Sustainability, Climate Change and Environmental Management

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Sustainability, Climate Change
and Environmental
Management
14.0
14.1 Environmental management framework 131
14.2 Management of environmental issues 131
14.3 Environmental issues related to Master
146
Plan concept
14.4 Environmental initiatives and management at
147
Sydney Airport
131
14.1 Environmental management
framework
Environmental Management at Sydney Airport
is carried out in accordance with the following
legislation:
• Airports Act 1996 Part 5 and Part 6 (Airports
Act);
• Airports (Environment Protection) Regulations
1997; and
• Environment Protection and Biodiversity
Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act).
Under the terms of the Sydney Airport lease
agreement, and in accordance with Part 6 of the
Airports Act 1996, SACL is required to prepare and
implement an Airport Environment Strategy (AES),
which is effective for a five year term. After this
period, the Strategy must be reviewed and a new
AES developed. The AES and SACL’s policy are key
documents for ensuring that the forecast growth
and development of Sydney Airport envisaged in
the Master Plan is undertaken in a environmentally
responsible manner. The AES provides the full
details of SACL’s environmental objectives and
commitments that are summarised in the Master
Plan. The current AES is for the period of 2005 to
2010. In 2009, SACL will commence the process of
developing the 2010-2015 AES.
In accordance with the principles of AS/NZS
ISO 14001, Sydney Airport is in the process of
improving its Environmental Management System
(EMS). The EMS provides the system by which
long term and daily environmental management
can be planned, implemented and reviewed, in a
cycle of continuous improvement. The cornerstone
of the EMS is the AES, which provides strategic
policies, objectives and targets for environmental
management of the Airport within the EMS
framework. This includes monitoring progress,
reviewing performance and implementing corrective
actions for the strategic actions outlined in the AES.
The Department of Infrastructure, Transport,
Regional Development and Local Government
(DITRDLG) is the regulatory authority responsible
for administering legislation at Sydney Airport.
An Airport Environment Officer (AEO) has been
appointed by the Department to oversee Sydney
Airport and the implementation of the environmental
aspects of the legislation. As the airport lessee
company, Sydney Airport also has a role in
environmental regulation of airport tenants. All
Airport tenants with the potential for impact on the
environment are required to develop Environmental
Management Plans and report to Airport
management on their actions annually.
14.2 Management of environmental
issues
Airports Act 1996 requirements
The Airports Act 1996 requires a master plan to
specify a range of environmental matters including:
• Sydney Airport’s assessment of environmental
issues that might reasonably be expected to
be associated with the implementation of the
master plan [section 71(2)(f)]; and
• Sydney Airport’s plans for dealing with these
environmental issues, including plans for
ameliorating or preventing environmental
impacts [section 71(2)(g)].
A master plan must also specify the following
matters concerning aircraft noise:
• an Australian Noise Exposure Forecast (ANEF)
for the areas surrounding the airport [section
71(2)(d)];
• flight paths at the airport [section 71(2)(da)];
and
• Sydney Airport’s plans, developed following
consultations with the airlines that use the
airport and local government bodies in the
vicinity of the airport, for managing aircraft
noise intrusion in areas forecast to be subject
to exposure above the 30 ANEF levels [section
71(2)(e)];
14.0 Sustainability, Climate Change and
Environmental Management
Sydney Airport is committed to the sustainable operation of the Airport
and to effective action on climate change. Environmental management
at Sydney Airport focuses on a cooperative approach with regulatory
agencies and other airport stakeholders to support and ensure
compliance with relevant environmental standards.
132
Sydney Airport’s assessment of environmental
issues associated with implementing this Master
Plan over the planning period, its plans for dealing
with these issues (including plans for ameliorating
or preventing environmental impacts) and the
additional requirements concerning aircraft noise are
discussed in this Chapter and, as outlined above, in
the Airport Environment Strategy.
The environmental issues summarised in this
section are categorised as follows:
• noise (from aircraft operations and ground-
based activities);
• sustainability and climate change;
• air quality;
• surface water quality;
• soil and groundwater quality (contaminated
sites);
• flora and fauna;
• heritage; and
• resource use (water, energy, raw materials and
waste management).
14.2.1 Noise
Aircraft noise and mitigation strategies
Environmental noise (also called community noise)
includes noise generated by road, rail and air
traffic, as well as that generated by industries,
construction activity and, more generally, across
neighbourhoods. The main sources of environmental
noise are related to transportation, particularly road
traffic (estimated to contribute around 73 percent of
noise) followed by aircraft (estimated to contribute
around 17 percent of noise)
1
.
Aircraft noise and its effects on human health
and well being have been extensively studied in
Australia and around the world. Relationships
between exposure to excessive aircraft noise and
annoyance, sleep disturbance, hearing impairment,
reduced productivity, children’s learning and other
health impacts have been documented
2
.
Sydney Airport acknowledges these aircraft noise
related impacts. It is committed to working with
others in the aviation industry to mitigate impacts,
especially in areas in the vicinity of the airport or
under flight paths.
As explained in Table 14.1, managing aircraft
noise related matters is the joint concern of
the International Civil Aviation Organisation,
governments, airports, airlines, aircraft
manufacturers and regulators. While each has a
differing responsibility, collectively, they play a
crucial role in effectively managing and minimising
the impacts of aircraft noise.
Table 14.1 Aircraft noise: roles and responsibilities
Organisation Summary of responsibilities concerning aircraft noise
mitigation
International Civil Aviation Organisation
and the Australian Government
• The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), a United Nations
Specialised Agency, is the global forum for civil aviation. ICAO works
to achieve its vision of safe, secure and sustainable development of
civil aviation through cooperation amongst its member States, of which
Australia is one.
• Much of ICAO’s effort to address aircraft noise over the past 30 years
has been aimed at reducing noise at source. Aeroplanes and helicopters
built today are required to meet the strict noise certification standards
adopted by the Council of ICAO. These are contained in Annex 16 —
Environmental Protection, Volume I — Aircraft Noise to the Convention
on International Civil Aviation.
Australian Government (Department
of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional
Development and Local Government)
• Advises the Australian Government on the policy and regulatory
framework for airports and the aviation industry and administers the
Airports Act 1996.
• Enforces Sydney Airport’s aircraft movement cap and jet curfew and
the granting of curfew dispensations.
• Administers the aircraft noise insulation program.
• Provides support for the Sydney Airport Community Forum (SACF), the
main consultative body for the Sydney Airport Long Term Operating
Plan. SACF includes representatives from the community, local
councils, the aviation industry (including Sydney Airport), and State and
Federal Parliaments.
Australian Government (Airservices
Australia)
• Provides air-traffic control management and related airside services to
the aviation industry.
• Determines aircraft flight paths into and out of Sydney Airport.
14.0 Sustainability, Climate Change and Environmental Management
Sydney Airport Master Plan 2009
133
Organisation Summary of responsibilities concerning aircraft noise
mitigation
• Implements noise sharing through the Sydney Airport Long Term
Operating Plan.
• Regularly publishes data and information on actual aircraft
movements, runway and track usage and noise impacts using a range
of alternative noise descriptors.
• Handles aircraft noise inquiries and complaints.
• Operates noise monitoring equipment in suburbs around Sydney
Airport and regularly publishes results.
• Reviews and endorses for technical accuracy the Australian Noise
Exposure Forecasts developed by Sydney Airport.
Sydney Airport Corporation Limited
• As the airport-lessee company for Sydney Airport, (land is owned
by the Australian Government) SACL manages operations at Sydney
Airport as a whole, and ensures the effective delivery and coordination
of airport-related services and facilities.
• Provides and maintains all necessary on-airport infrastructure – such
as runways, taxiways, aprons, and aircraft parking stands – and
ensures Sydney Airport complies with all necessary aviation safety
standards. SACL also operates Terminal 1 (international) and Terminal
2 (domestic). SACL therefore ensures the continued availability
of on-airport infrastructure to facilitate aircraft noise sharing At
Sydney Airport, this includes ensuring the long-term availability of
the east-west runway for noise-sharing purposes and support for the
introduction of the new generation quieter aircraft such as the A380,
B787 and A350XWB.
• Publishes as part of its Master Plan, an Australian Noise Exposure
Forecast, other noise descriptors, and plans to manage aircraft noise
impacts.
