B.Sc. (BIOINFORMATICS) Part-II(Semester III - Punjabi University ...

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OUT
LINES OF SYLLABI FOR B.Sc. (BIOINFORMATICS)
I
II
rd

S
emester


for Sessions 2012
-
2013, 2013
-
14 & 2014
-
15


Paper

Subject

Marks

No. of
Periods/
W
eek

Theory

Practical

Total


I

English

75

-

75

5

I
I

Microbiology &
Immunology

70

30

100

6

I
II

Molecular
Biology &
Genetic Engineering

70

30

100

6

I
V

Advance
d

Computer
Programming: OOPS in
C++

70

30

100

6


Note:


1. Syllabus for the subjects of Chemistry and English would b
e common for B.Sc.
(Medical/Non
-
Medical)


























SEMESTER
-
II
I


PAPER
-
I

English


Max. Marks
: 75







Lectures to be delivered
: 75

Pass Marks
: 35%







(
Each of 45 minutes duration
)


Time Allowed:

3 Hours


COURSE CONTENT

The course content shall compromise the
following books:

1.

Perspectives: Selections from Modern English Prose and Fiction
, edited by S.A.
Vasudevan and M. Sathya Babu, Published by Orient Longman.

2.

Six One
-
Act Plays
, edited by Maurice Standford. Published by Orient Longman.


TESTING

The paper shall

have two sections. Section
-
A shall comprise testing from
Perspectives:
Selections from Modern English Prose and Fiction

while Section
-
B from
Six One
-
Act Plays
.

SECTION
-
A: PERSPECTIVES

Q. 1 Based on the section entitled “Prose”, comprising chapters 1 to

VI.

(a)

One essay
-
type question with internal alternative. The answer should not
exceed 250 words.





10 Marks

(b)

Five short
-
answer questions to be attempted out of seven. Each answer should
be written in 25 to 30 w
ords. 5X2=10 Marks

Q. 2 Based on the section entitled “Fiction”, comprising chapters VII to IX.

(a)

One essay
-
type question with internal alternative on character/theme and
incident/episode. The answer
should not exceed 250 words. 10 Marks

(b)

There will be one short answer question from each of the three stories. The
candidate shall be required to attempt any two. Each answer should be
written in 25 to 30 words.

2X2
1
/
2
=5 Marks

Q. 3 Based on the section entitled “Biographies”, comprising chapters X to XII.

(a)


One essay
-
type question with internal alternative. The answer should not
exceed 250 words.



10 Marks

(b)


There will be one short answer question from each chapter. The candidate
shall be required to attempt any two. Each answer should be written in 25 to
30 words.









2X2
1
/
2
=5 Marks


Section

B: SIX ONE
-
ACT PLAYS


Q. 4
(a) One essay
-
type question on character, incident/episode and theme, with internal
alternative. The answer should not exceed 250 wor
ds.
15 Marks

(b) Five short
-
answer question to be attempted out of seven. Each ans
wer should be

written in 25
-
30 words.



5X2=10 Marks








Paper I
I

Microbiology & Immunology


Max. Marks
: 70






Lectures to be delivered
: 75

Pass Marks
:

35%







(
Each of 45 minutes duration
)


Time Allowed: 3 Hours


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTER


The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Section A and B will
have four questions from the respecti
ve section of syllabus and will carry 12 marks each.
Section C will consist of 11 short
-
answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus
uniformly and will carry 22 marks in all.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR CANDIDATES


Candidates are required to attempt tw
o questions from each section A and B and the
entire section C.

Section
-
A

1.

Introduction
:
Historical developments and applications of

microbiology
; current status of
microbiology in India.

2.

Microscope & Microscopy:
Brief account of structure, operation, princ
iple and

applications of bright field, fluorescence

& electron scanning microscopes (SEM &
TEM).

3.

Microbial
D
iversity
:
Mic
ro
bi
al

diversity, microbial nomenclature,
concept of
microbial
species, classification of
mic
roorganisms
;

Molecular techniques for iden
tification of
microorganisms; A brief account of Bergey’s system of bacterial classification
.

4.

Prokaryotes:
A gene
ral account on characteristics,
structure

reproduction and functions of
cell organelles of bacteria, archaebacteria, cyanobacteria, actinomycet
es

and

mycoplasma
, etc
.

5.

Eukaryotes:
A general account of characteristics, morphology,

nutrition, fine structure, &
functions of cell organelles of molds & slime molds, yeast, algae, protozoa, etc.

