be used.


...........................
ACTIVITY 2



Use the pictures for this activity. The pictures have been jumbled and must be organiz
ed
in the tables that follow them, as indicated in this memorandum.



The function of each piece of equipment must also be written down.

G
ROUP
1:

M
EASURING
U
TENSILS

U
TENSIL
(
S
)

F
UNCTION

1.

Measuring spoons

To measure small amounts of liquids or dry ingredie
nts.

2.

Measuring cup

To measure small amounts of dry ingredients.

3.

Measuring jug

To measure liquids and dry ingredients.

4.

Scales

To measure dry and solid ingredients.


G
ROUP
2:

M
IXING
U
TENSILS

1.

Mixing
-
bowl

To mix cake mixtures and mixtures for
scones, bread or biscuits.

2.

Wooden spoon

To stir or beat starch or milk mixtures; to rub ingredients through a
sieve.

3.

Spatula

To fold stiffly beaten egg whites into a mixture; to apply icing; to
turn flapjacks.

4.

Dough scraper

To scrape mixtures o
ut of bowls, dishes and saucepans so that
there is no wastage; to scrape leftovers out of plates and dishes
before washing the dishes.

5.

Balloon whisk

To beat (whisk) eggs and other liquid mixtures.





G
ROUP
3:

C
OOKING
U
TENSILS

1.

Saucepan

To cook, ste
am or simmer food; to make sauces or gravies;
to cook jam.

2.

Double boiler

To cook food by steaming it, e.g. egg custard, rice or fish.

G
ROUP
4:

B
AKING
-

AND
G
RILLING
U
TENSILS

1.

Baking tray

To bake scones and biscuits.

2.

Bread and cake tins

To bake c
akes and bread.

G
ROUP
5:

S
UNDRIES

1.

Sieve

To sieve flour and dry ingredients.

2.

Colander

To drain rice and vegetables, to wash lettuce and other vegetables.

3.

Grater

To grate vegetables, cheese, nuts, orange peel.

4.

Kettle

To boil water.



...........................
ACTIVI
TY 3



Allow learners to write down their own rules, present them to the class and then respond
to the reactions from the class.


...........................
ACTIVITY 4

4.1



Keep sharp knives out of children’s reach.



Cut away from yourself when using a chopping
-
board.



Do not allow pets
in the kitchen.



Keep curtains away from the stove.



Do not wear garments with long or wide sleeves when you work at the stove.



Mark containers that contain foodstuffs and cleaning agents clearly.



Mark poisons clearly and keep them out of reach of children.



Roll broken glass in layers of newspaper before placing it in a rubbish bin.



When passing a knife to someone, present it with the handle pointing towards the
recipient.



Do not run and play in a kitchen.

4.2



Turn pot or pan handles away from the edge of the

stove.



Do not leave the kitchen while there is hot oil on the stove.



Use dry potholders, not wet cloths.



If oil should start burning, place a lid on the container; do not pour water on oil.



Lift the lid of a pot in such a manner that the steam escapes awa
y from you.




4.3



Do not use damaged electrical cords.



Turn power off after use.



Do not handle appliances with wet hands.



Keep electrical cords away from hot appliances.



Have repair work done by qualified person.


...........................
ACTIVITY 5

5.1

Apply pressure to the wou
nd.

Keep the wound high.

5.2

Burn wounds caused by dry heat, e.g. flames.

Burn wounds caused by moist heat, e.g. steam and boiling water.

Treatment

Reduce the heat by applying ice or cold water to the affected area as speedily as
possible.

5.3

Sleeves must

be rolled up at all times.

Use a thick, dry cloth with which to handle hot utensils.

Pan or pot handles should not protrude from the edge of the stove.

A fire blanket and fire extinguisher should be kept in every kitchen.

5.4

The sketch is a summary of al
l the safety measures that have been dealt with thus far.
Allow a class discussion on the learners’ contributions.


...........................
ACTIVITY 6

6.1

Each learner has five pages with diagrams such as the one shown below. Allow them to
exchange information by means of presentat
ions.


Food Group


E
XAMPLES



M
AIN
N
UTRIENT





F
UNCTION OF
M
AIN
N
UTRIENT



................................
................................
................................
................................
...............



................................
................................
................................
................................
...............




6.2

Examples of goals:



Eat less sugar.



Eat less fat.



Eat less salt.



Eat more fibre.



Do not overeat.



Eat a balanced meal.





























...........................
ACTIVITY 7



This activity c
overs the technological process. Learners can work in groups of 2 or 3.
Groups can draw a map of the country they will represent. Countries such as Spain,
Greece, Mexico, the USA, the RSA and France all have well
-
known fast foods. Make
cards with the n
ames of the different countries on them and let the learners draw.