• Ensures guidelines are in place to control noise generated by engine
ground running.
• A member of the Sydney Airport Community Forum.
Airlines
• Sydney Airport services 43 international, domestic and regional
airlines. All have modern aircraft fleets that meet the required ICAO
and Australian Government noise-related standards and regulations.
• Many airlines using Sydney Airport have placed orders for the new
generation of quieter, cleaner and more fuel efficient aircraft such as
the A380, B787 and A350XWB. These are expected to be operating
at Sydney Airport within the planning period. For example, the Qantas
Group anticipates operating 20 A380s and up to 115 B787s in its fleet.
• In recent years, newer aircraft are being acquired such as the B737-
800 (operated by Qantas and Virgin Blue) and the A320 (operated by
Jetstar) which are much quieter than the older noisier aircraft they are
replacing.
NSW Government and Local Government
Authorities
• The NSW Government and Local Government Authorities regulate land
use planning and development in the vicinity of Sydney Airport.
• The NSW Government has issued a ministerial direction to local
councils under section 117(2) of the Environmental Planning and
Assessment Act 1979 to guide land use planning and development
decisions near airports, including Sydney Airport. The direction aims,
in part, to ensure that development for residential purposes or human
occupation, if situated on land within the Australian Noise Exposure
Forecast (ANEF) contours of between 20 and 25, incorporates
appropriate building features so that the development is not adversely
affected by aircraft noise.
Table 14.1 Aircraft noise: roles and responsibilities (continued)
1 NSW State of the Environment Report (1993)
2 For example, see enHealth Council 2004, The Health Effects of Environmental Noise – Other Than Hearing Loss,
Australian Environmental Health Council, Canberra.
134
In Sydney, aircraft noise has been a longstanding
issue. Therefore, in close cooperation with the
key organisations listed above, Sydney Airport
remains committed to playing its part in effectively
managing and minimising the impacts of aircraft
noise, especially in communities in the vicinity
of the airport and under flight paths, where
these impacts can be higher than in other parts
of Sydney. These areas are not limited to those
forecast to be subject to noise exposure above 30
ANEF levels.
The plans, actions and strategies for managing
and reducing the impacts of aircraft noise in
areas around Sydney Airport fall into two broad
categories:
• those undertaken directly by SACL as the
airport-lessee company for Sydney Airport.
These issues are either directly within SACL’s
control or are issues for which it is primarily
responsible; and
• those undertaken by other stakeholders,
including by government or by the aviation
industry more broadly. These issues are either
not directly within SACL’s control or are issues
for which it is not primarily responsible.
The various plans, actions and strategies to
manage, ameliorate or prevent the impacts of
aircraft noise in communities around Sydney Airport
are dealt with below.
Facilitating implementation of the Long Term
Operating Plan (LTOP) for Sydney Airport
The Long Term Operating Plan (LTOP) for Sydney
Airport, which is implemented by Airservices
Australia, was developed in 1996 following an
extensive community consultation process. It
provides 31 recommendations to be followed
by Airservices Australia when implementing the
Australian Government’s noise sharing strategy
for Sydney Airport. Under the LTOP, when making
runway selections each day, Airservices Australia
must ensure that, subject to safety and weather
conditions:
• as many flights as practicable come and go
using flight paths over water or non-residential
areas.
• the rest of the air traffic is shared over other
communities as fairly as possible.
• Runway Modes change throughout the day so
individual areas have some break (or respite)
from aircraft noise on most days.
Since 1998, Airservices Australia has implemented,
and continues to implement, the LTOP. Sydney
Airport supports the LTOP principles and the Master
Plan has been developed on that basis. Table 14.2
below compares runway end impact data for a
number of years since the LTOP commenced with
the forecast contained in the Master Plan.

* The runway end impact percentages are
calculated using the same methodology used
by Airservices Australia in its published monthly
Sydney Airport Operational Statistics:
• Movements over the North = Rwy
16L(arrivals) + Rwy 16R(arrivals) + Rwy
34L(departures)
• Movements over the South = Rwy
16L(departures) + Rwy 16R(departures)
+ Rwy 34L(arrivals) + Rwy 34R(arrivals)
• Movements over the East = Rwy
07(departures) + Rwy 25(arrivals)
+ Rwy 34R(departures)
• Movements over the West = Rwy
07(arrivals) + Rwy 25(departures)
# These percentages were calculated using runway
end impact data used to prepare the revised
ANEF 2029 that was endorsed by Airservices
Australia on 13 March 2009.
Table 14.2 shows that, as air traffic increases
during the planning period, the opportunities for
noise sharing will decrease, but will not totally
disappear. For example, these figures show that the
year in which the LTOP commenced (1998), 80.2%
of all movements at Sydney Airport occurred to
the north or south of the airport. The Master Plan
03/04 indicated that, by 2023/24, 81.5% of all
movements are forecast to occur to the north or
south of the airport. By 2029, this Master Plan
forecasts that 82.0% of all movements at Sydney
Year North South East West
1998 (LTOP target) 17% 55% 13% 15%
1998 (actual) 28.4% 51.8% 11.4% 8.4%
2000 26.6% 51.5% 14.8% 7.1%
2002 27.1% 49.4% 14.0% 9.5%
2004 28.3% 50.0% 12.8% 8.9%
2006 28.3% 50.3% 13.8% 7.6%
2023/24 (as forecast
in Master Plan 03/04)
30.9% 50.6% 12.6% 5.9%
2029 (as forecast in
Master Plan 2009)#
32.6% 49.4% 12.8% 5.2%
Table 14.2
Runway end impacts since 1998
compared to 2029 forecast*
Airport will occur to the north or south of the
airport, an increase of only 1.8 percentage points
over three decades.
While the LTOP has been and continues to be
implemented by Airservices Australia, meeting its
original targets has always posed a challenge. At
times, and as the above table shows, they have
been met, or have come close to being met in
areas to the east, west and south of the Airport.
However, they have not been met in areas to the
north of the Airport. Meeting them will continue to
be a challenge during the planning period.
The noise sharing modes of runway operation each
have a range of aircraft arrival rates and hourly
runway capacities. By 2029, the forecast air traffic
level for a typical weekday will be busier than at
present. However, analysis has shown that there
will still be opportunities for the use of noise sharing
modes. During less busy periods in the year there
will be more hours of noise sharing than on the
busier weekdays. Weekends will still typically have
less hourly aircraft movements than on weekdays
and associated increased hours when demand will
be within the capacity of the noise sharing modes.
Sydney Airport, as a member of Airservices
Australia’s LTOP Implementation and Monitoring
Committee (IMC), will continue to support the LTOP
as a means of sharing aircraft noise in areas around
Sydney Airport as equitably as possible.
Sydney Airport has demonstrated its support
for implementation of the LTOP by ensuring the
Airport’s east-west runway remains available
throughout the planning period. An investment
of $90 million is being made to build an enlarged
runway safety area at the western end of the east-
west runway. Runway safety areas are a mandatory
safety requirement set by the Civil Aviation Safety
Authority and are in line with international aviation
standards. The construction of this runway safety
area – which is expected to be completed in 2010
– will ensure the runway remains available for noise
sharing purposes throughout the planning period.
Accommodating the new generation of quieter aircraft
SACL is actively supporting the introduction of
the new generation of quieter, cleaner and more
fuel efficient aircraft, including the A380, B787
and A350XWB (see below). As these aircraft are
much quieter than the ones they will replace, the
increasing use of these aircraft by many airlines
regularly using Sydney Airport will, over time, help
to minimising the growth of aircraft noise impacts in
areas around Sydney Airport.
To facilitate the introduction of these quieter aircraft
at Sydney Airport, SACL is investing $128 million
to upgrade airfield and terminal infrastructure. The
projects undertaken so far have included:
Airfield works
• Widened pavement shoulders, fillets and
flanks to the main north-south and east-west
runways, various taxiways and airfield services
protection;
• Strengthened the airport tunnel over General
Holmes Drive;
• Relocated Taxiway G east of Taxiway D
to accommodate the clearances necessary
for the A380’s wingspan. Works included
the demolition of two existing hangars and
relocation of the perimeter road;
• Relocated airfield navigational and visual aid
equipment including taxiway lighting and
signage and the installation of new inset
taxiway lights; and
• Remediated the Qantas Fuel Farm to allow for
the relocation of the perimeter road.