6.

Economic
I
mportance: Economic importance of prokaryotic and

eukaryotic
microorganisms
.


7.

Microorganisms as
Geochemical Agents
: Cycles of matter (nitrogen, carbon, water,
oxygen, sulphur and phosphorus) and other interactions of microbes.

Section
-
B

8.

Immune
S
ystem:
H
um
oral immunity
-

i
ntroduction, Lymphocytes: their o
rigin and
differentiation, Types of immune responses.

B
-
lymphocytes and their activation, structure
and function of immunoglobin, immunoglobin classes and subclasses, generation of
antibody diversity, major histocompatibility complex.

9.

I
mmune
S
ystem: Cellul
ar
i
mmunity
-

Thymus derived lymphocytes (T cells) and their
classification, Antigen presenting cells (APC), Macrophages, langerhans cells their origin
and functions, mechanisms of phagocytosis, Identification of cell type of immune
systems, immunosup
p
ress
ion, immune tolerance.

10.

Monoclonal antibodies. Stem
c
ells.


RECOMMENDED

READING
S

1.

I. Roitt,
Essential Immunology
, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, (1991).

2.

E. Benjamin and S. Leskowitez,
Immunology: A Short Course
, Wiley Liss, NY, (1991).

3.

Immunol
ogy

by Kuby, 4
th

Edition, Freeman Publishers, (2001).

4.

Molecular Cell Biology

and Harvey

Lodish et

al.
,

4
th

Edition W. H. Freeman (2000).

5.

Tortora, G.J. Funke, B.R.

and case, C.L. (1994)
Microbiology: An introduction
:

5
th

Ed.
The Benjamin/Cunnings Publishing

Company, Inc.

6.

Stainer, R.Y. (1995)

General Microbiology
. MacMillan Press,

London.

7.

Pelezar, M.T. (1995)

Microbiology
, Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing, New Delhi.

8.

Schlegel
, H.G. (1995)
General Microbiology
,

7
th

Ed., Cambridge Uni., Press.

9.

Prescott and Dunn (1
999)

Industrial Microbiology
,

4
th

Ed. By S.K. Jain
for CBS
Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi.

10.

Purobit,

S.S. (2000)

Microbiology: Fundamental and Applications
,
6
th

Ed.
,

Agrobios,
India).

11.

Postagate, J. (2000)

Microbes & M
an
:

4
th

Ed, Cambridge

University
P
ress
, UK
.


Microbiology and Immunology

PRACTICAL


Max Marks: 30








Pass Marks: 35%


List of Practicals
:

1.

Orientation of microbiology lab (working of autoclave, laminar flow bench, hot air oven,
BOD incubator, etc.).

2.

Structure and function of compound mi
croscope.

3.

Simple, negative, capsule, acid fast and
G
ram staining of microorganisms.

4.

Morphological &
b
iochemical characterization of microorganisms.

5.

Determination of viability of microorganism
s
.

6.

Microscope measurement of size of microorganism
s
.


7.

Hanging dr
op preparation to check the mobility/Brownian movements of microorganisms

8.

TLC and DLC
o
f
b
lood samples.

9.

Determination of cell number (viable/non
-
viable).

10.

Ficoll density gradient, separation of cell types.

11.

Cell agglutination reaction.

12.

SDS
-
PAGE and
W
estern b
lot.

13.

Principle and procedure of
ELISA.

14.

Determination of
Hb content.


Distribution of Marks:

Practical Performance:

22

Marks

Viva
V
oce:



5

Marks

Practical Record:


3

Marks








Paper I
I
I

Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering


Max. Marks
: 70







Lectures to be delivered
: 75

Pass Marks
: 35%







(
Each of 45 minutes duration
)


Time Allowed: 3 Hours


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTER


The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C.

Section A and B will
have four questions from the respective section of syllabus and will carry 12 marks each.
Section C will consist of 11 short
-
answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus
uniformly and will carry 22 marks in all.


INSTRUC
TIONS FOR CANDIDATES


Candidates are required to attempt two questions from each section A and B and the
entire section C.

SECTION
-

A

1.

Introduction:
Introduct
i
on to Molecular Biology

2.

DNA
R
eplication: Various modes of replication. Mechanisms of prokaryotic
and
e
ukaryotic DNA replication.

3.

