CDMA2000: An Overview of Trends, Drivers, and the State of 3G Technology

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CDMA2000: An Overview of Trends, Drivers, and


the State of 3G Technology






Orange County IEEE ComSig

February 12, 2002

www.cdg.org

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Contents

Introducing the CDG

Overview of cdmaOne™

Drivers and Considerations in Deploying 3G

Current State of 3G Deployment

Concluding Remarks

www.cdg.org

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Introducing the CDG

www.cdg.org

4

Information
Distribution

Conferences

Newsletter

Website

Etc.

Technical Service
Development

Wireless Local Loop

Advanced Systems

Evolution

Etc.

Deployment
Assistance

Time
-
to
-
Market

Int’l Roaming

Interoperability

Etc.

To lead the rapid evolution and deployment of
CDMA
-
based systems, based on open standards
and encompassing all core architectures, to meet
the needs of markets around the world in an
emerging, information
-
intensive environment

Charter

www.cdg.org

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Interactions with Other Organizations

Market Representation Partner (MRP) of Third Generation Partnership
Project
-

2 (3GPP2)

Member of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)

Member of the Operator Harmonization Group (OHG)

Strategic alliance with the Association of Telecommunications
Enterprises of the Andean Community (ASETA) (Latin America)

Member of the Cellular Telecommunications and Internet

Association (CTIA)

Member of CITEL (Latin America)

Active with government entities (e.g., China, Korea, Japan, Latin
America, U.S., etc.)

Liaison to WAP Forum


www.cdg.org

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Membership

Operators

Subscriber

Equipment


Network
Infrastructure


Network
Enhancement/
Optimization

Network
Interface &
Access

The CDG is a consortium of 115 member companies from
around the world. Members are involved in many aspects
of CDMA system deployment and support.

Components

and
Subsystems

www.cdg.org

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CDG Membership

Bell Mobility

BellSouth International

Celletra Ltd.

China Unicom

CIBERNET Corp.

COM DEV Wireless

CommWorks Corp.

Compaq Computer
Corporation

Comverse

Conductus, Inc.

CTIA

Denso International

Ditrans Corporation

Ericsson, Inc.


3G Cellular, Inc.

AAPT Communications

Access Systems America

Acer Communications

Acterna

Airbiquity, Inc.

AirPrime Inc.

Airvana Inc.

ALLTEL

Alpine Electronics

Angola Telecom

Anritsu

AnyData Corp.

ArrayCom

Audiovox Communications

ETRI

Fujitsu Network

Gemplus Corp.

Giga Telecom Inc.

Glenayre Electronics

Grayson Wireless

GTRAN, Inc.

Himachal Futuristic


Communications Ltd.

Hitachi Telecom (USA)

Hutchison Telecom (HK)

Hyundai CURITEL, Inc.

InnovICs

ISCO

IUSACELL



www.cdg.org

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CDG Membership (continued)

KDDI

Komunikasi Selular Indonesia

Korea Telecom Freetel, Inc
.

Kyocera Corporation

Leap

LG Electronics, Inc.

LG Telecom, Ltd.

LinkAir Communications, Inc.

Logica

LSI Logic

Lucent Technologies, Inc.

MTNL

Metapath Software Int’l

Metawave Communications



Motorola

Nextel Communications

Nokia Corporation

Nortel Networks

Novatel Wireless

Openwave

Operadora Unefon

Pacific Bangladesh


Telecom Ltd.

ParkerVision, Inc.

Pegaso PCS

Pele
-
Phone Communications

Pixo

QUALCOMM, Inc.



QuickSilver Technology

Qwest

Racal Instruments

Reliance Infocom Limited

Repeater Technologies

Research In Motion

Rhode & Schwarz

RITT

Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.

Sanyo Fisher Company

Schema Ltd.

SchlumbergerSema

ScoreBoard, Inc.

Sharp Labs of America



www.cdg.org

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CDG Membership (continued)

Shinsegi Telecom, Inc.

Shyam Telelink Limited

Sierra Wireless, Inc.

SignalSoft Corp.

SK Telecom

SmartServ Online, Inc.

SmartTrust

Sony Electronics

Spirent Communications

Sprint PCS

Starent Networks Corporation

Synertek, Inc.