International Terminal
• Provided contact and non-contact bays suitable
for the larger A380 aircraft;
• Relocated fuel points and fuel lines as
necessary;
• Apron works including installation of new flood
lighting, strengthening of apron pavements,
pavement markings, new “Nose In Guidance
Systems” and signage; and
• Reconfigured adjacent bays impacted by new
large aircraft.
Essential infrastructure upgrades to accommodate
the progressive introduction of further A380
aircraft (and the B787) throughout the planning
period – such as the provision of additional stands
at terminals and taxiways – are proposed to be
undertaken as outlined in Chapter 6 and 7 of this
Master Plan.
These upgrades will keep Sydney Airport at the
forefront of the introduction of the newer quieter
aircraft into the global airline fleet, making them
increasingly common in the skies over Sydney.
New technology: aircraft are getting quieter
The ICAO has developed standards and guidelines
relating to civil aviation operations, including
relating to aircraft noise. As Australia is a member
of the ICAO, airports in Australia and the aircraft
permitted to operate at those airports are affected
by these standards, regulations and guidelines
135
14.0 Sustainability, Climate Change and Environmental Management
Sydney Airport Master Plan 2009
136
which are reflected in various Australian
Government laws such as the Air Navigation
(Aircraft Noise) Regulations 1984. Over time,
these regulations, in terms of the types of aircraft
able to be operated in Australia, have become
stricter as aviation technology (including jet engine
and air navigation technologies) have improved.
Aviation technology has therefore played an
important role in reducing aircraft noise impacts
around airports and will continue to do so
throughout the planning period. Only aircraft
meeting the most stringent noise requirements
are permitted to operate at Sydney Airport on a
regular basis. These requirements are known as
Figure 14.1 Significant Progress in Aircraft Noise Reduction
Commercial Aircraft Community Noise Progress
80
90
100
110
120
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
Year of Initial Service
Noise Level, EPNdB
Lateral Certification Measurement
Boeing
McDonnell-Douglas
Airbus
Bombardier
Embraer
A380
B787-8/GEnx-1B (Est)
Noise Data Normalized to 100 klb SLS Thrust
B777/GE90
CRJ700
B707-100
DC8-20
DC9-10
DC8-61
B727-100
B707-300
B737-100
B737-200
B747-100
B747-200
DC10-10
DC10-30
MD-80
B747-300
B747-400
B777
A300B
A330 A319
B767-200
B737-300 A310
MD11
A340
B737-700
B777-300ER
ERJ170
Turbojets
First
Generation
Turbofans
Second Generation Turbofans
CRJ200
Next Generation
Turbofans
A380
B787-8 (Est)
Source: GE Aviation
Location of NMT Aircraft type Arriving or Departing Average LA max dB(A) Reduction in noise
Sydenham A380 Departing 87.7 - 4.4
B747-400 Departing 92.1
A380 Arriving 93.9 - 2.6
B747-400 Arriving 96.5
Leichhardt A380 Departing 81.7 - 3.9
B747-400 Departing 85.6
A380 Arriving 84.4 - 2.1
B747-400 Arriving 86.5
Annandale A380 Departing 71.5 - 5.5
B747-400 Departing 77.0
St Peters A380 Departing 73.6 - 6.7
B747-400 Departing 80.3
Croydon A380 Departing 76.7 - 2.3
B747-400 Departing 79.0
Table 14.3 Airservices Australia Noise Monitoring Data
the Chapter 4 noise standard, applicable from 1
January 2006 for new aircraft and to Chapter 3
aircraft for which re-certification to Chapter 4 is
requested.
In 1963, when the Sydney Airport curfew was
introduced, the most common passenger jet aircraft
was the Boeing 707 which had extremely noisy jet
engines. The Boeing 727 aircraft that were in wide
use until relatively recently were not much better.
As a result of much improved technology, today’s
aircraft are much quieter, as will the aircraft of the
future (see Figure 14.1).
In particular, the more recent technologies being
used across all sectors of the aviation industry
will reduce noise impacts in communities around
airports. This is especially true for the new quieter,
cleaner and more fuel efficient aircraft such as the
A380. Airservices Australia has released a report
showing that the A380 is between 2.3 and 6.7
decibels quieter than the 747-400 when departing
Sydney Airport (Airservices Australia, 2008).
Airservices Australia’s data (Table 14.3) shows
the results for various noise monitoring terminals
(NMTs) located in suburbs around Sydney
Airport.
Airservices Australia indicates in its report that “a
three decibel reduction is regarded as a halving of
an aircraft’s noise energy.”
While the B787 is still under development, Boeing
claims that the noise footprint of the B787 will be
60% smaller than that of today’s similarly sized
aircraft. This will soon become the mainstay of the
Qantas Group medium widebody aircraft fleet.
The A350XWB is also under development and will
be operational during the planning period. A number
of A350XWB customers are airlines which regularly
use Sydney Airport. Airbus claims the A350XWB
will be a faster, more efficient and quieter aircraft
as a result of its advanced wing design – which
combines aerodynamic enhancements already
validated on the A380 with further improvements
developed by its engineers.
Other noise mitigation strategies
A number of other plans, strategies and measures
are implemented to manage, ameliorate or prevent
aircraft noise impacts. These include:
• the overnight curfew on aircraft movements
(see Section 3.2);
• aircraft movement limit and slot management
scheme (see Section 3.3);
• noise sharing arrangements (see Section 3.4),
• noise insulation program (see below);
• restrictions on aircraft types permitted to use
Sydney Airport;
• the requirements of AS2021 – 2000 Acoustics
– Aircraft Noise Intrusion –Building Siting and
Construction; and
• provision of information to Local Government
Authorities about the ANEF contours to allow
them to establish appropriate land use zonings
and other mechanisms to comply with AS2021-
2000.
The statutory context for the curfew, aircraft
movement cap and principles of noise sharing
arrangements is discussed in Chapter 3.
Importantly, this Master Plan is based on:
• no change to the curfew;
• no change to aircraft flight paths; and
• no change to the aircraft movement cap.
Further details of the noise sharing arrangements,
the insulation program, and restrictions on aircraft
types permitted to use Sydney Airport are presented
below.
Regular monitoring of aircraft noise is carried out
by Airservices Australia, which also manages an
aircraft noise enquiry unit. The Sydney Airport
Community Forum has been established and
includes SACL as a member.
Aircraft flight paths
This Master Plan does not include new or altered
flight paths and it upholds the principles of noise
sharing as applied by Airservices Australia (see
Section 3.4). The current flight paths at Sydney
Airport are based on the principles of noise sharing
as outlined in the LTOP for Sydney Airport (see
Figures 14.2 and 14.3).
Flight path management, aircraft noise monitoring
and the availability of aircraft noise-related
information to the public.
The management of flight paths and monitoring of
aircraft noise at Sydney Airport is undertaken by the
Australian Government agency responsible for such
matters, Airservices Australia.
At Sydney Airport, Airservices Australia operate the
Noise and Flight Path Monitoring System (NFPMS),
which collects noise and flight path data 24 hours
a day, seven days a week. This information is
published each month by Airservices Australia in its
Noise and Flight Path Monitoring reports. These are
publicly accessible on their website and are used to:
• determine the contribution of aircraft to overall
noise exposure;
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14.0 Sustainability, Climate Change and Environmental Management
Sydney Airport Master Plan 2009
138
• assess the effects of operational and
administrative procedures for noise control and
compliance with these procedures;
• assist in planning of airspace usage;
• validate noise forecasts and forecasting
techniques;
• assist relevant authorities in land use planning
for developments on areas in the vicinity of an
airport;
• provide reports to, and responses to questions
from various key stakeholders; and
• assist in answering noise complaints about
aircraft operations from the general public.
Airservices Australia has also launched a new and
innovative system known as WebTrak to provide
the community with information on where and
how high aircraft fly, as well as the noise levels of
specific aircraft operations. This allows members of
the public access to detailed information on aircraft
operations around Sydney Airport on a daily basis.
Noise descriptors
Sydney Airport is committed to providing the
community and other stakeholders with accurate
and meaningful information on aircraft noise
impacts in a form that can be easily understood.