The idea is that the learners will plan and erect a fast food stall for the show.

D
IET
S
WEETS
?

I
S
THAT

THE PRICE OF
SUGAR
-
FREE SWEETS
?

I EAT JUST ENOUGH FO
OD AND FOOD WITH

A LOT OF FIBRE

I

AVOID ALL FOOD WITH
SALT
.



OR WITH FAT


WOW
!

H
OW DO YOU
FEEL
?

H
UNGRY
!




7.1

The activity can be done on an A4 page. The name of the members of the company, the
name of the busi
ness and the logo of the business must appear on the page.

7.2

Compare the staple food and fast foods of two countries / cultures. A class discussion /
summary on the board in order to summarise all the countries’ staple foods and fast
foods, will be very

useful.

7.3

Photocopy the research pages and give them to the learners to be completed. It is
important to give the learners sufficient time for research seeing that a great deal of the
research must be done at the businesses themselves.

7.4

The group mu
st produce ideas of possible fast foods in order to select a final fast food
product.

7.5

During their planning, learners must keep in mind all the facets that have been mentioned
in the module. Special emphasis must be placed on the costing and the sell
ing price of
the product. Learners will thus be able to calculate the profit per item.

7.6

Seeing that it is a group presentation, the learners must be thoroughly prepared.
Therefore it would be meaningful for the learners to complete a flow chart to ill
ustrate
their production line.

Encourage learners to decorate their stall (table) and to have a
poster with a sketch of their product and its price.

7.7

If you have the necessary facilities, you could allow the learners to prepare their food in
class, but

you would have to give them extra time. The other option is that the food can
be prepared at home, and only be assembled during the presentation.

7.8

Learners can write their own evaluation by reading the specifications again and using
them as criteria.

Learners can evaluate the taste, texture and appearance, and make
recommendations and improvements.




A
N EVALUATION SHEET S
UCH AS THE ONE THAT
HAS BEEN ATTACHED CA
N BE GIVEN
TO THE PANEL
:


C
OMPANY
:


M
EMBERS
:




T
IME
:




Final product:

M
ARK
O
UT OF
10



C
ULTURAL LINK




N
UTRITIONAL VALUE




O
RIGINALITY




Q
UALITY CONTROL




P
RODUCTION LINE
EFFECTIVENESS




P
RESENTATION




C
OMPANY SPIRIT




T
IDINESS
/
HYGIENE




P
RICE CONTROL




T
OTAL IMPRESSION


TOTAL MARK
(out of 100)
:





Grade 8 Module 3


Electricity

Synopsis of

the Module



Most learners take having electricity in their homes for granted. A class discussion could
address the following:



How people who have no electricity manage
. We are referring to the use of
earth ovens, open fires, solar cooking apparatus. Lea
rners who are privileged
enough to have electricity in their homes, often do not realise what the costs are.



The cost of electricity
: Electricity is provided to us in kilowatts (kW). The
average cost is 39 cents per kilowatt
-
hour (kWh). If you use 5 kil
owatts' worth of
electricity in an hour, it will cost you 5 x 39 cents. Nowadays, many homes are
provided with apparatus for pre
-
paid electricity and electric power is paid for in
units. The apparatus indicates how many kW
-
hours worth of electricity is s
till
available for use.



The difference between direct current (DC) and alternative current (AC).

Alternative current is the power used in our homes. It is generated in various
ways, e.g. in nuclear power, hydroelectric power, or coal power stations, or f
rom
wind or solar power. A consistent 220
-
volt (V) current is generated in South
Africa. Many electrical appliances have transformers to decrease the current
because this voltage is too high.



Direct current comes from batteries and electric cells
. The c
urrent is
obtained from a chemical reaction within a battery. When a battery is ‘flat’ it is
unable to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Many batteries, e.g. car
batteries and cellular phone batteries, can be recharged.


C
IRCUIT COMPONENTS
:



Battery: One of the easiest batteries to use as a source of electricity in the classroom is
the PP3 battery that generates 9 volts. It is particularly suitable as it has a clamp that
can be fitted to the poles quite easily. The battery also has a red w
ire that is positive and
a black wire that indicates the negative charge. This will enable learners to build circuits
and the educator to test all the different currents with one battery, by simply connecting
all the learners' circuits to the battery.


9V

+

Symbol






If educators should prefer using a 220V alternating current as power source, a
transformer will have to be used to transform the alternating current to a 9V direct
current. Appliances for doing this can be bought, but are also easily constructed if
one
has the necessary technical knowledge.



The advantage of such an appliance is that it can be used over a long period of
time. It incorporates a safety mechanism to deal with the possibility of a learner
inverting the polarity. The sketch below represents

such a circuit. It is possible to
obtain casings for such appliances from suppliers of electrical appliances.