Properties of DNA polymerases, Synthesis of
l
eading and lagging strands
.

4.

DNA Repair
: Photo
-
reactivation, excision repair, post replication repair, SOS repair
,

etc.

5.

Transcription: RNA polymerase in prokaryotes


its molecular

composition, role of each
component of RNA polymerase,
mechanism

of transcription,
e
ukaryotic transcription.

6.

Regulation of
Gene Expression
in
P
rokaryotes: Transcriptional control; enzyme induction
and
repression
, constitutive synthesis of enzymes. The la
c operon. The trp operon.

7.

Translation: The genetic code. Prokaryotic and
eukaryotic translation
.

8.

Modification of RNA: 5




CAP

formation, 3




end processing polyadenylation,
s
plicing,
e
diting,
n
uclear export of mRNA and mRNA stability.

SECTION
-

B

9.

Recombi
nant DNA: History and scope of recombinant DNA technology.

10.

DNA modifying enzymes.

11.

Cloning and
Expression Vectors
:
Characteristics of cloning and expression vectors;
plasmid, phages, and cosmid vectors, multipurpose cloning vectors, shuttle vectors,
bacteri
al, yeast, plant and mammalian expression vectors. BACs and YACs. DNA
cloning
s
trategies
.

12.

Preparation
of
cDNA libraries, criteria for selection of cloning vectors, plasmid,
bacteriophage and cosmic of genomic and transformation, electroporation, screening

of
gene library and selection of clone.

13.

Applications of genetic engineering
.


RECOMMENDED READING
S

1.

Concept in Biochemistry

by Roodney Boyer: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. 2
nd

Edition,
2006.

2.

Molecular Biotechnology: Principles and
Applications

of Recombinant

DNA

by Bernard
R. Glick and Jack J. Pastermack. Publisher: American Society Microbiology: 3
rd

Edition
,
(2003).

3.

Gene Cloning
, T.A. Brown. Published by Blackwell Science (2001)
,

7
th

Edition.

4.

Electricity and Magnetism
, Berkley Physics course Vol. II by E.M.
Purcell.

5.

Molecular Cloning. A. Laboratory Manual

by T. Maniatis et al. CSH Lab. N.Y. (1989).


Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering

PRACTICAL

Max. Marks
: 30







Pass Marks
: 35
%


List of
Practical
s:


1.

Isolation o
f
g
enomic DNA and
q
uantization of DNA.

2.

Isolation of bacterial plasmid DNA.

3.

Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA.

4.

Restriction digestion of DNA with one restriction enzyme.

5.

Isolation and analysis of RNA.

6.

Southern blot hybridization with non radioactive probe.

7.

Microscopy, chromosome staining.


Distribution of Marks:

Practical Performance:

22 Marks

Viva
V
oce:



5

Marks

Practical Record:


3

Marks


Paper I
V

Advanced Computer Programming: OOPS in

C++


Max. Marks
: 70






Lectures to be delivere
d
: 75

Pass Marks
: 35%







(
Each of 45 minutes duration
)


Time Allowed: 3 Hours


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTER


The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Section A and B will
have four questions
from the respective section of syllabus and will carry 12 marks each.
Section C will consist of 11 short
-
answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus
uniformly and will carry 22 marks in all.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR CANDIDATES


Candidates are requi
red to attempt two questions from each section A and B and the
entire section C.

SECTION
-

A

1.

Methodologies: Concept of structured and object
-
oriented programming Advantages of
OOPs methodologies.

2.

Introduction to Object O
riented
P
rogramming, characteristic
s of OOPs l
anguages, C++
programming
b
asic:
Introduction to
C
++,

testing and debugging

-

Object

Oriented
Programming.

3.

Introduction of
a
bstraction,
e
ncapsulation,
v
ariables and assignments,

input and output,
data types and expression simple flow of control
top down design, defined functions,
local variables, overloadinf functions.

4.

Functions, call by reference,

call by value,

testing and debugging functions,

Boolean
expression, if else statement, switch statement,
loops.

SECTION
-

B

5.

Streams and classes, basic

tools for streams, structures, classes, friend functions,
overloading operators, separate

compilation, namespaces, array
, array in functions, array
and classes, multidimensional array, array with string,
.

6.

Pointers, dynamic array classes and dynamic array

recursion, recussive functions, f
ile
h
andling in C++, Template class and function, Exception
h
andling
.


RECOMMENDED

READING
S

1.