Tahoe Networks

Tantivy Communications, Inc.

Tata Teleservices Ltd.






TDK Corporation

Telecom Mobile Limited

Telespree Communications

Tellus Technology, Inc.

Telstra Corporation Ltd.

Telus Mobility Cellular, Inc.

Texas Instruments

U.S. Cellular

Verizon Wireless

WaterCove Networks

Western Wireless

Wherify Wireless

Willtech, Inc.

Winphoria Networks, Inc.

Wireless Test Systems

ZTE Corporation


www.cdg.org

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Fundamental principles of the CDG

Activities and requirements driven by the operators


Ensures standards and systems meet market need

Operators and manufacturers work closely together

Maintain flexibility to quickly respond to operator needs

Keep close relationships with standards organizations and other
industry associations


Facilitates standards development and implementation


www.cdg.org

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Over
-
the
-
Air Activation (OTA)

Handset Management


International Roaming


Interoperability Specification (IOS)



Evolution/3G


System Test


Wireless Local Loop (WLL)


Mobile Station Certification


Technical initiatives

Teams formed by Executive Board

Active technical teams:


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Technology

Address technical aspects of
deploying applications on

CDMA, including:



Interoperability



New capabilities



Etc.

Membership

Grow and evolve the membership
to ensure the organization has
the composition to address what
needs to be done (technically,
business, etc.).



Applications providers



Platform providers



Content providers

Marketing and

Promotion

Promote capabilities and other
information relevant to
developers. Promote what is
being deployed on CDMA and
impact on use.

Applications initiative

Purpose is to ensure CDMA and the industry address the evolution
toward an applications
-
focused wireless market


Complement existing industry and company initiatives

Program has three main components:

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Marketing, promotions, and education

Includes the following:


Website (for public promotion and members’ Intranet)


Public relations/press/media


Publications (contributed articles, member newsletter)


E
-
mail blasts on CDMA worldwide status


Conferences and forums


Platform presentations


Webcasts


Brochures, position papers, advertorials, advertisements


www.cdg.org

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Overview of cdmaOne

www.cdg.org

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Public Wired

Phone Network

(PSTN)

Wireline

Telephone

Other Cellular

Switches

Intelligent Add
-
On

Functions and

Databases

IS
-
95

Mobile Stations

IS
-
98

Base Stations

IS
-
97

Switch

IS
-
41

IS
-
124

WIN

Base Stations

Controller

“A”

IS
-
634

cdmaOne is:


A global technology designator for

IS
-
95 based CDMA systems


A term representing the entire wireless system and
specifications (e.g., air interface, network interfaces)


The CDMA technology deployed in mobile wireless
systems today

What is cdmaOne?

www.cdg.org

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Location
-
based

Local Events

Weather

Restaurants

Personal

PIM

Personal

Home Page

News &
Finance

Photos

M
-
Commerce

Shopping

Stock Trading

Banking

News &

Publications

Entertainment

Movie Listings

Tickets

Sports

Gaming

Music

Enterprise

Email

Calendar

Enterprise
Apps

How is cdmaOne being used today?

Like other technologies, voice remains a key driver for CDMA use


Operators are expanding on voice with new capabilities, e.g.:


Voice command


Voice portal


Integrated offers


In addition, there continues to be innovation in vocoder technology (I.e.,
selectable mode vocoder)

Today CDMA operators are also providing wireless Internet and data,
and will build on this with CDMA2000

www.cdg.org

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Note: prior to March 1998 the Caribbean and Mexico are included in North America; after March 1998 they are included in Carib
bea
n & Latin America

What is cdmaOne presence in the market?

Approximately 112 million subscribers at the end of 2001


North America represents the largest base of subscribers


Asia Pacific is second highest region; China expected to contribute significantly in the
next couple of years


Latin America continues to be a strong growth region



www.cdg.org

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Drivers and Considerations


in Deploying 3G

www.cdg.org

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A number of factors are driving the wireless

Internet and wireless information...