Noise descriptors are tools used to illustrate aircraft
noise impacts in areas around airports. Sydney
Airport has provided noise descriptors in this Master
Plan that are in addition to those required by the
legislation. They set out clearly the predicted
aircraft noise exposure patterns in all areas around
Sydney Airport in a way that allows an individual
to assess on an objective basis how they might
be affected by forecast aircraft noise. These
descriptors take into account:
• anticipated aircraft movement numbers;
• anticipated respite hours;
• anticipated noise exposure levels (which
includes whether the movement is an aircraft
arrival or departure, the size of the aircraft and
the level of noise it generates); and
• the noise sharing flight path in use.
Figure 14.2 shows the predicted average daily
jet flight path movements in 2029 and permits
members of the public to assess where aircraft
fly, how many overflights there are forecast to be
at the end of the planning period (including the
average daily movements and forecast daily range),
the percentage of overall movements at Sydney
Airport that these overflights represent and the
percentage of days when there will be no aircraft
movements. These flight movement charts have
been in use for around 10 years and have received
wide acceptance as a simple tool for reporting on
the Airport’s aircraft noise exposure patterns. The
forecast for 2029 can be compared with present
day information published by Airservices Australia in
its monthly Sydney Airport Operational Statistics.
Figure 14.3 shows the predicted average daily
jet aircraft respite periods in 2029 based on the
number of whole clock hours when there are no
aircraft movements on the particular flight paths,
and reporting these as a percentage of the sum of
all the clock hours in the period in question. The
figure shows respite during three discrete periods,
morning (6am to 7am), daytime (7am to 8pm) and
evening (8pm to the start of the curfew at 11pm).
This information can also be compared with present
day information published by Airservices Australia in
its monthly Sydney Airport Operational Statistics.
Figure 14.4 shows the projected number of aircraft
overflight events louder than 70 dB(A) for locations
around the airport in 2029 and, for comparison,
the equivalent contours in 2007. These are known
as N70 contours. This is the level chosen for
presentation because it is equivalent to the single
event level of 60 dB(A) specified in Australian
Standard AS 2021-2000 as the indoor design sound
level for normal domestic areas in dwellings. An
external single noise event will be attenuated by
approximately 10 dB(A) by the fabric of a house
with open windows. An internal noise level of 60
dB(A) is the sound pressure level of a noise event
that is likely to interfere with conversation or with
listening to radio or television. This information can
also be compared with present day information
published by Airservices Australia in its quarterly
Australian Noise Exposure Index Reports.
The results shown in the noise descriptors described
in this chapter are based on a representative busy
day (refer Section 5.7). The actual outcomes on any
given day may vary according to weather and actual
traffic demand patterns.
Australian Noise Exposure Forecast
The Australian Noise Exposure Forecast (ANEF)
system was developed in the 1980s and is a
mathematical summation model of aircraft noise
impacts. The ANEF is a computer developed aircraft
noise forecast and is based on:
• operating schedules for aircraft, including the
forecast numbers, types and times that these
aircraft would be operating in future years;
• the selection of runway operating modes,
as influenced by forecast meteorological
conditions and relevant air traffic management
rules and procedures (in Sydney Airport’s case,
the LTOP);
• aircraft flight paths; and
• aircraft noise levels which are forecast to be
produced by the various types of aircraft on
arrival and departure.
The ANEF is designed to create a land use planning
tool to manage noise sensitive land uses around
airports. The ANEF is shown as a contour map, and
provides guidance to land use planning authorities
– such as local councils and the NSW Government
– to make decisions on proposed land use
developments in the vicinity of airports. The system
underpins Australian Standard AS2021-2000
Acoustics – Aircraft noise intrusion – Building siting
and construction (refer to Appendix A – Glossary
for ANEF definition.
The 2029 ANEF for Sydney Airport is based on
the representative busy day aircraft movement
forecasts in Section 5.7 (see Figure 14.5) and
has been reviewed by Airservices Australia for
its technical accuracy. This ANEF supersedes all
previous ANEFs, including that shown in the Sydney
Airport Master Plan 03/04 and the Preliminary
Draft Master Plan 2009. Use of the representative
busy day forecasts rather than an average day
forecast results in a conservative ANEF because the
representative day is estimated to be four per cent
busier than the typical average day.
Figure 14.6 compares the 2029 ANEF with the
2023/24 ANEF prepared for the previous approved
Master Plan 03/04. This shows that the forecast
noise contours for Sydney Airport in 2029 relative
to that forecast in the Master Plan 03/04 have
generally reduced. This is, in part, because of
the impact of aircraft in the fleet today which are
quieter, a trend that will accelerate over the next 20
years with the introduction of the new generation
aircraft such as the A380, B787 and A350XWB.
It should also be noted that the use of an updated
version of the software used to model aircraft noise
at an airport (known as the Integrated Noise Model)
has also resulted in minor changes.
As the Integrated Noise Model does not contain
noise data for the A380 and B787, Sydney Airport,
in consultation with Airservices Australia, has used
the B747-400 and B777 to represent these aircraft
types respectively. The positive impact of quieter
aircraft such as the A380 and B787 has therefore
not been included in the modelling for the ANEF
in this Master Plan. To indicate the likely benefits
that these new quieter aircraft will bring in terms
of their reduced noise footprint in areas around
Sydney Airport, an Australian Noise Exposure
Concept (ANEC) has also been prepared using the
aircraft manufacturers’ recommendations for noise
footprints. Figure 14.7a shows a comparison of
the 2029 ANEC with the 2023/24 ANEF prepared
for the 03/04 Master Plan. Figure 14.7b shows
a comparison of the 2029 ANEC with the 2029
ANEF.
The 2029 ANEF does not represent current or
near-term noise exposure patterns around the
Airport. Similar contours, depicting the actual
aircraft noise exposure levels currently experienced
around an airport are known as the Australian Noise
Exposure Index (ANEI) and are published quarterly
by Airservices Australia in its Australian Noise
Exposure Index Reports. Figure 14.8 shows the
2029 ANEF for Sydney Airport overlaid with a 2007
ANEI for comparative purposes.
As noted above, the ANEF is fundamentally a tool
for land use planning, and is used in conjuction
with Australian Standard 2021-2000 to define
areas where construction of certain building types
is “acceptable”, “conditionally acceptable” and
“unacceptable”. At ANEF values less than 20,
all building types are considered “acceptable”,
and hence 20 ANEF is the lowest-valued contour
generally shown on ANEF charts. This does not,
however, imply that aircraft noise exposure outside
the 20 ANEF contour is not an issue.
The ANEF is not considered to be the most
appropriate noise descriptor to convey the likely
impact of aircraft noise in some areas, especially
those areas outside the 20 ANEF contour. The other
noise descriptors shown in this section – Figure
14.2 (Flight paths and predicted average daily
jet aircraft movements), Figure 14.3 (Predicted
average daily respite periods) and Figure 14.4
(N70 Contours for 2007 and 2029) – have all been
developed for this purpose.
Land use planning criteria
Table 14.4 shows the land use planning criteria
applied within Australia and Building Site
acceptability based on ANEF zones.
Noise insulation
The Sydney Airport Noise Amelioration Program
provided a mechanism for the insulation of homes
and public buildings such as schools, pre-schools,
churches and health care facilities and the purchase
of the most seriously affected properties. The
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140
program was administered by the DITRDLG with
funds raised from a noise levy applied to passenger
tickets for jet aircraft operating at Sydney Airport.
According to the DITRDLG website all eligible
properties under the Program have now been
insulated. This involved the insulation of 4,083
homes and 99 public buildings (schools, churches,
day care centres and hospitals). In addition, 147
residences have been voluntarily acquired and the
land turned into a park.
DITRDLG has indicated that it will continue to
monitor the noise contours in Sydney for any
changes. The current and future status of the
Sydney Airport Noise Amelioration Program is a
matter for the Australian Government.
Ground-based noise
Noise from ground-based activities at Sydney
Airport is managed separately to noise from aircraft
operations. Ground-based noise is generated from a
number of sources on the Airport including:
• road traffic
• construction and development activities
• operation of audible alarm and warning systems
• operation of plant and equipment
• taxiing aircraft
• aircraft engine ground running
• operation of aircraft auxiliary power units
(APUs).