Resistors offer resistance to the flow of current in the same way that a tap
determines the force of the stream of water. Resistors have fixed

values, but
adjustable resistors can be set. It is important to know that all other components
also offer resistance to the flow of the current.



The value of a resistor is indicated by means of a colour code on the resistor. The
first three bands ind
icate the numerical value and the fourth indicates the accuracy
of the resistor. Resistance of 1 K is 1000 Ohm. The colour code will have the
following colours: Brown (1), black (0), red (00). The following chart is generally
used in practice. It is ad
visable to have an actual chart in the classroom.






The resistor colour
-
code chart


Accuracy band

Example question:



Find te vlue of te
牥sisto爠sown below


b牯wn

blck

牥d

扡湤

扡湤

扡湤

Answer

Brown band

=

1

Black band

=

0

Red band

=

00

= 1 &

0 & 00

= 1 000 ohms

of 1K ohms

Colour



Zeros

Black

0

0


Brown

1

1

0

Red

2

2

00

Orange

3

3

000

Yellow

4

4

0000

green

5

5

00000

Blue

6

6

000000

violet

7

7

0000000

grey

8

8

00000000

white

9

9

000000000


L
IGHT
-
EMITTING DIODES
(LED
S
)



A

diode is a component that allows the current to flow in one direction only. It works on
the same principle as one
-
way water valves. The triangle in the symbol indicates the
direction of the current, while the line indicates the side at which the negativ
e end of the
battery should be linked.

Resistor

Value

bands

Accuracy band

Symbol






A diode emits heat when a current flows through it. Light
-
matting diodes emit light
and are commonly used in appliances. They are available in a range of colours,
like red, yellow, green and even blue. If a lear
ner should want to make a set of
Christmas lights, a flickering LED can be linked. One such LED will induce a
flicker in a whole range of LEDs if they are linked in series. LEDs cannot be linked
directly to a 9
-
volt current because this would lead to a b
low out. A resistor should
be linked before the LED to protect it.

LED = Light Emitting Diode

‘n LED = 1.2 volt guestroom +/
-


Switches



Many different switches are available. The sketches show several switches, as
well as a simple model that could b
e built to illustrate the workings of a switch to
the learners.



Push to make switch











Toggle switch

(stays on once pushed)











Side switch










Switches can be linked in two ways:



(AND): logical gate: If switches A AND B are closed,

the light bulb will glow.






Paperclip
bent up

Wire

Drawing pins

Wood

Push clip down

Slide sideways to make conta
ct

Wood

Wood

Slide sideways to either position

Symbol

symbol

Symbol

A

B






OR: logical gate: When switch A OR B is closed, the light bulb will glow.







Building circuits:



Electric boards are ideal for building circuits. These boards have holes so that
components can be fitted or removed wit
h ease. Some holes are linked
horizontally, while others are linked vertically. It is important to avoid placing all
the components in the same circuit, as this will result in the current following the
line of least resistance, and the components will fa
il to work.




















When learners have built their test circuits, the final circuit can be built on strip
board. Strip board can be cut to provide smaller sections quite easily (with a metal
saw or NT cutter), so that learners can obtain the requ
ired sizes. A simple circuit,
with positive and negative wires, a switch, a resistor and a LED could be
assembled on a board of 20 cm x 20 cm. A drill bit can be used to break the
copper circuits where necessary at the back of the board.








A

B

Horizontally linked holes

Vertically linked holes

Dividing the board

Copper strips

Holes

Insulation






Figure

A























If your school does not have electric boards or strip boards, you may build circuits on
wooden boards by making use of the following techniques:



Attaching wire to components:



Wind wire by hand and twist to attach to screw.










Building switches:











Making holders (sockets) for light bulbs:










Variable
resistor

Battery

Circuit board

Light dependent
resistor

Bul
b

'Flying leads'


Foil wrapped
around peg

Wood

Paper clip

Paper Clip wire twisted
around light bulb



Use screws on wood





Joining wires:










Building a circuit on a wooden board:

















STEP BY STEP THROUGH THE MODULE


...........................
ACTIVITY 1

Showing knowledge and understanding of the electr
ical circuit,

LO 2.4

its origin and its positive and negative impact on the environment
.

LO 3.2




The emphasis should be on the origin of electricity, namely the atom. Learners should
also become thoroughly acquainted with the difference between AC and DC.

Assignment 1

1.1

Emits light and warmth. Can be used in electrical appliances, e.g. TV sets,
computers, etc.

1.2

AC

1.3

220V

1.4

ESKOM

1.5

Nuclear power stations, hydroelectricity, coal
-
driven power stations, wind turbines.

