Social Implications of Research Data Access

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Noshir Contractor

Jane S. & William J. White Professor of Behavioral Sciences

Professor of Communication Studies, School of Communication

Professor
of Ind.
Engg

& Mgmt Sciences, McCormick School of Engineering
&

Professor of Management & Organizations, Kellogg School of Management,

Director, Science of Networks in Communities (SONIC) Research Laboratory

nosh@northwestern.edu



Supported by NSF : OCI
-
0753047, IIS
-
0729505
,
IIS
-
0535214, SBE
-
0555115

Social Implications of Research Data Access




Aphorisms about Networks


Social Networks
:


Its not what you know, its
who

you know.


Cognitive Social Networks
:


Its not who you know, its
who they think

you know.


Knowledge Networks
:


Its not who you know, its
what they think

you know.


Source: Newsweek,

December 2000

Cognitive Knowledge Networks

WHY DO WE

CREATE,

MAINTAIN,

DISSOLVE, AND
RECONSTITUTE OUR
COMMUNICATION AND
KNOWLEDGE NETWORKS?

Monge, P. R. & Contractor, N. S. (2003).
Theories of Communication Networks. New
York: Oxford University Press.


Social Drivers:

Why do we create and sustain networks?


Theories of self
-
interest


Theories of social and
resource exchange


Theories of mutual
interest and collective
action


Theories of contagion


Theories of balance


Theories of homophily


Theories of proximity


Theories of co
-
evolution

Source:

Contractor, N. S., Wasserman, S. & Faust, K. (2006). Testing multi
-
theoretical multilevel hypotheses
about organizational networks: An analytic framework and empirical example.
Academy of
Management
Review


B

F

C

A

E

D

-

+


B

F

C

A

E

D

-

+


B

F

C

A

E

D

+



F



















E

D

B

C

A

-

+

Novice

Expert



“Structural signatures” of MTML

Theories of Self interest

Theories of Exchange

Theories of Collective Action

Theories of Balance

Theories of Homophily

Theories of Cognition

Statistical “MRI” for Structural Signatures


ERGM: Exponential Random Graph
Models



Statistical
“Macro
-
scope” to detect
structural motifs in observed
networks



Move from exploratory to confirmatory
network analysis to understand multi
-
theoretical multilevel motivations for why
we create our social networks


Empirical Illustration

Co
-
evolution of knowledge networks

and 21
st

century organizational forms


NSF KDI
Initiative, PI: Noshir Contractor


Co
-
P.I.s: Bar,
Fulk
, Hollingshead, Monge
(USC), Kunz, Levitt (Stanford), Carley
(CMU), Wasserman (Indiana).


Three dozen industry partners (global, profit,
non
-
profit):


Boeing, 3M, NASA, Fiat, U.S. Army, American
Bar Association, European Union Project Team,
Pew Internet Project, etc.

Transactive Memory


Perception of Other’s
Knowledge



Communication to
Allocate Information

Social Exchange


-

Retrieval by coworkers on


other

topics

Public Goods

/ Transactive
Memory


Allocation to the Intranet


Retrieval from the Intranet


Perceived Quality and
Quantity of Contribution to
the Intranet

Inertia Components


Collaboration


Co
-
authorship


Communication

Communication to
Retrieve Information

Proximity


-
Work in the same location

1. Social Communication




0.144


2. Perception of Knowledge


& Communication to Allocate


0.995


3. Perception of Knowledge & Provision


0.972


4. Perception of Knowledge, Social Exchange,


& Social Communication



0.851


5. Perception of Knowledge, Proximity,


& Social Communication



0.882

Multi
-
theoretical p*/ERGM



Theoretical Predictors of CRI



Core Research


Social Drivers for

Creating & Sustaining

Communities

Business Applications



PackEdge

Community of


Practice
(P&G
)


Vodafone
-
Ericsson “Club”
for virtual supply chain
management
(Vodafone)


Designing Knowledge Networks
(Kraft )



Societal Justice Applications


Cultural & Networks Assets

In Immigrant Communities

(Rockefeller Program on

Culture & Creativity
)