Object Oriented Programming

in C++, by Robert Lafore, Techmedia, 2002.

2.

C++: How to
P
rogram

by Deitel and Deitel, Pearson Edition,
2002.

3.

The C++ Programming Languages

by Stroustrup, Addition Wesely, 2001.

4.

Problem
S
olving the
O
bject of Programming

by Walter Savitch Pearson Education
,

2003.


Advanced Computer Programming: OOPS in

C++

PRACTICAL

Max.
Marks:
30









Pass Marks
:
35%


List of Practicals:

1. W.A.P.

to table of two.

2. W.A.P. for switch stament.

3. W.A.P. for recusion.

4. W.A.P. for mean.

5. W.A.P. for matrix multiplication.

6. W.A.P. for operator overloading.

7. W.A.P. for friend funct
ions.

8. W.A.P for separate compilation and namespaces.

9. W.A.P. for streams.

10. W.AP. for classes and objects.

11. W.A.P.
for call by reference.

12. W.AP. for call by value.

13. W.A.P. for dangling pointers.





Distribution of Marks:

Practical Perform
ance:

22 Marks

Viva
V
oce:



5

Marks

Practical Record:


3

Marks








OUT
LINES OF SYLLABI FOR B.Sc. (BIOINFORMATICS)
I
V
th

S
emester

for Sessions 2012
-
2013, 2013
-
14 & 2014
-
15


Paper

Subject

Marks

No. of
Periods/
W
eek

Theory

Practical

Total

V

English

75

-

75

5

V
I

Biochemical &
Molecular Biology
Techniques

70

30

100

6

VI
I

Computation
al

Methods
in Sequence analysis

70

30

100

6

VII
I

Advanced Computer
Programming: HTML &
Networking

70

30

100

6

IX

Environmental Studies

75

25

100

5


Note:

1.

Syllabus for
the subjects of Chemistry and English would b
e common for B.Sc.
(Medical/Non
-
Medical
)

2.

Environmental studies practical would be pertaining to Field Work.























SEMESTER
-
IV


PAPER
-
V

English

Max. Marks
: 75







Lectures to b
e delivered
: 75

Pass Marks
: 35%







(
Each of 45 minutes duration
)


Time Allowed: 3 Hours


COURSE CONTENT

The course content shall comprise composition, comprehension, translation and grammar.

TESTING

The paper shall ha
ve two sections. Section
-
A shall test the candidate’s skills in composition,
comprehension and translation. Section
-
B shall test his/her skills in grammar.

SECTION
-
A

Q.1 An essay of 300
-
350 words on a topical or reflective subject (one to be attempted
out
of the five given).


15 Marks

Q.2

Letter
-
writing with internal choice between personal and official letters.


10 Marks

Q.3

Precis












10 Marks

Q
.4

Comprehension of an unseen passage


10 Marks

Q.5

Translation of a given passage from Punjabi/Hindi into English.


05 Marks


SECTION
-
B

Q.6 (a) Analysis of S
entences: Converting s
imple sentences into complex and compound
ones and identifying adverb clause, noun clause and adjective clause in the given
sentences.


(b) Synthesis of
S
entences: (i) combining two simple sentences into a single simple
sentence by using a particip
le, an infinitive, a noun or phrase in apposition, too/
enough + adjective/adverb + infinitive and the bare infinitive. (ii) Combining simple
sentences into complex ones by using a noun clause, adjective clause or an adverb
clause. (iii) Combining simple s
entences into compound ones by using conjunctions
such as ‘and’, 'as well as', 'not only….but also' or 'either….. or', 'neither……..nor',
'but yet', ‘nevertheless’, 'so', ‘therefore’, for etc.





10 Marks


(c) Transformation of Sentences:

(i) Tra
nsformation of degree, i.e., from positive to
comparative degree and positive to superlative degree. (ii) Transformation of kinds
of statements, i.e. from rhetorical or interrogative into assertive statements, from
affirmative into negative sentences and f
rom statement into exclamatory sentences.
(iii) Transformation from active into passive voice and vice
-
versa and from direct
speech into indirect speech and vice
-
versa.


10 Marks

Note:

In part (a) of Q.

No. 6, the paper
-
setter shall set 8 sentences out of which the students
shall have to attempt any 5. In part (b) and (c), a total of 15 sentences each shall be set
out of which the students shall have to attempt any 10 in each part.