1.6

Nuclear power:

nuclear was
te; radiation

Hydro power:

disrupts ecology

Coal:

smoke pollution

Wind turbines:

intrudes on the landscape

1.7

The emphasis should be on power lines, substations and transformers.

Chocolate board

Crocodile clamp





...........................
ACTIVITY 2

Becoming acquainted with safety precautions concerning electri
city.

LO 1.12




Learners should gain a thorough understanding of the dangers of electricity. If electricity
is not used with the necessary caution, its use can be fatal. In Focus Task 1, you could
use electric wire without a power supply. All learners sh
ould be given an opportunity to
plug in a power plug/wall plug.

Assignment 2

2.1

Do not overload wall plugs.

Ensure that electrical; cords are in good condition.

Avoid using electricity near water.

Avoid joining electrical cords.

2.2

Switch off the power s
upply.

Use non
-
conducting materials to free the person from the power supply and pull the
victim away by his/her clothing.

If the victim is unconscious, mouth
-
to
-
mouth resuscitation should be applied.

2.3

L


brown

N


blue

E


green and yellow

2.4

If ther
e is accidental contact between the parts of the appliance that carry the
electrical current and the cover of the appliance, it is necessary to lead the current to
the earth to avoid an electrical shock if anybody should touch the appliance.

2.5

Learners'
own attempts
.


...........................
ACTIVITY 3

Demonstrating basic knowledge of circuits, conductors and insulators and
drawing a diagram of a circuit.

LO 2.4

Practical testing dealing with Systems and Control
.

LO 1.3

Drawing a diagram of a circuit
.

LO 2.1


Assignment 3



Build
the following circuit. Two clamps could be used for holding components in position.
The results should produce the following:


I
TEM

M
ATERIAL

I
SOLATOR

C
ONDUCTOR

Ruler

Perspex

Yes

No

Nail

Steel

No

Yes

Paper Clip

Copper

No

Yes

Wool

-

Yes

No

Cardboard

-

Yes

No

Tin foil

Aluminium

No

Yes





Assignment 4


CIRCUITS

4.1









4.2

Heating:

heater, hot water cylinder

Magnetic:

electric motor, domestic doorbell, indicator lights of a car,

Chemical:

swimming pool chlorinator, covering objects in metal/elect
rode



...........................
ACTIVITY 4

To know the most important electrical units and to understand them.

LO 2.4




The following definitions are important:



Electric current:

Flow of electrons in a closed circuit



Voltage:

Electromotive force that enables the flow of electric

current



Resistance:

Quality of materials offering resistance to the flow of electric
current.



Power:

The energy that a battery has to provide and which is used in a
resistor.


Ohm's law:



This states that the current passing through a resistor is directly
proportional to the
potential difference, or voltage, across the resistor, i.e. the current is directly
proportional to the linked voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance.

Assignment 5



An easy way to remember the following:







5.1

V = I

×

R and R = V/I

5.2

V = P/I en I = P/V

5.3

R

= V/I


=

= 2 ohm

1,5 V

Light bulb

Crocodile clamps

I

R

V




5.4

P

= V
×

I


= 3V
×

1,5A


= 4,5 watt


...........................
ACTIVITY 5

Gaining knowledge about series and parallel linking by means of practical
tests.

LO 1.3




Lear
ners have to discover this through practical experience. Many schools still have
wooden boards that are suitable for this practical exercise. The breadboards are also
very suited, as circuits can be built very quickly. In this instance, LEDs can be used

in
the place of light bulbs. This also provides an ideal opportunity to use the MultiMate.
Learners could take readings while they are working.



Note that the long arm is positive and the short arm negative. The components therefore
have to be linked co
rrectly and be protected by a resistor.

Assignment 6

6.1

a)

1,5 V + 1,5 V = 3 V

b)

The output glow is duller.

6.2

a)

1,5 V

b)

No noticeable effect, but battery will discharge faster.

Dull

6.3

a)

The others do not glow.

b)

All glow more dully.

c)

3 V
(
if the input is a 3V battery, there is no resistance)

6.4

a)

The other one continues to glow.

b)

All will glow equally brightly.

c)

3
V (if input is a 3V battery, there is no resistance.)

6.5

a)

It protects the LEDs in the circuit.

b)

R1 + R2 = R
T

(formula
for serially
-
linked resistors)

F
OCUS
T
ASK
3:

Mastering the skill of soldering

LO 1.10


Soldering:

The following sketch illustrates the basic requirements for soldering. The solder
is an alloy of lead and tin. It contains its own flux which allows the sol
der to flow
freely
.