Economic Resilience NGO

Community

(Rockefeller Program on Working

Communities)

Entertainment Applications


Second Life
(Linden Labs)


Everquest


2
(NSF
, Sony Online


Entertainment
)




Science Applications


CLEANER: Collaborative Large

Engineering & Analysis Network for

Environmental Research
(NSF
)


CP2R: Collaboration for Preparedness,

Response & Recovery
(NSF
)


TSEEN: Tobacco Surveillance

Evaluation & Epidemiology

Network
(NSF, NIH, CDC
)

Projects Investigating Social Drivers for Communities

3D Strategy for

Enhancing Knowledge Networks


D
iscovery
: Effectively and efficiently foster network links
from people to other people, knowledge, and artifacts
(data sets/streams, analytic tools, visualization tools,
documents, etc.)



“If only
HP

knows what
HP
knows”.



D
iagnosis
: Assess the “health” of internal and external
networks
-

in terms of scanning, absorptive capacity,
diffusion, robustness, and vulnerability to external
environment



D
esign
: Model or re
-
wire networks using social and
organizational incentives (based on social network
research) and network referral systems to enhance
evolving and mature communities

“Discovery” Problems in

Knowledge Networks


IDC found Fortune 500 companies lose $31.5 billion annually due
to rework and the inability to find information.



The Delphi Consulting Group found that:


Only 12 percent of a typical company's knowledge is explicitly
published.

Remaining 88 percent is ‘distributed knowledge’,
comprised of employees' personal knowledge.




Up to 42 percent of knowledge professionals need to do their
jobs comes from other people's brains

-

in the form of advice,
opinions, judgment, or answers. More often than not, much of
this exchange does not follow channels displayed in an
organizational chart.


Discovery Challenges


Who knows who?






Who knows what?






Who know who knows who?






Who knows who knows what?

Core Research


Understanding & Enabling

21
st

Century Networks .

Challenging until now ….

Business Applications



PackEdge

Community of


Practice
(P&G
)

Kraft Design Teams


Societal Justice Applications


Cultural & Networks Assets

In Immigrant Communities

(Rockefeller Program on

Culture & Creativity)


Mapping Digital Media and Learning Networks

(MacArthur Foundation)

Science Applications

CI
-
Scope: Understanding & Enabling
CI in Virtual Communities
(NSF)


CP2R: Collaboration for Preparedness,

Response & Recovery
(NSF)


TSEEN: Tobacco Surveillance

Evaluation & Epidemiology

Network
(NSF, NIH, CDC)

Projects Investigating Social Drivers for Communities


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Entertainment Applications


Second Life (
NSF, Army Research
Institute,
Linden Labs)


EverQuest

II (NSF
,

Army Research
Institute,
Linden Labs)

Multidimensional Networks in the Semantic Web/Web 2.0

Multiple Types of Nodes and Multiple Types of Relationships

The Hubble telescope: $2.5
billion

Source: David Lazer

CERN particle accelerator: $1 billion/year

Source: David Lazer

The Web: priceless
*

Source: David Lazer

* Apologies to MasterCard

Its all about “Relational Metadata”



Technologies that “
capture
” communities’ relational meta
-
data
(Pingback and trackback in
interblog

networks,
blogrolls
, data
provenance)



Technologies to “
tag
” communities’ relational metadata (from Dublin
Core taxonomies to
folksonomies

(‘wisdom of crowds’) like


Tagging pictures (
Flickr
)


Social bookmarking (del.icio.us,
LookupThis
,
BlinkList
)


Social citations (CiteULike.org)


Social libraries (discogs.com, LibraryThing.com)


Social shopping (
SwagRoll
,
Kaboodle
, thethingsiwant.com)


Social networks (FOAF, SIOC,
SocialGraph
)



Technologies to “
manifest
” communities’ relational metadata
(
Tagclouds
, Recommender systems, Rating/Reputation systems, ISI’s
HistCite
, Network Visualization systems)

Text Mining

Web crawling

Web of
Science
Citation

CATPAC

UBERLINK

Digital Harvesting of Relational Metadata

CI
-
KNOW Analyses and Visualizations


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Core Research


Understanding & Enabling

21
st

Century Networks .