Societal trends


Emerging computer literate society


Increasing travel and mobility


Desire for entertainment


Need for enhanced productivity

Technology enablers


High speed, cost effective mobile
systems


Integrated multimedia applications


Small, powerful, application
-
rich user
devices

Market trends


Rapid growth in mobile


Rapid Internet adoption


Accelerating pace of electronic
commerce (aka M
-
commerce)


Rapid growth of portable and palmtop
computers

www.cdg.org

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Email, Intranet Access, Legacy Applications

Access, Vertical Applications

Weather, Travel, News, Gaming, Stock Quotes

Enterprise Workgroup


Specific IT Applications


Business Verticals


Group Chat, Email, Instant
Messaging


Wide Area Intranet


Mobile Workforce
Management (dispatch),
Telematics

Mobile Professional


Business General


Horizontal Business


Internet / Intranet


Email, Chat, Instant
Messaging


Personal Information
Management

Consumer


Personal Interest


Horizontal Consumer


Internet


Entertainment, Infotainment,
Lottery, Sports


Navigation, Map Search


Electronic Cash (M
-
Commerce)


…enabling exciting vertical and horizontal
applications

www.cdg.org

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0

200

400

600

800

1,000

1,200

Millions

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Data indicates that this convergence is creating
enormous opportunity for the wireless industry

Worldwide Wireless Subscribers

Source: EMC Database, 2001

Source: The ARC Group, Wireless Internet Report, 2000

Wireless Data Users

Millions

0

200

400

600

800

1,000

1,200

1,400

1,600

1,800

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

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Certain factors are important in a 3G solution

This section addresses each of

these success factors

Solutions that are globally recognized and meet adopted, international
standards

Solutions that work, enable quick time
-
to
-
market and meet industry
expectations

Spectrum flexibility, efficiency and cost

Broad range of competitively priced devices for end users

(consumers, enterprises)

Broad range of applications for end users

Seamless and cost effective migration from today’s systems

www.cdg.org

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IMT
-
2000

CDMA

Direct Spread

IMT
-
2000

CDMA

Multi
-
Carrier

IMT
-
2000

CDMA

TDD

IMT
-
2000

TDMA

Single Carrier

IMT
-
2000

FDMA/

TDMA

WCDMA

(UMTS)

CDMA2000


UTRA TDD &

TD
-
SCDMA

UWC
-
136/

EDGE

DECT

IMT
-
2000 Terrestrial Radio Interfaces

Although there are five terrestrial standards, most of the attention

and energy in the industry has been toward the CDMA standards

3G CDMA

The ITU formed the IMT
-
2000 program to

coordinate standards to meet 3G needs

www.cdg.org

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WCDMA and CDMA2000

What are some of the similarities and differences?

CDMA2000
WCDMA
Minimum channel
bandwidth
1.25 MHz
5 MHz
Spectrum Deployment
Existing bands, IMT band
IMT band
Speeds
144
kbps (mobile) – Per ITU standard
60 kbps-100
kbps – Per experience
(1X)
144
kbps (mobile) – Per ITU standard
64
kbps – Per experience (in Japan)
Technical parameters
Similar, with exception of a few (e.g.,
chip rate, type of synchronization)
Similar, with exception of a few (e.g.,
chip rate, type of synchronization)
Overall capacity
Comparable
Comparable
Technology starting point
Most current commercial networks are
from
cdmaOne. One network from
NMT. Two TDMA operators have
announced CDMA2000 plans.
Most, if not all, GSM operators will
deploy. Some TDMA operators have
announced (e.g., AT&T Wireless).
Migration considerations
Uses ANSI-41
network with packet
data node, as with
cdmaOne. Can be
deployed by GSM operator via IS-833.
Next step defined by CDMA2000
1xEV
Requires evolution to GPRS (with
separate packet data network).
TDMA operators also need GSM
network for voice. Japan is exception
– Uses PDC network standard.
Next step being defined by HSDPA.
Suppliers
Many
Many
Commercial status
Commercial (Eleven networks)
Commercial (One network)
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ANSI
-
41
Based
Systems

GSM
-
MAP
Based
Systems

Analog

Analog

1x

cdmaOne

cdmaOne

1x

TDMA

TDMA

1x

Current Spectrum

GSM or GSM/GPRS

GSM/GPRS

1x

1x

1x

1x

Or New Spectrum

1x

1x

1x

1x

1x

1x

1x

1x

1x

5 MHz


CDMA2000 is defined
to operate in existing
and IMT spectrum:




450 MHz



700 MHz



800 MHz



900 MHz



1700 MHz



1800 MHz



1900 MHz



2100 MHz

Spectrum flexibility is a key consideration for any
technology

CDMA2000 3G services operate in a small amount of spectrum


Effective use of spectrum, significant to all operators


Effective both in overlay or greenfield deployments

www.cdg.org

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What is the CDMA2000 evolution path?