Situation 1



The following examples provide an idea of what the learners' ideas should lead
to (a wooden board of 150 mm x 60 mm x 22 mm could be used as a base). If
learners wish to add a background, a saw may be
used to cut a 3
-
mm groove in
the board, for inserting a piece of hardboard as backing. Motifs that suit the
wiring (theme) may be painted on this background, or suitable pictures may be
pasted on it.


Situation 2



Learners could make use of waste container
s, like plastic bottles, to cut out
motives, e.g. a pair of lungs, and draw in details using fibre
-
tipped pens with
permanent colours. The circuit could be built on strip board, using long wires for
linking the battery, so that the battery can remain outs
ide the bottle. The circuit
board can be inserted into the bottle if the back of the bottle is cut open.




In both instances learners have to identify and formulate the problems that arise in
the given situation. They have to write their own design propos
als and the educator
could stipulate specifications according to the nature of the class, materials,
equipment and available components. The learners' ideas might include different
circuit layouts as well as different designs. The educator will have to e
valuate their
models accordingly.



Each learner has to produce a portfolio and design a cover page for it.




The following steps have to be followed during soldering:



Ensure that no movement occurs where the wires are being joined (a "third hand" will
be nee
ded).



Heat the join with the soldering iron.



Place some soldering flux on the join.



There should be a shiny join when the wire has cooled down.

Soft solder often supplied
on a reel


Flux (in the centre)

SOFT

MULTICORE

SOLDER

Soldering iron

Soldering iron
holder

Wire cutters

Damp sponge used to clean
soldering tip







Take note:



The surfaces to be joined must be clean.



Allow 3 to 5 seconds for the heating of the join.



Use a s
oldering iron of appropriate size for your work.




A practical suggestion
: When two wires are to be joined by soldering, the two separate
ends could be soldered before being joined together


this is known as sweating. Use
old printed circuit boards (PCBs)

for practising soldering.




Grade 8 Module 4

Table Of Contents


In this module the learner will do the following:


Activity
number

What he/she will do

LO
number

1.

Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of what recycling
is, and the route that waste sho
uld go.

1.1

2.

Perform tests to see what materials and what quantities of
waste are generated at home in order to form an opinion about
the impact of products of technology on the quality of people’s
lives=and=the=envi牯nment=in=which=they=liveK

3.2


3.

Demonstrate an understanding of how materials (plastics) can
be recycled.

2.2

4.

Demonstrate an understanding of how materials (glass) can be
recycled.

2.2

5.

Demonstrate an understanding of how materials (paper) can be
recycled.

2.2

6.

Demonstrate an u
nderstanding of how materials (metals) can
be recycled.

2.2

7.

Form an understanding of what incineration and landfills are
and understand the positive and negative impact of these on
the environment.

3.2





...........................
ACTIVITY 1


1.1

Recycling: Collection, processing

and re
-
use of materials that would otherwise be
thrown away.

1.2

Shop


Home


Bin


Waste bag


Landfill

1.3

Shop


Home


Recycling bins


Process of recycling

1.4

Emblem


1.5

Using recycled materials makes new products cost less.



Requires less energy to make products
with recycled materials.



Reduces air pollution.



Decreases the amount of land needed for waste dumps.



Conserves natural resources by reducing the need for new material.



...........................
ACTIVITY 2



Through this activity the learners will collect data and process this data.

Learners must
be motivated to do this at home so that they can discover how much recyclable material
we throw away daily. They can copy the tables in MS Excel which will make it easy to
illustrate the data in a graph.



...........................
ACTIVITY 3



Plastics are divided i
nto two main types


thermo softening and thermosetting. These
names refer to what happens when plastic materials are subjected to heat.



Thermo softening plastics become soft and pliable when they are heated and harden
again when cooled. This process can

be repeated again and again. Examples are PVC,
Nylon and Polythene.



A thermosetting plastic, on the other hand, can be moulded only once
-

during the
manufacturing stage. These plastics are used for heat
-
resistant objects, such as light
fittings, saucep
an handles and kitchen work surfaces.


3.1

something that does not decompose naturally

3.2

cool drink bottles, margarine containers, milk bottles, etc.

3.3

cheap, light, durable, coloured easily, etc.

3.4

One of the problems is that any of seven categories can be used

for containers alone.
For effective recycling, the different types cannot be mixed. The recycling process is
also very expensive, for the plastics must first be washed, then shredded into flakes,
then the flakes are melted into pellets. For health reas
ons, recycled plastics are rarely
made into food containers.





...........................
ACTIVITY 4


4.1

It is transparent, fairly cheap to manufacture, easily formed into bottles and jars and
easy to recycle. Special glasses for people with sight problems, as well as mirrors are

made.

4.2

It brakes easily and has sharp edges.

4.3

Windscreens are made from laminated glass (glass sandwich) with a layer of plastic in
the middle. Other kinds of strong glass include wired glass and bulletproof glass.