Business Applications



PackEdge

Community of


Practice
(P&G
)


Kraft Design Teams


Societal Justice Applications


Cultural & Networks Assets

In Immigrant Communities

(Rockefeller Program on

Culture & Creativity)


Mapping Digital Media and Learning Networks

(MacArthur Foundation)

Science Applications

CI
-
Scope: Understanding & Enabling
CI in Virtual Communities
(NSF)


CP2R: Collaboration for Preparedness,

Response & Recovery
(NSF)


TSEEN: Tobacco Surveillance

Evaluation & Epidemiology

Network
(NSF, NIH, CDC)

Projects Investigating Social Drivers for Communities


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Entertainment Applications


Second Life (
NSF, Army Research
Institute,
Linden Labs)


EverQuest

II (NSF
,

Army Research
Institute,
Linden Labs)

Hurricane Katrina 2005

Formed:

Aug 23, 2005

Dissipated:

Aug 31, 2005

Highest wind:

175 mph

Lowest press:

902 mbar

Damages:

$81.2 Billion

Fatalities:

>1,836

Areas affected:

Bahamas,


South Florida,
Cuba, Louisiana
(especially
Greater New
Orleans),
Mississippi,
Alabama,
Florida
Panhandle, most
of eastern North
America


Map source: http://hurricane.csc.noaa.gov/

8/23

8/24

8/25

8/26

8/27

8/28

8/29

8/30

8/31

SITREP Content


Basic Format / Information

1.
Situation (What, Where, and When)

2.
Action in Progress

3.
Action Planned

4.
Probable Support Requirements and/or
Support Available

5.
Other items


Typical SITREP


*Colorado Division of Emergency Management


SITUATION REPORT 2005
-
6


(Hurricane Katrina)


August 30, 2005*


*Event Type:* Hurricane Response


*Situation:* On August 29, Hurricane Katrina hit the gulf coast east of New

Orleans. It was considered a Category 5 Hurricane, which brings winds of

over 155mph and storm surge of 18 feet above normal. Massive property damage

has occurred and undetermined number of deaths and injuries.


Colorado response to date include two deployments:

-

Two members from the Division of Emergency Management to the Louisiana


EOC, departed on August 29.







*Weather Report:* Katrina is moving toward the north
-
northeast near 18 mph.

A turn toward the northeast and a faster forward speed is expected during

the next 24 hours. This motion should bring the cent







*Agencies Involved:* Colorado Department of Military and Veteran Affairs,

Department of Local Affairs, Division of Emergency Management, Governor's

Office.* *


*Additional Assistance Requested:* Type III teams, consisting of Operations,

Plans, and Logistics personnel (two individuals for each area). These teams

could deploy to Alabama, Louisiana, and/or Mississippi. Teams will be

at either working the State or Parish/County EOCs.








SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Human Coding Procedure


Using an HTML editor to mark entities
(people, organizations, locations, concepts)




as bold and include a unique HTML tag



<b><a name=“F10005505a00003”></a>FEMA</b>


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Automatic Coding


D2K


The Data to Knowledge application
environment is a rapid, flexible data mining
and machine learning system


Automated processing is done through
creating itineraries that combine processing
modules into a workflow


Developed by the


Automated Learning


Group at NCSA


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Time Slice 1: 8/23 to 8/25/2005

ARC

SAL

FEMA

Shelter

TX

KY

AL

LA

NO

Gov Bush

FL

Petroleum Network

formed Early

Florida is the Topic

of the Conversation


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Time Slice 1 to 2

ARC

SAL

FEMA

Shelter

TX

KY

AL

LA

NO

Gov Bush

FL

Power

FP&L

GA

Military


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Time Slice 2: 8/26 to 8/27/2005

ARC

SAL

FEMA

Shelter

TX

MS

LA

NO

Gov Bush

FL

Power

FP&L

GA

Military


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Time Slice 2 to 3

ARC

SAL

FEMA

Shelter

TX

MS

LA

NO

Gov Bush

FL

Power

FP&L

GA

Military

NC


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Time Slice 3: 8/28 to 8/29/2005