RECOMMENDED BOOK
S

The students are free to use any book. The following book is however recommended:

Current English Grammar and Usage with Composition

by R.P. Sinha, Oxford University
Press.




Paper VI

Biochemical a
nd Molecular Biolo
g
y Techniques


Max. Marks
: 70









Lectures to be delivered
: 75

Pass Marks
: 35%









(
Each of 45 minutes duration
)




Time Allowed: 3 Hours


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTER


The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. S
ection A and B will
have four questions from the respective section of syllabus and will carry 12 marks each.
Section C will consist of 11 short
-
answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus
uniformly and will carry 22 marks in all.


INSTRUCTI
ONS FOR CANDIDATES


Candidates are required to attempt two questions from each section A and B and the
entire section C.

SECTION
-

A

1.

Northern blotting, Southern
b
lotting, Western
b
lotting, PCR, RT PCR, Gel
-
shift assays
for DNA protein
interaction
.
In vitro

transcription and
in vitro

translation. Pulse labeling.

2.

Site
-
directed mutagenesis: Kunkels method, PCR based methods.

3.

Microscopy: Light
m
icroscopy, Phase contrast microscopy, Electron
m
icroscopy,
Confocal
m
icroscopy, Fluorescence microscopy. Flow
c
ytomet
er (
Fluorescence

assisted
cell sorting).

SECTION
-

B

4.

Chromatograp
h
y: Definition,

principles and types

-

paper, thin
-
layer, adsorption, gas,
r
everse phase chromatography and HPLC.

5.

Principles and
T
echniques of
Protein Purification
:
Ultrafiltration, precipita
tion, dialysis,
i
on
-
exchange, affinity, gel
-
filtration
.

6.

Biochemical
methods of analysis
.

7.

Electrophoresis: Principles, types

-

moving, paper, starch gel, agar gel,
immunoelectrophoresis,
i
soelectric focusing.

8.

Colorimetry,
F
luorimetry and Spectrometry: Princ
iple of Beer and Lambert’s law;
Principle, description and application
s
.

9.

Centrifugation
:

Ultracentrifugatio
n for protein and nucleic acids.


RECOMMENDED

READINGS

1.

D. Holme, H. Peck,
Analytical Biochemistry
, Longmen Publ, 3
rd

E
dition (1998).

2.

Principl
es and Techniques of Practical Biochemistry
,

Keith Wilson
and
John Walker,
Cambridge University Press, 5
th

Edition (2000).

3.

Principles and Practice of Bio
-
analysis

by Richard F. Venn, Taylor and Francis
Publishers, London and N.Y., Indian Edition 2003.

4
.

Physical Chemistry

by Cantor and Schimmel W.H. Freeman and Company, 1980.

5.

Physical Biochemistry: Applications to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
, 2
nd

Edition.

6.

Physical Biochemistry: Applications to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

by David M.
Freifelder, Publisher: W.H. Freeman (1982).




Bio
c
hemical and Molecular Biology Techniques

PRACTICAL

Max Marks:

30








Pass Marks:

35%


List of Practicals
:

1. PCR.

2. Light microscopy.

3. Paper chromatography.

4. HPLC.

5. Gel electrophore
sis.

6. UV

spectroscopy
.

7. Centrifugation


Distribution of Marks:

Practical Performance:

22 Marks

Viva
V
oce:



5

Marks

Practical Record:


3

Marks


Paper VII

Computation
al

Methods in
Sequence Analysis


Max. Marks
: 70







Lectures to
be delivered
: 75

Pass Marks
: 35%








(
Each of 45 minutes duration
)




Time Allowed: 3 Hours


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTER


The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Section A and B will
have four

questions from the respective section of syllabus and will carry 12 marks each.
Section C will consist of 11 short
-
answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus
uniformly and will carry 22 marks in all.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR CANDIDATES


Candidate
s are required to attempt two questions from each section A and B and the
entire section C.

SECTION
-

A

1.

Pairwise
A
lignment:

DotPlot
;
Local and
g
lobal alignments

2.

Database
Homology Search
:
C
oncepts
;
Scoring matrices
;
BLAST algorithm

3.

Significance of
A
lignment
s: E value, Scrores.

4.

Database
Homology Search
: BLAST versions; BLASTp, BLASTn, BLASTx, tBLASTn,
tBLASTx
;
PSI
-
BLAST and PHI BLAST.

SECTION
-

B

5.