4.4

If molten glass is forced throug
h a small hole it can be drawn into very fine fibres which
are known as fibreglass. These glass strands are made into thick mats which can be
used for several purposes. Glass fibre is used in building boats, and for isolation in
homes, etc.



...........................
ACTIVITY 5



More than half of the world’s timber is burnt as fuel, most of it within a few kilometres of
where it is felled. Half of the world’s population use wood for all their cooking and
heating. The rest of the world’s timber is used in industry for building an
d paper
-
making.
Most paper is made from soft woods. However, 50% of the wood pulp used to make
paper comes from waste wood from the sawmill.


5.1

Deforestation: the cutting of mature trees

Re
-
forestation: Replacing trees at the same rate at which they ar
e cut down

5.2

Hardwood:

Teak, Walnut, Ebony, Oak


Softwood:

Pines, Spruce

5.3

Stinkwood (or other indigenous wood)

5.4

Tropical climate, rain throughout the year, mountain range

5.5

In the winter the tree grows slowly and forms a dark ring while in the summer it grow
s
fast and forms a wider and lighter ring. Together the two rings indicate one year of
growth.



...........................
ACTIVITY 6

6.1

Copper, stainless steel, aluminium, brass, gold, nickel, etc.

6.2

Rods, pipe, tubes, angle
-
iron, I
-
beams, sheets

6.3

Beans, beef, corn, peas, f
ruit, etc.





...........................
ACTIVITY 7

7.1

Incinerators: Require less land, and will pollute ground water


Landfills: Prevent waste from blowing away, keep down odours


7.2

Incinerators: Air pollution and expensive to operate


Landfills: Pollute ground water, uses large

areas of land


7.3

For incinerators to be profitable you need all the rubbish you can get. Municipalities
therefore send all their waste to this machine to keep it running.


Situation:

How to make a lampshade:


1)

Mix the starch according to the instructions on

the pack. Note that all the starch must
be used, for it cannot be kept.

2)

Place the mould, e.g. a bowl, upside down and apply margarine all over it. Tear paper
strips and paste them with starch around the bowl, allowing the edges of the squares to
overlap
.

3)

Tear more paper strips and cover the rest of the bowl. Tear a circle of paper and paste
it on the centre to round it off neatly. Apply at least two layers of paper and allow it to
dry well.

4)

Apply a thick layer of starch over the covered area. You can
make patterns on the wet
starch. Allow to dry well and slip the lampshade carefully off the bowl and allow to dry.

5)

You can now spray
-
paint the shade.

6)

Cut a hole in the top centre of the shade, just large enough for the flex and bulb holder
to pass through
.







Synopsis Grade 9 Module 1

Mechanisms and Motion

This module focuses on Systems and Control. Other
foci in this field are Pneumatics, Hydraulics and
Electronics.




There are not many educators who actually have any background in the field of
mechanis
ms. It forms such an important part of the curriculum, and in our daily lives, that
our learners should be enabled to master knowledge and understanding of mechanisms.



Videos are available from the ‘Mechanical Theatre’ in the United Kingdom.
Unfortunatel
y, such videos are not freely available in South Africa. If you should have an
opportunity to visit the theatre at Covent Gardens in London, you should do so to
experience the wonderful world of mechanical toys.



Plastic mechanisms are available from sever
al manufacturers of plastic products, though.
Although these are expensive, they are useful for demonstrating different mechanisms.
Technical sets like Techno
-
Lego are also suitable for use in demonstrations.



This module covers the theory of basic mechan
isms and the activities test the learners'
knowledge and understanding in this regard. In all, the theory and activities should take
10 lessons of 50 minutes.



At the end of the module we offer a challenge in the form of two scenarios. The first
scenario
requires the learner to design and make a mechanical tool that an educator
could use to demonstrate a specific mechanism. Learners have to develop a project
portfolio to show their progress. The educator has to decide which materials the learners
may use

for their products.



The second scenario offers a bigger challenge: the learners have an opportunity to
design a new product or improve an existing product. Together, the two scenarios will
take 10 to12 lessons to complete. The total amount of time neede
d for this module will
therefore comprise 20 hours of instruction time.





The following illustrations offer information in broad terms about what the educator
would be able to use to develop mechanisms.





...........................
ACTIVITY 1



Learners could list any product that the
y regard as a mechanism. The aim of the
activity is to help the learners to become aware of how many products actually are
mechanisms. Discuss their examples in the classroom.