Voice


Data up to
14.4 kbps


Voice


Data up to
115 kbps


2x increases in

voice capacity


Up to 307 kbps* packet
data on a single (1.25
MHz) carrier


First 3G system for any
technology worldwide


Optimized, very high
-
speed
data, aka DO


Up to 2.4 Mbps* packet data
on a single (1.25 MHz) carrier


Integrated voice and data, up
to 4.8 Mbps, aka DV

CDMA2000 is a solution for all operators, regardless of technology starting point

*
downlink

www.cdg.org

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What is the CDMA2000 network architecture?

Is quite clean, and does not require a parallel network. Uses the same

core network standard as TDMA and AMPS.

R
-
P

IS634

PSDN

MSC

HLR/AUC

Laptops with

Cell Phones

Cell

Phones

Smartphones

and PDAs

BSC

AAA

Server

PSTN

Internet

IWF

IP Router

Core

Elements

www.cdg.org

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CDMA2000 for GSM:


CDMA2000 1X
-
MAP (IS
-
833)


CDMA2000 1X lower layers using GSM signaling


Developed by
3GPP2 with support
from 3GPP

GSM operators can also migrate to CDMA2000

GSM carriers can use CDMA2000 1X
-
MAP (IS
-
833)


1X
-
MAP (IS
-
833) applies the CDMA2000 radio interface to GSM
-
MAP
networks


Allows GSM operators to retain international roaming capability


1X
-
MAP is an ITU standard, developed by 3GPP2 with support from 3GPP


3GPP also included changes in Release 99 for 1X
-
MAP support



www.cdg.org

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A look at expected pricing for handsets

Notes:

1.
Average Q4 wholesale pricing for
CDMA2000 is based on 300,000 unit
shipments.

2.
WCDMA pricing is based on smaller
volume shipments since Gartner does
not expect volume order for WCDMA
until after 2003.

3.
WCDMA pricing represents single
mode 2.1 GHz and multimode dual
band terminals for W. Europe and
Asia.

4.
GSM/GPRS pricing represents 900
MHz and 900/800 MHz terminals for W.
Europe and Asia, plus GSM 1900 MHz
terminals for N. America.

5.
CDMA2000 1X pricing represents 800
MHz and 1.9 GHz, single mode, dual
mode and tri
-
mode handsets for Asia
and N. America.

Source: Gartner Group, April 2001

Q4 ‘00

Q4 ‘01

Q4 ‘02

Q4 ‘03

$0

$200

$400

$600

$800

$1000

WCDMA handsets capable of peak
data rates of 2 Mbps (stationary)

1X handsets capable of peak data rates
of 144 kbps to 2.4 Mbps (mobile)

$1200

* Mid Tier and Entry Level


WCDMA handsets are not


expected to be commercially


available in volume until 2004

WCDMA*

GPRS

High Tier

Mid Tier

Entry Level

GPRS handsets capable of peak data
rates of 19.2 kbps to 38.4 kbps

CDMA2000 1X

www.cdg.org

30

CDMA enables the kind of capabilities needed to

realize significant advancements in services

0

32

64

9.6

128

144

384

2,000

Data Transmission Speed
-

kbps

1G Analog

2G CDMA

3G CDMA

Telephone


(Voice)

Voice

Data

Weather, Traffic, News,

Sports, Stock updates

Fax

Voice Mail

www.cdg.org

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Telephone


(Voice)


Electronic

Newspaper

E
-
Mail


Electronic

Publishing

Voice

Text Messaging

Audio Streaming

0

32

64

9.6

128

144

384

2,000

Data Transmission Speed
-

kbps

1G Analog

2G CDMA

3G CDMA

Data

Weather, Traffic, News,

Sports, Stock updates

Mobile


Radio

Fax

Voice Mail

CDMA enables the kind of capabilities needed to

realize significant advancements in services (cont.)