ARC

FEMA

Shelter

TX

MS

LA

NO

Gov Bush

FL

Power

FP&L

NC

Military

GA


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Time Slice 3 to 4

ARC

FEMA

Shelter

TX

MS

LA

NO

Gov Bush

FL

Power

FP&L

NC

Military

GA

AL Power

S & R

National

Guard

AL


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Time Slice 4: 8/30 to 8/31/2005

ARC

FEMA

Shelter

TX

MS

LA

NO

FL

Power

FP&L

NC

GA

AL Power

S & R

National

Guard

AL


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Time Slice 4 to 5

ARC

FEMA

Shelter

TX

LA

NO

FL

Power

FP&L

NC

GA

AL Power

S & R

National

Guard

MS

AL


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Time Slice 5: 9/1 to 9/2/2005

ARC

FEMA

Shelter

TX

MS

LA

NO

FL

Power

NC

GA

AL Power

S & R

National

Guard

AL


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Time Slice 5 to 6

ARC

FEMA

Shelter

TX

MS

LA

NO

FL

Power

GA

AL Power

S & R

National

Guard

AL


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Time Slice 6: 9/3 to 9/4/2005

ARC

FEMA

Shelter

TX

MS

LA

NO

FL

Outages

GA

AL Power

Urban S & R

National

Guard

AL

S & R


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Betweeness Centrality
0
50
100
150
200
250
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Time Slice
Rank
American Red Cross
FEMA
Change in Network Centrality Rankings



“American Red Cross” starts in the 200s and moves to the teens



“FEMA” starts in the 20s, moves to the teens, and ends in the 60s

FEMA drops rank and American Red Cross moves up

Crossover where
American Red
Cross becomes
relatively more
central than
FEMA (Sep 1,
2005)


SONIC


Advancing the Science of
Networks in Communities

Core Research


Social Drivers for

Creating & Sustaining

Communities

Business Applications



PackEdge

Community of


Practice
(P&G)


Vodafone
-
Ericsson “Club”
for virtual supply chain
management
(Vodafone
)


Designing Knowledge Networks

(Kraft )


Societal Justice Applications


Cultural & Networks Assets

In Immigrant Communities

(Rockefeller Program on

Culture & Creativity)


Economic Resilience NGO

Community

(Rockefeller Program on Working

Communities)

Entertainment Applications


Second Life
(Linden Labs)


Everquest

(NSF, Sony Online


Entertainment)


Science Applications


CLEANER: Collaborative Large

Engineering & Analysis Network for

Environmental Research
(NSF)


CP2R: Collaboration for Preparedness,

Response & Recovery
(NSF)


TSEEN: Tobacco Surveillance

Evaluation & Epidemiology

Network
(NSF, NIH, CDC)

Projects Investigating Social Drivers for Communities

Tobacco Surveillance, Epidemiology,
and Evaluation Network (TSEEN)


National Cancer Institute


Center for Disease Control’s National Center for Health
Statistics (NCHS),


Center for Disease Control’s Office of Smoking and
Health (OSH),


Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ),


National Library of Medicine (NLM) and


Non
-
government agencies such as the American Legacy
Foundation.

Tobacco Behavioral Informatics Grid
(ToBIG)


Network Referral System



Low
-
tar cigarettes cause more cancer than
regular cigarettes …


A pressing need for systems that will help
the TSEEN members effectively connect
with other individuals, data sets, analytic
tools, instruments, sensors, documents,
related to key concepts and issues

ToBIG

Demo

Summary


Research on the dynamics of networks is well poised to make a
quantum intellectual leap by facilitating collaboration that
leverages recent advances in:



Theories about the social motivations for creating, maintaining,
dissolving and re
-
creating social network ties



Development of cyberinfrastructure/Web 2.0

provide the
technological capability to capture relational metadata needed to
more effectively understand (and enable) communities.



Exponential random graph modeling techniques to
make
theoretically grounded network recommendations that go beyond
the
Lovegety

and SNIF



Acknowledgements