The Tree of
L
ife: Archaebacteria, eubacteria, eukaryota. Principles of taxonomic
identification.

6.

Phylogenetic
A
na
lysis:

Distance and parsimony methods; Clustering methods.

7.

Rooted and
unrooted trees
, Bootstrapping, Phylip.

8.

Predictive methods using DNA sequences.

9.

Gene
Prediction Methods
: Searching by signal, searching by content, homology based
pre
dictions. Markov mod
els. Hidden
-
M
arkov models in gene prediction: Gene
S
can,
Glimmer, Promoter analysis and predictions.


SUGGESTED READINGS

1.

Bioinformatics

by David Mount, Cold Spring Harbor Labotratory, (1989).

2.

Bioinformatics: A
Practical Guide

to the
A
nalysis of
G
enes

and
P
roteins
,
Ed. by
Baxevanis, 3
rd

Edition

(2006)
,

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Publication.

3.

Bioinform
a
tics: Sequences,
S
tructure and
D
atabanks

by Des Higgins and Willie Taylor,
Oxford University

Press

(2000).

4.

BLAST
by Ian Korf, Mark Yandell, Joseph Be
dell, O’Reilly, 1
st

Edition

(2003).


Computation
al

Methods in
Sequence Analysis

PRACTICAL

Max.
Marks:

30






Pass
Marks:

35%


List of Practicals:

1.

Dot Plot: using pencil and graph paper only.

2.

Aligning two sequences.

3.

Multiple Sequence alignment.

4.

BLAST analysis and data interpretation: E value, Scores.

5.

BLASTp and BLASTn.

6.

Visiting and using GenScan, Glimmer.

7.

Phylogenetic analysis in relation to multiple sequence alignment only.


Distribution of Marks:

Practic
al Performance:

22 Marks

Viva
V
oce:



5

Marks

Practical Record:


3

Marks




Paper VIII

Advanced Computer
Programming
:
HTML and Networking


Max. Marks
: 70








Lectures to be delivered
: 75

Pass Marks
: 35%








(
Ea
ch of 45 minutes duration
)



Time Allowed: 3 Hours


INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE PAPER SETTER


The question paper will consist of three sections A, B and C. Section A and B will
have four questions from the respective section of syllabus and will car
ry 12 marks each.
Section C will consist of 11 short
-
answer type questions which will cover the entire syllabus
uniformly and will carry 22 marks in all.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR CANDIDATES


Candidates are required to attempt two questions from each section A and

B and the
entire section C.

SECTION
-

A

1.

Introduction to HTML. Creating HTML pages, viewing pages in different browsers.

2.

Structure of HTML page, tags and attributes, color codes and fonts, different elements in
Head section of HTML document.

3.

Text
-
formattin
g tags, applying formatting to the body section of HTML document, block
level and text level tags,
behavior

of formatting tags in different browsers.

4.

Creating external and
internal links
.

5.

Adding graphics with image tag, image element attributes,
using ima
ge

as links, image
maps, supported image file formats.

6.

Adding multimedia to web pages, supported audio and video formats.

7.

Tables: Presenting
i
nformation in
t
ables, table attributes, table as layout

tool, nested
tables.

8.

Frames: Using
f
rames, frameset, targ
eted links, no frames element.

9.

Forms: Using HTML forms, input control elements and attributes, processing forms.

SECTION
-

B

10.

Computer Networks: Uses of
computer network, network hardware, network software,
goals and applications of computer networks
.

11.

Refe
rence Models: OSI
r
eference
m
odel, TCP/IP reference
m
odel,
c
omparison of OSI
and TCP
.


12.

Types of Networks:
L
ocal area networks, wide area networks, metropolitan area networks

and value added networks
-

their features.


RECOMMENDED
READING
S

1.

E. Stephen Ma
ck, Janan Platt
:
HTML 4.0, No Experience Required
, 1998, BPB
Publications.

2.

"
HTML Complete
" by Sybex, BPB Publications.

3.

Andrew S. Tanenbaum, "
Computer Networks
",
3
rd

Edition, PHI Publications, 1997.


Advanced Computer
Programming
:
HTML and Networking

PRACTICAL

Max. Marks
:

30






Pass Marks
:
35%


List of Practicals:

Practical
b
ased on
theory paper
.