Table 14.4 Building site acceptability based on ANEF Zones
Building type ANEF zone site
Acceptable Conditional Unacceptable
House, home unit,
flat, caravan park
Less than 20 ANEF
(Note 1)
20 to 25 ANEF (Note 2) Greater than 25 ANEF
Hotel, motel, hostel Less than 25 ANEF 25 to 30 ANEF Greater than 30 ANEF
Hostel, school, university Less than 20 ANEF
(Note 1)
20 to 25 ANEF (Note 2) Greater than 25 ANEF
Hospital, nursing home Less than 20 ANEF
(Note 1)
20 to 25 ANEF Greater than 25 ANEF
Public buildiing Less than 20 ANEF
(Note 1)
20 to 30 ANEF Greater than 30 ANEF
Commercial building Less than 25 ANEF 25 to 35 ANEF Greater than 35 ANEF
Light industrial Less than 30 ANEF 30 to 40 ANEF Greater than 40 ANEF
Other industrial Acceptable in all ANEF zone

Source: AS2021-2000
NOTES:
1. The actual location of the 20 ANEF contour is difficult to define accurately, mainly because of variation in aircraft
flight paths. Because of this, the procedure of Clause 2.3.2 of AS2021-2000 may be followed for building sites
outside but near to the 20 ANEF.
2. Within 20 ANEF to 25 ANEF, some people may find that the land is not compatible with residential or educational
uses. Land use authorities may consider that the incorporation of noise control features in the construction of
residences or schools is appropriate.
3. There will be cases where a building of a particular type will contain spaces used for activities which would
generally be found in a different type of building (e.g. an office in an industrial building). In these cases Table 2.1
of AS 2021-2000 should be used to determine site acceptability, but internal design noise levels within the specific
spaces should be determined by Table 3.3 of AS2021-2000.
4. This standard does not recommend development in unacceptable areas. However, where the relevant planning
authority determines that any development may be necessary within existing build-up areas designed as
unacceptable, it is recommended that such development should achieve the required ANR determined according to
Clause 3.2 of AS2021-2000. For residences, schools, etc., the effect of aircraft noise on outdoor areas associated
with the buildings should be considered.
5. In no case should new development take place in greenfield sites deemed unacceptable because such development may
impact airport operations.
On average, Sydney Airport receives less than eight
complaints annually from the community in relation
to ground-based noise. The majority of these
complaints relate to aircraft engine ground-running.
Ground running at the airport is carried out at the
Qantas run-up bays on the northern edge of the
Airport and, with permission from Sydney Airport,
at eight other locations by other airlines operating
from the Airport.
Sydney Airport has a ground based noise
management strategy. Engine ground running,
which is an essential part of aircraft operations
and maintenance, is regulated by a policy that
includes a comprehensive set of operational rules
designed to maintain safety levels, comply with
relevant standards and practices, and minimise
noise. The AES provides detailed information
regarding management of ground-based noise.
These management practices will be maintained
and improved as appropriate for the future airport
operations. In addition to operational rules, Qantas,
as part of its plans to upgrade its Jet Base located
in the Airport’s Northern Sector, is considering
upgrading the attenuation measures associated with
its ground running facilities.
Noise impacts associated with construction
activities are assessed during the development
approval process (see Appendix C). Noise
monitoring of individual projects is undertaken
where necessary.
Sydney Airport is replacing APU usage (a known
source of ground-based aircraft noise) with ground
power and preconditioned air at all aerobridge gates
at T1 as well as retrofitting any remaining gates at
T2 not already fitted with ground power.
Sydney Airport is also committed to the Engine
Ground Running Rules and achieving minimal
complaints regarding ground based noise. This
Master Plan also allows for the construction of a
hush hangar, a sound insulated enclosed hangar in
which ground running would take place, at Sydney
Airport.
14.2.2 Sustainability and climate change
Sydney Airport’s Commitment to sustainability
Sydney Airport is committed to sustainable
development and taking a proactive approach to
environmental responsibility and action.
As stated in the Sydney Airport Environmental
Policy (2006), Sydney Airport ‘recognises its
responsibility in managing Sydney Airport in a
sustainable manner’ and is:
committed to… Sustainability: through adopting
measures to reduce natural resource usage and
minimise impact, and to consider the environmental,
social and economic implications of our actions’.
The policy establishes the principles for sustainable
use of the Airport from which objectives,
targets and action programs are developed. The
Environmental Policy commits Sydney Airport to
adopting world’s best practice measures to enhance
environmental performance and ensure continual
improvement. A summary of SACL’s sustainability
initiatives is listed in Table 14.9.
Climate change is now recognised as real and
present; even though some uncertainty remains
around the extent of change and the expected
impacts. In responding to climate change, two
broad categories of response strategies exist.
The first response is to reduce greenhouse gas
concentrations in the atmosphere in an effort to
reduce the rate and overall magnitude of future
climate change. The second response is the
adaptation to the impacts of climate change of all
sectors of society and the economy. Adaptation
is the principal means by which to build resilience
and reduce vulnerability within local communities
and economies. It involves a combination of risk
management and a range of adjustment activities.
In addressing these response strategies, SACL
in association with the aviation industry and in
discussion with the Australian Government will
look towards reducing its carbon footprint (further
discussed in the Carbon Neutrality section below)
and implementing appropriate climate change
adaptation strategies.
Global aviation industry commitment to action on
climate change
All industries – including aviation – contribute to
the problem of climate change and all must be a
part of the solution. The Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change has estimated that aviation
accounts for only around 2% of global carbon
dioxide emissions. However, it is growing and is
estimated to reach 3% by 2050. Nevertheless,
being a relatively small contributor to overall
emissions is not a licence for complacency.
Aviation’s challenge is to retain the many positive
economic and social benefits that aviation
provides, while reducing or eliminating its negative
environmental impacts. The signing in April 2008
of the Global Aviation Industry Commitment to
Action on Climate Change by aviation industry
leaders – including Sydney Airport – is an important
demonstration of aviation’s worldwide commitment
to introducing technological, operational and
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142
efficiency advances that will reduce aviation’s
contribution to climate change.
Sydney Airport is committed to working with all
relevant organisations across the aviation industry
to target carbon-neutral growth as a step towards a
carbon-free future for aviation. As noted in Section
14.2, Sydney Airport has implemented a range of
environmental initiatives aimed at improving the
Airport’s environmental performance and reducing
the Airport’s carbon footprint. Sydney Airport will
continue to work with major airlines to implement
the following four key strategies outlined in the
Global Aviation Industry Commitment:
• encourage the development and implementation
of new technologies, including cleaner fuels;
• further optimise the fuel efficiency of fleets and
the way aircraft are flown and manage ground
operations;
• improve air routes, air traffic management and
airport infrastructure; and
• implement positive economic instruments to
achieve greenhouse gas reductions wherever
they are cost-effective.
Managing climate change is a key challenge, not
just for Sydney Airport but for all major airports.
Technological innovation will drive environmental
improvements at Sydney Airport. The same can
be said for airlines in that the global fleet of
commercial aircraft is undergoing a significant
technological transformation. As a result, jet aircraft
are now significantly quieter, cleaner and more
fuel efficient than ever before. Being larger, the
new generation of aircraft also means that more
passengers can be transported per flight with less
impact on the environment.
Sustainable Development
Sydney Airport’s Sustainable Development
Policy establishes the principles for sustainable
development of the Airport from which objectives,
targets and action programs can then be developed.
The principles will ensure that all new development
proposals in relation to Sydney Airport are planned
and operated in accordance with current best
practice technologies and guidelines for efficient
resource use. This will include using the most
appropriate sustainability rating tool for driving the
development of sustainable buildings at Sydney
Airport.
Carbon Neutrality
Sydney Airport has developed a Carbon Neutral
strategy which aims to reduce the Airport’s
carbon footprint. The first step of this strategy – a
comprehensive emissions inventory and carbon
footprint of the Airport – has been completed for
Sydney Airport’s business operations (excludes
emissions from any airline or other third party) in
accordance with the World Resources Institute’s
Greenhouse Gas Protocol (2005) and ISO 14064.