www.cdg.org

32

Telephone


(Voice)


Electronic

Newspaper

E
-
Mail


Electronic

Publishing

Voice

Text Messaging

Audio Streaming

Video Streaming

High
-
speed Internet

0

32

64

9.6

128

144

384

2,000

Data Transmission Speed
-

kbps

Remote Medical

Service

(Medical image)

Video Surveillance,

Video Mail, Travel

Mobile TV

M
-
Commerce

1G Analog

2G CDMA

3G CDMA

Data

Weather, Traffic, News,

Sports, Stock updates


Video


Conference

(High quality)

Mobile


Radio

Fax

Voice Mail

CDMA enables the kind of capabilities needed to

realize significant advancements in services (cont.)

www.cdg.org

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Current State of 3G Deployment

www.cdg.org

34

(thousands)

3G subscribers

3.5 million CDMA2000 users at the end of 2001



Approximately 27 thousand subscribers on WCDMA (Japan)*


Source: Gartner Group, as of 12/31/01

0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
Jan-01
Feb-01
Mar-01
Apr-01
May-01
Jun-01
Jul-01
Aug-01
Sep-01
Oct-01
Nov-01
Dec-01
CDMA2000
WCDMA
thousands

www.cdg.org

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CDMA2000 products

Approximately 40 CDMA2000 products in the market




www.cdg.org

36

Country
Operator
CDMA2000
Trial/Launch Date
Australia
Telstra
Trial 3Q 2000
Brazil
Telesp Celular
Commercial
Brazil
Vesper
Launch 2H 2002
Canada
Bell Mobility
Commercial
Canada
Telus Mobility
Launch 1Q 2002
Chile
SmartCom PCS
Launch 1Q 2002
Dominican Republic
Centennial Dominicana
Launch 1Q 2002
Jamaica
Centennial Digital Jamaica
Launch 3Q 2002
Japan
KDDI
Launch 1H 2002
Korea
KT Freetel
Commercial
Korea
LG Telecom
Commercial
Korea
SK Telecom
Commercial
Mexico
Pegaso PCS
Trial 2Q 2002
New Zealand
Telecom Mobile Limited
Launch 1H 2002
Romania
Telemobil
Commercial
Thailand
Hutchison-CAT
Launch 3Q 2002
Ukraine
CST Invest Limited
Launch 1Q 2002
United States
AirGate PCS
Launch Mid 2002
United States
Alamosa PCS
Launch Mid 2002
United States
ALLTEL Communications
Launch 1Q 2002
United States
Enterprise Communications
Launch Mid 2002
United States
Georgia PCS
Launch Mid 2002
United States
GulfCoast Wireless
Launch Mid 2002
United States
Horizon PCS
Launch Mid 2002
United States
Independent Wireless One
Launch Mid 2002
United States
Leap
Commercial
United States
MetroPCS
Commercial
United States
Monet Mobile Networks
Commercial
United States
Northern PCS
Launch Mid 2002
United States
Shentel
Launch Mid 2002
United States
Sprint PCS
Launch Mid 2002
United States
Swiftel Communications
Launch Mid 2002
United States
UbiquiTel
Launch Mid 2002
United States
US Cellular
Launch 1Q 2002
United States
US Unwired
Launch Mid 2002
United States
Verizon Wireless
Commercial
United States
Western Wireless
Limited Commercial
Venezuela
Movilnet
Launch 1H 2002
Venezuela
Telcel
Trial 1H 2001
Vietnam
Saigon Postel
Launch 2H 2002
3G deployments

CDMA2000
deployments


11 commercial
networks deployed


26 more commercial
launches planned
for 2002


www.cdg.org

37

Concluding Remarks

www.cdg.org

38

Summary

The wireless industry is on the verge of enabling applications and
services never before imagined

Several factors are critical to the rapid adoption of 3G, including:


Current economic pressures and cost
-
effective solutions


Compelling and useful applications


Well
-
understood value proposition for the marketplace


Comparable experience with the wired network (as applicable)

Operators are faced with different alternatives for enabling
capabilities and addressing these factors

CDMA2000 is making early successes in this new world