...........................
ACTIVITY 2

2.1

Greater forces can be transferred

2.2

Chains do not slip/slid
e

2.3

Chains can be unlinked to facilitate removal



...........................
ACTIVITY 3



Door handle

Oscillating (handle) and backwards and forwards
-
movement

(reciprocating)



Tap

Rotating movement



Air pump

Oscillating



Pair of scissors

Oscillating



...........................
ACTIVITY 4

4.1

A


Crank(
-
handle)

B


Gears

C


Propeller/screw

D


Pulley

E


Linkage/linking

F


Cam

4.2

Tricycle

4.3

Three times slower (15/5 = 3)

4.4

Store air
-
tight/Keep things tightly stored

4.5

Twist the rubber ring to form an 8.

4.6

Any cam
-
driven toy





...........................
ACTIVITY 5



Use cardboard strips to test if there
is any doubt





Linkages


Output Direction

Add output direction arrows



Output Direction

Add output direction arrows

1.



1.


2.



2.


3.



3.


4.



4.


5.



5.







...........................
ACTIVITY 6

6.1



6.2

Moment = force x distance between force and fulcrum

6.3



6.4





6.5


SV

=


=


=


=


=

5:1


6.6

Work input (for movement over distance of 8 metres) 50 x 8 = 400 Nm

(NM = Newton
-
metres)

Work input (for move
ment over distance of 4m) = 80 x 4 = 320 Nm

Effectiveness

=


=


=

0,8

=

80%



...........................
ACTIVITY 7

7.1


1.




2.




3.




4.




5.




6.




7.





7.2



7.3

Drilling machine, Block and tackle


7.4

1.


= 250 ohm

2

Insert idling gear


7.5

Advantages of tooth gears and chains

1.

Greater forces can be transferred

2.

Chains do not slip/slide

3.

Chains can be disassembled for removal




Advantages of pulleys and belts

1.

Belts are not noisy

2.

Belts can b
e stretched for fitting and for removal

3.

Crossed belts can change the direction of rotation



...........................
ACTIVITY 8

8.1



8.2





8.3

Crank
-
handle
-------

crankshaft / tricycle

Cam
-------

Cam on camshaft





...........................
ACTIVITY 9

9.1

Screw and crank
-
handle

9.2

First kind of pump. Worked manually, electricity not available. Rivers were the main
source of drinking water


no taps in houses.

9.3

Pumps used in bore
-
holes.

9.4

For this essay, learners have to do research on how mechanisms have been used to
facilitate
the improvement of the waste industry. They also have to determine the
possible effects on the environment.



Overview Grade 9 Module 2

Structures

Architectural Planning



This module is an extension of module 1 grade 8. It focuses mainly on Learning
Outcom
e 1 and 2 and in particular assessment standard 1.9 where the learners must
make formal drawings showing dimensions. The formal drawings are orthographic,
oblique and area plans. The curriculum allows us to choose between isometric and
oblique. If you c
hoose to do isometric rather than oblique due to your technical
background you can do so. The drawings form part of graphical communication


Assessment standard 1.15.


Focus task A

1.

Learners must show a clear understanding of what a structure is. Acti
vity 1 explains
what a structure is.

2.

Any structure from natural to man
-
made example. Houses, roofs, birds’ nests, bicycle
frame, caves, etc.

3.

Supports


ladder, chairs

Protects


House, birds nests

Contains
-

Swimming pool, shopping bag

Spans distan
ces


bridge, washing line


Focus task B

1

Dam walls, reservoirs

2

Bicycle frame

3

Electric power supply tower

4

Car, e.g. Volvo

5.

This sheet must contain information on sheet material such as glass, board products,
metal products which are used by builde
rs nowadays. The learners need to do research
on this assignment.

6.

The term means that a material has been made stronger by adding a material of strength
in its structure. In most concrete buildings these days metal rods reinforce the concrete.

7.

Rein
forced concrete

Wood, e.g. plywood

Glass that contains metal strips



...........................
ACTIVITY 3



Learners are expected to work in groups of 2 to 4. It will be necessary for the learners to
go to the site where they plan to build the new classroom. They must do an analy
sis of
the new site. This analysis will be evident in focus task C. They can take paper to the
site to make notes and write down measurements (measure your steps: 1 step = 1
metre). The learners must then use this data to produce a formal sketch of the
site in
class (Focus task C).






They must also write their own design brief and specifications for their classroom in
Focus task C. The brief must be something simple, like
Design a new classroom for the
new grade 8’s.



The specifications must be the requi
rements for an ordinary classroom, including the
following:



the size
-

40 learners must fit in comfortably



ventilation



lighting (electric and natural)



materials



number of desks



shape of classroom



blackboard?



doors, etc.




The learner is forced to do researc
h in Focus task D. They must gather data through a
questionnaire and must present this data in the form of a graph. If you have computers
available this presentation can be done in programmes such as Excel and PowerPoint.