As shown in Table 14.5, Sydney Airport’s carbon
footprint for 2007 was measured by Climate
Friendly Pty Ltd to be 96,601 tonnes of carbon
dioxide (CO2) equivalent with 2007 monitoring
figures used to equate the year’s total equivalent
tonnes of CO2 emissions. Major emitters are
electricity, natural gas, other fuels, air travel
and LPG. (Note: airline ground operations were
not included as a major emission source in this
calculation).
Table 14.6 shows the total 2007 activity data
(using relevant units) for each identified greenhouse
gas emission source. Future comparisons and
projections should take into account the activity
data in relation to the total equivalent tonnes of
CO2 emissions of Table 14.4. The 2007 emissions
inventory and carbon footprint will be used for
future monitoring comparisons and as a baseline
for emissions projections for Sydney Airport’s
operations.
Table 14.5 Greenhouse gas emissions by source
for SACL operations, 2007
Emission
source
Equivalent tonnes
of CO2 emissions
Electricity 90,961
Natural gas 4,599
Other fuels 780
Staff Air travel 260
LPG 1
Total 96,601
Source: Climate Friendly Pty Ltd
Table 14.6 Energy consumption for SACL
operations, 2007
Emission
source
Activity
data
Unit
Electricity 85,090 MWh
Natural gas 64,595 GJ
Other fuels 266,211 litres
Staff Air travel 857,616 km
Source: SACL Monitoring Data

14.0 Sustainability, Climate Change and Environmental Management
Sydney Airport Master Plan 2009
The second step will be to pursue a range of
initiatives to reduce the Airport’s direct carbon
emissions and future carbon exposure. The third
step is to capitalise on emerging technologies
and business opportunities to further minimise
direct carbon emissions and cost exposure to
becoming Climate Neutral in line with the Australian
Government’s proposed Emission Trading Scheme.
Sydney Airport has already substantially improved
the efficiencies of current operations and has
already achieved many of the milestones identified
in the Energy Savings and Water Savings Action
Plans. Sydney Airport will continue to develop
further initiatives as part of this strategy and is
currently investigating the potential for the use of
alternative energy such as solar energy and co-
generation on airport developments.
14.2.3 Air quality
Air quality within the Airport boundary and
surrounding areas is in compliance with the
air quality goals established in the Airports
(Environment Protection) Regulations. The NPI
Emission Estimation Techniques for Airports
(Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and
the Arts 2008a) identifies the major sources of
emissions from airports as being:
• aircraft operations;
• airport related traffic;
• ground support equipment (airside vehicles and
mobile plant);
• paint and solvent usage;
• fuel and organic liquid storage;
• boilers and space heaters;
• emergency generators;
• fire training and emergency simulations;
• aircraft engine test cells;
• refuelling operations; and
• general engine testing.
Air pollutants assessed are carbon monoxide
(CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), volatile organic
compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM10),

Table 14.7 Summary of predicted emissions to air from Sydney Airports operations (2014 and 2029)
Source Emissions (kg/day)
CO NOx SOx PM
10
VOCs
2014 2029 2014 2029 2014 2029 2014 2029 2014 2029
Aircraft
operation
(a)
6,963 8,346 8,306 10,747 830 1,082 96 113 2,002 1,944
Ground support
equipment
(a) (c)
2,851 962 353 95 9 10 15 6 102 42
Auxiliary power
units
(a)
174 157 183 200 26 26 - - 15 14
Aircraft
maintenance
(b)
5 10 607 1,125 14 26 - - 4 8
Refuelling and
fuel storage
(b)
- - - - - - - - 0.4 0.7
Other fuel
storage
(a)
- - - - - - - - 202 388
Boilers
(a)
7.3 7.3 8.7 8.7 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5
Generators
(a)
2.9 2.9 7.6 7.6 1.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Airport related
traffic
(a)
1,430 2,413 313 313 11 38 10 18 186 316
Surface
preparation and
coating
(a)
- - - - - - - - 30 56
TOTAL 11,433 11,898 9,779 12,496 891 1,184 122 138 2,543 2,770
Sources:
(a) Holmes Air Sciences 2008
(b) DECC, 2007, Air Emissions Inventory for the Greater Metropolitan Region in New South Wales, off Road Mobile Emissions Module: Results,
NSW Government, Sydney. http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/air/airinventory.htm
(c) Emission reductions for ground support equipment includes the assumption that the equipment will progressively be converted from diesel to
electric motors.
143
144
and sulphur dioxide (SO2). A summary of predicted
emissions to air from Sydney Airports operations
(2014 and 2029) can be seen in Table 14.7.
A number of factors have contributed to differences
in the predicted emissions in the Master Plan
03/04 (Holmes Air Sciences, 2003) and the current
predictions. In addition to the changes in the aircraft
fleet, there have been significant changes since
2003 to the US EPA approved aviation air emissions
model – Emissions and Dispersion Modelling
System (FAA, 2007) which has been used to
calculate the emissions from aircraft operations,
APUs and ground support equipment. As a result,
the predicted emissions from aircraft operations,
APUs and ground service equipment are not directly
comparable between Master Plan 03/04 and this
Master Plan.
In relation to the estimate of emissions from other
fuel storage, changes to the methodology used in
the NPI Emissions Estimation Technique Manual
for Fuel and Organic Liquid Storage (Department
of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts
2008b) account for the significant differences in
predictions. As a result, the predicted emissions
from these sources are not comparable between
Master Plan 03/04 and this Master Plan.
NPI provides information on the amount of
air emissions within the Sydney-Wollongong-
Newcastle airshed from industrial and mobile
sources for 2006/07. Table 14.8 compares the
NPI data in the Sydney-Wollongong-Newcastle
airshed for 2006/07 with the calculated emissions
from Sydney Airport for 2014 and 2029. The
predicted emissions from Sydney Airport represent
1.6% or less of total emissions within the Sydney-
Wollongong-Newcastle airshed. The airshed
emissions are likely to increase by 2014 and
2029 which would result in the airport emissions
contributing less to the total airshed than the
figures presented in Table 14.8.
14.2.4 Surface water quality
The Airport is almost entirely surrounded by
sensitive waterways, with Botany Bay to the south,
Botany Wetlands (incorporating Mill and Engine
Ponds) to the east, Alexandra Canal to the north
and Cooks River to the west.
Various activities on Sydney Airport have the
potential to impact on the water quality of
surrounding waterways including:
• spills from aircraft servicing and maintenance;
• construction and maintenance activities;
• bulk liquids and hazardous materials storage;
and
• fire training exercises.
To minimise the impact of airport operations on
surface water quality in and to the above adjacent
waterways Sydney Airport has continued to
implement the Storm Water Management Plan.
Sydney Airport also has a number of mechanisms in
place for managing spills that include:
• Gross pollutant traps on airport boundary;
• a dedicated spill response vehicle and provision
of spill control kits on all aircraft parking
aprons;
• pollution control flame traps on all aprons
where aircraft refuelling or maintenance takes
place; and
• emergency stop gates on storm water
discharge points.
Potential water quality impacts from construction
and maintenance activities are managed via activity-
specific environmental management plans. All
bulk liquid and hazardous materials stores must be
appropriately bunded to ensure that any spills or
leaks can be contained on site.
Pollutant Sydney - Wollongong - Newcastle
NPI data 2006/07
(a)
Sydney Airport % NPI
(b)
(kg/day) 2014 2029
CO 4,109,589 0.28 0.29
NOx 821,918 1.19 1.52
SO2 794,521 0.11 0.15
PM10 257,534 0.05 0.05
VOCs 520,548 0.49 0.53
Sources:
(a) NPI, 2008, NPI emissions for 2006/07 http//www.npi.gov.au/
(b) Holmes Air Sciences 2008.
Table 14.8 Sydney airshed emissions compared with Sydney Airport emissions
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Fire training exercises at Sydney Airport are
conducted at a purpose-built facility in the Airport’s
South-east Sector. The training area is fully bunded
with all effluent draining to a separator system for
treatment.
14.2.5 Soil and groundwater quality
(contaminated sites)
Due to the long history of aviation and related use
of the site, Sydney Airport contains a number of
areas of soil contamination associated with past
activities including fuel storage and distribution. To
assist in the ongoing management of these sites,
Sydney Airport has developed a Contaminated Sites
Strategy.