1. Writing with codes with HTML.


Distribution of Marks:

Practical Performance:

22 Marks

Viva
V
oce:



5

Marks

Practical R
ecord:


3

Marks











PAPER
-
IX

Environmental Studies


Max. Marks
: 100






Lectures to be delivered
: 75

Written paper:
75









(
Each of 45 minutes duration
)

Field work:
25

Pass Marks
: 35%








Time Allowed:

3 Hours


INSTRUCTIONS

(a)

The paper has been introduced from session 2009
-
10.

(b)

The paper will be taught in the second year of all the UG courses (B.A., B.Com.,
B.Sc., Law, Engineering, Commerce, Agriculture, etc.) except LL.B. th
ree year
course and will be a qualifying paper only. The marks of this paper will no be
counted towards final score of the UG degree.

(c)

This paper will cover only preliminary and basics of the subject and the paper will be
set accordingly.

(d)

The written paper

will have 2 parts.
Part I

will be of 25 marks. It will contain 10
questions, the students will attempt five questions of 5 marks each out of this part.
The answer to these questions should not exceed 50 words each.
Part II

of the paper
will be of 50 marks

and will contain 10 essay type questions. The candidates will
attempt 5 questions out of this part. The answer to each question should not exceed
500 words. Each question will carry 10 marks.


Unit 1: The Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies

Definition, scope and importance







(2 lectures)

Need for public awareness


Unit
2
:
Natural resources: Renewable and non
-
renewable resources



Natural resources and associated problems

(a)

Forest resources: Use and over
-
exploitation, deforestation, case studi
es. Timber
extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people.

(b)

Water resources: Use and over
-
utilization of surface and ground water, floods,
drought, conflicts over water, dams, benefits and problems.

(c)

Mineral resources: Use and exploi
tation, environmental effects of extracting and
using mineral resources, case studies.

(d)

Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and
overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer
-
pesticide problems, water
logging, salinity
, case studies

(e)

Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non
-
renewable energy
sources, use of alternate energy sources, case studies.

(f)

Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced landslides,
soil erosion and desertification




Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources



Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles


(8 lectures)

Unit 3: Ecosystems



Concept of an ecosystem



Structure and function of an ecosystem



Producers, consumers and decomposers



Energy f
low in the ecosystem



Ecological succession



Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids



Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the following
ecosystem

(a) Forest ecosystem

(b) Grassland ecosystem

(c) Desert ecosystem

(d)
Aquatic ecosystem (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)

(6 lectures)


Unit 4: Biodiversity and its conservation



Introduction
-
Definition,: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity



Biogeographical classification of India



Value of biodiversity: c
onsumptive use, productive use, social, ethical,
aesthetic

and
option values



Biodiversity at global, national and local levels



India as a mega
-
diversity nation



Hot
-
spots of biodiversity



Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man
-
wildl
ife conflicts



Endangered and endemic species of India



Conservation of biodiversity: In
-
situ and ex
-
situ conservation of biodiversity

(8 lectures)

Unit 5: Environmental pollution

Definition



Causes, effects and control measures of:

(a)

Air pollution

(b)

Water poll
ution

(c)

Soil pollution

(d)

Marine pollution

(e)

Noise pollution

(f)

Thermal pollution

(g)

Nuclear hazards



Solid waste management
: Causes, effects and control measures of urban and industrial
wastes



Role of an individual in prevention of pollution



Pollution case studies



Disa
ster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides

(8 lectures)

Unit 6: Social issues and the Environment



From unsustainable to sustainable development



Urban problems related to energy



Water conservation, rain water harvesting, water shed manageme
nt



Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns, case studies



Environmental
ethics: Issues and possible solutions



Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents
and holocaust, case studies



Wastel
and reclamation



Consumerism and waste products



Environment Protection Act



Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act



Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act



Wildlife Protection Act



Forest Conservation Act



Issues involved in enforcement of enviro
nmental legislation



Public awareness

(8 lectures)

Unit
7
:
Human Pollution

and the Environment



Population growth, variation among nations



Population explosion



Environment and human health



Human rights



Value education



HIV/AIDS



Women and child welfare



Role of

information technology in environment and human health



Case studies

(6 lectures)

Unit
8
:
Field work



Visit to a local area to document environmental areas
-
river/forest/grassland/hill/
mountain



Visit to a local polluted side
-
urban/rural/industrial/agricult
ural



Study of common plants, insects, birds



Study of simple ecosystems
-
pond, river, hill slopes, etc.

(Field work
e
qual to 5 lecture hours)