The ideas must be 3 dimensional
in the form of oblique or isometric. Use the grid paper
provided. The learners can place a clear sheet of paper on top of the grid so that they
can use the grid over and over again.



The following focus tasks all involve graphical communication. It is i
mportant to
emphasise neatness and tidiness when it comes to formal drawings. If you have
examples of block plans, house plans or even the plan of the school available, it will help
learners to comprehend what it is all about. The concept of scale is alw
ays confusing
and must be explained with care.



Focus task H and I must be done thoroughly. The attached example will indicate to you
what the desirable outcome must be. If you do not have any background on orthographic
drawings it is advisable to use a
woodwork textbook or even ask the woodwork or
technical drawing educator on this issue.



This module allows learners to design a classroom in many ways and through different
graphical methods. Although the group produces only one scale model, every group
member must have his own portfolio. In the end their final idea must be realistic so that
they can make a scale model from cardboard. Cardboard is very easy to use, since you
only need tools like safety rulers, cutting knives, glue and scissors. The lea
rners can
leave the roof or just part of it open to show their layout on the inside. It is advisable that
the learners plan their manufacturing by producing a flow chart of the manufacturing
process.



Since the learners are all familiar with classrooms the
y are the best persons to use for
evaluating the final products. This evaluation can be done in the form of a presentation


just like an architect will sell his plans to a company.





Grade 9 Module 3

Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems

Introductory suggesti
ons for the module:



Plastic syringes are inexpensive and are available form any pharmacy.



Plastic tubing and T
-
connections are available from irrigation and hardware
shops.



When a tube is to be placed over a syringe, the front end of the syringe must be
mo
istened.

Step by step through the module


...........................
ACTIVITY 1



A hydraulic system consists of two cylinders that are connected. Each cylinder contains
a piston/plunger with a specific diameter and amount of liquid.



When the plunger is pushed in or drawn out, it cau
ses a change in pressure that is
propagated through the liquid. This pressure creates the mechanical force or kinetic
advantage.


............................
ACTIVTY 2

1.

distance of delivery of piston B is 2 cm

2.

the same/similar

3.

no, the force/power is transferred with equal ad
vantage (advantage =1)

4.

The pressure in cylinder A is transferred to cylinder B.


...........................
ACTIVITY 3

1.

The pressure is propagated from cylinder A to cylinder B.

2.

The liquid/fluid propagates the pressure better than the air and offers greater
resistance.


...........................
ACTI
VITY 4

1.

1 cm

2.

4 cm

3.

k will propagate less easily and the distance of delivery will not be exactly 1 and 4
cm respectively because air is compressible.

4. & 5.

See synopsis

6.

SYNOPSIS



With a piston that has a small diameter, the distance of delivery
is great.



With a piston that has a greater diameter, the distance of delivery is small.






There will be better propagation of the pressure in the cylinder.



The density is greater and the force/power will therefore be propagated better
than in water.


...........................
ACTIV
ITY 5

1.

2 cm at A and B respectively

2.

The output of two 10
-
ml syringes each filled with 5 ml of water will be the same as
the output of one 20
-
ml syringe containing 10 ml of water. The larger 20
-
ml syringe
can control two 10
-
ml syringes if it contains

twice (2 x 10 ml) the amount of water.

SYNOPSIS: ACTIVITY 1


5



A small force on a small piston/plunger produces a great force on a large
piston/plunger.



A small piston/plunger will move over a large distance and a large piston/plunger
over a small distan
ce.



The larger piston/plunger is able to control a number of smaller pistons/plungers if its
volume is equal to the sum of the volumes of the smaller pistons/plungers and the
amount of water in the larger piston/plunger is equal to the combined volumes of
the
water in the smaller pistons/plungers.


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ACTIVITY 6

1.1

FORCE = 2 N

1.2

MA=1/2

1.3

1,5 cm

1.4

No, the small piston/plunger will move the furthest and enable Jack to make the
highest jump

2.1

The piston/plunger with a diameter of 1 cm

2.2

1,5 cm


...........................
ACTIVIT
Y 7

1.

Prevents the reverse flow of the liquid/fluid so that the piston/plunger remains in
position and the pressure is maintained.

2.

When the lever moves upwards, a small amount of oil is released from the reservoir
to the small cylinder.

When the lever
moves downwards and input force is brought to bear on the small
cylinder, the oil flows through the one
-
way valve to the large cylinder. The pressure
is propagated through the liquid according to Pascal's principle and provides a great
output force on the

large cylinder.

When the lever is raised again, the one
-
way valve shuts and the oil is unable to flow
back. This maintains the power advantage. The process is repeated from the
beginning.

3.

A small force on a small cylinder provides great force on a la
rge cylinder.