Contaminated sites strategy
Sydney Airport has finalised Phase 1 of its
Contaminated Sites Strategy and is now well into
Phase 2.
Phase 1 of the Strategy involved a comprehensive
four year program to investigate and assess all
identified contaminated sites on Sydney Airport,
and to remediate high risk contaminated sites
where required. Through this program, Sydney
Airport has gained a detailed understanding of all
of its contaminated sites and the risks they pose to
human health and the environment.
Through the work conducted in Phase 1, a program
was developed for the ongoing management of the
sites. This program is being implemented as Phase
2 which has the following aims:
• continue the monitoring program for known
contaminated sites to fully ascertain the level
of environmental risk to determine if these
sites can be removed from the Contaminated
Sites Register or if further management or
remediation programs are required; and
• develop management plans and, if necessary,
remediation programs for any sites shown
by the monitoring program as posing an
unacceptable level of environmental and/or
financial risk.
The monitoring results from the Phase 2 work
indicate that three of Sydney Airport’s thirteen
high and medium risk contaminated sites no
longer exceed applicable criteria and, as such, are
proposed to be removed from the Contaminated
Sites Register, with the approval of the AEO.
In line with the proposed expansion of T2, Sydney
Airport has commenced the remediation of the
former Joint Oil Storage Facility site. This site,
which is currently classified as a medium/high risk
site, has experienced soil contamination resulting
from on-site fuel storage from the mid 1950s.
14.2.6 Flora and fauna
Wetlands Enhancement Program
The on going implementation of Sydney Airport’s
Water Enhancement Program for the Engine Ponds
aims to increase the numbers of native fish species
and, more generally, improve the quality and
ecological function of the wetlands themselves.
Airport Landscape Plan
The on going implementation of the Airport
Landscape Plan will require the use of water
efficient native species.
14.2.7 Heritage
Sydney Airport acknowledges that there are items
of heritage value at the Airport. The heritage values
of Sydney Airport are embodied in the location,
form and function of its individual elements,
including the arrangement of streets, buildings,
runways and the ways in which these attributes
reflect its history of change and growth.
Each individual element on the Airport has been
assessed against the Commonwealth heritage
criteria of the Environment Protection and
Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 and a Heritage
Management Plan is currently being developed to
manage the Airports heritage items in a sensitive
manner moving forward. This plan is being
developed in conjunction with the Department of
Environment Water Heritage and the Arts. Items
currently recognised as having potential for heritage
value are shown in Figure 14.9.
14.2.8 Resource use (water, energy raw
materials and waste management)
Sydney Airport has continued to reduce resource
usage at the Airport through the implementation
of its NSW Government-approved Water Savings
Action Plan and Energy Savings Action Plan. The
resource saving principles outlined in these plans
will be applied to all upgrade and development
projects and airport operation.
Continued waste reduction at the Airport has been
achieve through implementation of the action items
under the AES as well as working with tenants
to implement best practice waste management
through their Environmental Management Plans.
As part of the Waste Management strategy, Sydney
Airport has completed development of a draft
Waste Resource Recovery Plan for the Airport.
The plan focuses on introducing changes that
will reduce the quantity of waste to landfill and
maximise recycling and waste recovery.
146
14.3 Environmental issues related
to Master Plan concept
To ensure that the future development of Sydney
Airport is undertaken in a manner that is sustainable
and sympathetic to the environment, a rigorous
development assessment process has been
established to enable Sydney Airport to comply with
its obligations under the Airports (Building Control)
Regulations (see Appendix E).
Although there are no major changes of direction for
development of Sydney Airport presented in Master
Plan 2009, there will be development activities over
the planning period with the potential to impact on
the following aspects of the environment:
• water quality;
• air quality;
• resource use such as energy, water and
construction material;
• waste;
• ground transport;
• construction-related environmental impacts
• cumulative impacts;
• contaminated sites; and
• heritage.
Environmental impacts resulting from
implementation of the Master Plan concepts will
be further determined during the development
approval process of individual projects, with
appropriate management actions established prior
to approval being given by the AEO. All proposed
developments will take into consideration the
procedures and requirements contained in the AES
and the associated action plans and environmental
management plans.
Sydney Airport is committed to working with the
NSW Government to develop secure, reliable, cost
effective and sustainable transport options for the
local community and the travelling public to and
from the Airport (Refer Chapter 10).
North-west Sector
In the North-west Sector, expansion of T1 to
the north and developments such as commercial
facilities and additional car parking to the west of
the terminal is proposed. Detailed planning for these
developments will include consideration of existing
environmental conditions, urban design issues
relating to the location adjacent to the Cooks River,
and ground traffic management.
Northern Airport Precinct
Sydney Airport also propose to develop areas to the
north of the airport for airport logistics. Detailed soil
investigations and remediation have been conducted
on the site in accordance with this proposed
development. Developments will consider, among
other matters, environmental management, traffic
and access and built form. Issues to be considered
will include environmental protection of the
Alexandra Canal, public access, heritage, ground-
based noise and height requirements.
North-east Sector
In the North-east Sector, Sydney Airport proposes
to expand the domestic precinct towards the
east to accommodate aviation and commercial
development. Environmental issues to be considered
in relation to these proposed developments
include heritage, ground running noise, soil and
groundwater contamination and ground access.
Sydney Airport is aware of, and has management
systems in place for, a number of contaminated
sites in this precinct.
Southern Sectors
In the South-east Sector and the South South-east
Sectors, Sydney Airport proposes to develop aircraft
parking. The main environmental issues with the
development of aircraft parking in this sector will
be the protection of the adjacent environmentally
sensitive wetlands (Engine Ponds) and identified
significant heritage items.
South-west Sector
Sydney Airport intends to develop additional aircraft
parking positions and commercial developments in
the South-west Sector. Sydney Airport is aware
of potential contamination issues and concerns
about ground running noise and emissions to air
in the sector affecting the amenity of the nearby
Kyeemagh residential areas. Any development
proposals for this area will specifically consider
these issues as well as foreshore impacts, traffic
and urban design matters.
Sydney Airport is reviewing the option of developing
a High Intensity Approach Lighting System (HIAL)
at the end of runway 34L to enable aircraft to land
more safely in adverse conditions such as fog and
heavy rain. The HIAL would be located at the end of
the runway and extend approximately 400 metres
into Botany Bay. As the HIAL structure is proposed
to be located within Botany Bay, environmental
issues to be addressed will include impacts on the
marine environment (particularly on seagrasses)
and prevention of water quality impacts during the
construction process. There is also the potential
147
maritime navigation hazard for recreational vessels
using Botany Bay. All of the environmental issues
associated with the HIAL proposal will be addressed
during the development approval process.
14.4 Environmental initiatives
implemented at Sydney Airport
Since approval of the Master Plan 03/04 and in
accordance with the Sydney Airport Environment
Strategy, many environmental and energy efficiency
strategies and initiatives have been implemented
(see Table 14.9).
14.0 Sustainability, Climate Change and Environmental Management
Sydney Airport Master Plan 2009
Table 14.9 Summary of environmental initiatives at Sydney Airport
Initiative and aims Implemented Actions Outcomes
WATER EFFICIENCY
Water Savings Action Plan
• To reduce existing water
use.
• To require best practice
water efficiency
measures for new
development.
• Airport-wide leak detection
project completed.
• Water savings devices installed
on fittings across the Airport.
• Sophisticated real-time water
demand monitoring system
installed.
• Other water reuse and recycling
initiatives implemented.
• Water savings devices to
be installed in line with
new development on
fittings across the Airport.
• Expansion of monitoring
system to include all
sub-meters.
• Data collection and review
associated with the
real-time water demand
monitoring system
installed.
• Saving of 30 million litres
of water in 2006/07.
Water Recycling Project
• To save up to 1 million
litres of water per day.
• The Water Treatment Plant is
under construction at the time
of writing the Master Plan.
• Will recycle sewage for
reuse in toilet flushing,
cooling towers and
irrigation.
• Detailed engineering
design of the project
complete.
• Construction of the
water recycling plant to
commence in 2008.
Every Drop Counts
• Sydney Airport is a
signatory to Sydney
Water’s Every Drop
Counts program.
In the development approval
process, applicants are required
to:
• Investigate water saving and
reuse options.
• Where possible, incorporate
options into new developments.
• SACL is continuing
with its relationship
with Sydney Water and
continually reviewing
options to improve its star
rating under the every
drop counts program.
• Water savings and
water reuse in all new
developments.
Water Cycle Assessment
• To assess whole cycle of
water onsite.
• Investigated stormwater
capture, storage and reuse;
water recycling; water use and
wastewater to sewer.
• Identified potential water
savings (such as the increased
use of non-potable water
on-site).
• The more feasible options
under the assessment
will undergo detailed
investigations in order
to determine the most
suitable options moving
forward to cater to
Sydney Airport’s water
needs during the term of
the Master Plan.
• Implementation
commenced.
148
Initiative and aims Implemented Actions Outcomes
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Energy Savings Action Plan
• To significantly reduce
the Airport’s energy
use and greenhouse gas
emission.
• Energy Information and
Reporting System implemented.
• Installation of walls and
automatic doors to prevent
loss of conditioned air to train
stations.
• Upgrade of road and car parking
areas to efficient lighting.
• Upgrade to high efficiency
chillers.
• Completion of trial of voltage
control for lighting.
• In the development approval
process, applicants are required
to investigate energy saving
options; and, where possible,
incorporate options.
• Continue to require, through
the development approval
process, applicants to
investigate energy saving
options; and, where possible,
incorporate options.
• Solar hot water pre-heaters in
T1 and T2.
• Automatic boiler cut off
control based on ambient
temperature for up to 16
boilers in T1, T2, C/Ulm and
FAC House.
• Automatic control of air
conditioning in bus bays and
automatic control of lighting in
bus bays.
• The re-commissioning of the
AMS control system in both
T1 and T2.
• Control of roof space lighting.
• Checking the operation
of voltage reduction units
installed in various lighting
circuits in T2.
• Reduction of total
energy use at Sydney
Airport.
STORMWATER MANAGEMENT
• To improve the quality of
stormwater runoff from
the Airport.
• Three stormwater quality
improvement devices (SQID)
installed in T1 car park.
• Two additional SQIDs to be
installed during 2008.
• More SQIDs to be installed in
line with development of the
Airport.
• Development and
implementation of monitoring
program.
• Continue to review and
implement management
and infrastructure options
identified based on cost,
benefits and impacts.
• Removal of gross
pollutants, sediment,
oil and grease from
stormwater runoff to
Cooks River.
Monitoring results are
used to:
• Target other
opportunities for
stormwater quality
improvement.
• Form a baseline
for regular ongoing
water monitoring.
BIODIVERSITY
Wetlands Enhancement
• To increase native fish
species in the Engine
Ponds.
• To improve the quality
and function of the
wetlands.
• Implementation of on going
enhancement program which
includes removal of fish passage
barriers in the wetlands to allow
movement of fish from Botany
Bay into the wetland system.
• Weed eradication and removal of
exotic fish (carp).
• Terrestrial planting around the
wetland.
• Review, upgrade and continue
wetland enhancement
program.
• Overall improvement
of the wetland
ecosystem.
Native Plantings
• To increase native
vegetation on the airport.
• Approximately 71,000 native
trees, shrubs and groundcover
plants have been planted in
Airport precincts as well as on
roadsides and forecourts as part
of the Airport Landscaping Plan.
• Manage the impact of
development on vegetation
including replacement and
compensation strategies in line
with the AES KPI of no net
loss of habitat.
• Enhancement of
natural flora and
fauna environment.
Table 14.9 Summary of environmental initiatives at Sydney Airport (continued)
149
14.0 Sustainability, Climate Change and Environmental Management
Sydney Airport Master Plan 2009
Table 14.9 Summary of environmental initiatives at Sydney Airport (continued)
Initiative and aims Implemented Actions Outcomes
BIODIVERSITY continued
Sydney Airport Ground Travel Plan
• To find a balance
between catering
for demand for car
parking on the Airport
and encouraging more
sustainable transport
modes.
• To work with airport
employees, the DITRDLG,
the NSW Government,
local government and
transport providers to
implement the AGTP.
• Liaison with the roads
authorities to investigate
provision of transit and bus
lanes on approaches to the
airport.
• Liaising with the NSW Ministry
for Transport to augment bus
services to and from the airport
particularly cross regional
routes.
• Facilities are being provided
for cycle parking in new
developments.
• An AGTP committee has been
set up to work through the
issues / initiatives of the AGTP
on airport.
• SACL has introduced a program
to allow staff interest free loans
to enable the purchase of long
term train tickets.
• Ongoing implementation
of the initiatives outlined
in the AGTP.
• The AGTP addresses
the issue of developing
sustainable access for
passengers, visitors and
staff visiting the airport.
Introducing Greener Vehicles
• To reduce energy use
and emissions.
• Acquisition of greener fleet
vehicles.
• Introduction of additional
hybrid vehicles as conventional
vehicles are replaced within the
fleet.
• Maintain current practice
of replacing vehicles with
“greener” alternatives
where practicable
through SACL’s vehicle
replacement program.
• Reduction of total vehicle
emissions and fuel use at
Sydney Airport.
WASTE
Waste Management and Resource Recovery
• To implement waste
management hierarchy
of avoidance, reuse,
recycling and disposal
thereby reducing waste
to landfill.
• Introduced requirements for
tenants to include a Waste
Management Plan when
submitting/updating their
operational Environment
Management Plans.
• Upgraded Apron FOD bins to
allow separation of waste oil
from general waste.
• Introduced requirements
for resource recovery from
construction / demolition
activities.
• Identify and prioritise
initiatives that will be
implemented to recover
more from the non-
quarantine waste stream
and reduce the quantity
of waste that requires
disposal.
• Install recycling
infrastructure throughout
public areas of the
terminals.
• Install recycling facilities
for commingled waste
within SACL operations
buildings.
• Review practices relating
to waste management and
where possible implement
practices that reduce
waste to landfill.
• The implementation of a
waste education program
for Sydney Airport staff
and airport tenants.
• While the main focus is on
introducing changes that
will reduce the quantity
of waste, also being
investigated are ways
to reduce the cost of
processing the waste that
is generated at Sydney
Airport.
Note: Track A* is Track B and C combined. Track K* shows departures (top box) and arrivals (bottom box).
Figure 14.2
Predicted average daily jet aircraft movement – 2029
(Non-Curfew Period)
This drawing has been prepared to illustrate the Sydney Airport
Master Plan and is not intended to serve any other purpose.
The drawing must be read in conjunction with the Master Plan.
Note: Track A* is Track B and C combined. Track K* shows departures (top box) and arrivals (bottom box).
This drawing has been prepared to illustrate the Sydney Airport Master Plan
and is not intended to serve any other purpose. The drawing must be read
in conjunction with the Master Plan.
Figure 14.3
Predicted average daily jet aircraft respite periods – 2029
(Non-Curfew Period)
Sydney Airport Master Plan 2009
Figure 14.4
N70 Contours 2007 and 2029
This drawing has been prepared to illustrate the Sydney Airport
Master Plan and is not intended to serve any other purpose.
The drawing must be read in conjunction with the Master Plan.
Figure 14.5
2029 ANEF for Sydney Airport
Sydney Airport Master Plan 2009
Figure 14.6
2029 ANEF and 2023/24 ANEF
for Sydney Airport
This drawing has been prepared to illustrate the Sydney Airport
Master Plan and is not intended to serve any other purpose.
The drawing must be read in conjunction with the Master Plan.
Figure 14.7a
2029 ANEC and 2023/24 ANEF
for Sydney Airport
Sydney Airport Master Plan 2009
Figure 14.7b
2029 ANEC and 2029 ANEF
for Sydney Airport
This drawing has been prepared to illustrate the Sydney Airport
Master Plan and is not intended to serve any other purpose.
The drawing must be read in conjunction with the Master Plan.
Figure 14.8
2029 ANEF and 2007 ANEI
for Sydney Airport
Sydney Airport Master Plan 2009
Figure 14.9
Items of Heritage Value
13
15
14
Sydney Airport Master Plan 2009
This drawing has been prepared to illustrate the Sydney Airport
Master Plan and is not intended to serve any other purpose.
The drawing must be read in conjunction with the Master Plan.
159
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