COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STUDY IN HARYANA VILLAGES

eyrarvolunteerΔιαχείριση

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

720 εμφανίσεις


Institute for Sustainable Development 11.1 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP





COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
STUDY IN HARYANA VILLAGES








Final Report







Haryana Community Forestry Project
Panchkula, Haryana






Atul Kansal, Paolo Mori, O.N. Kaul, Bharti Solanky

Institute for Sustainable Development
New Delhi





June 2001

Institute for Sustainable Development 11.2 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
CONTENTS

Preface
i
Abbreviations
ii
Glossary
v
Executive Summary
viii


1. Background
1.1
2.
Introduction
2.1
2.1 Haryana Community Forestry Project 2.1

2.2 Community Environmental Management Study 2.4
3. Approach and Methodology
3.1
3.1 Study Outputs 3.1
3.2 Study Area 3.1
3.3 Study Approach 3.3
3.4 Study Methodology 3.6
3.5 Report Structure 3.12
4. Air Environment
4.1
4.1 Sources of Air Pollution 4.2
4.2 Industrial Pollution 4.2
4.3 Dust Pollution 4.14
4.4 Energy Consumption 4.15
4.5 Odour Pollution 4.15
4.6 Global Warming Potential 4.15
5. Water Environment
5.1
5.1 Water for Domestic Use 5.1
5.2 Water Quality 5.15
5.3 Water for Livestock 5.22
5.4 Water for Agriculture 5.23
6. Waste Management and Sanitation
6.1
6.1 Domestic Solid Waste 6.1
6.2 Domestic Liquid waste 6.5
6.3 Livestock Waste 6.13
6.4 Agriculture Waste 6.14
6.5 Other Wastes 6.15
7. Energy
7.1
7.1 Domestic Energy 7.2
7.2 Agriculture Energy 7.8
7.3 Rural Industries 7.8
7.4 Other Energy Requirements 7.8
7.5 Energy Efficient Devices 7.9
7.6 Indoor Air Pollution 7.10
8. Land Environment
8.1
8.1 Soil Erosion 8.2
8.2 Problem Soils 8.5
8.3 Shifting Sands 8.8
8.4 Soil and Ground Water Contamination 8.10
8.5 Wildlife Damage 8.13
8.6 Termite Damage 8.14
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.3 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
9. Livestock
9.1
9.1 Livestock Holding 9.1
9.2 Livestock as a Resource 9.2
9.3 Water Requirements of Livestock 9.6
9.4 Fodder Requirements of Livestock 9.6
10. Environmental Impact Assessment of Village Natural Resource Plans
10.1

10.1 Methodology 10.1

10.2 Results of EIA and Recommendations 10.2
11. Recommendations for adjusting HCFP Activities
11.1

11.1 Model 1 – Village Woodlots 11.1

11.2 Planting Panchayat Land Used for Agriculture 11.4

11.3 Model 2 – Sand Dune Fixation 11.5

11.4 Model 3 – Tree Groves 11.6

11.5 Model 4 – Farm Forestry 11.7

11.6 Model 5 – Poplar Planting 11.9

11.7 Geographical Areas of Intervention 11.10
12. Institutional and Community Capacity Building Initiatives on Strengthening Village
Environmental Management
12.1

12.1 Strengthening Local Management Capabilities 12.1

12.2 Facilitating Practical Application of Participatory Methodologies 12.2

12.3 Development and Transfer of New Technologies for Environmental Improvement 12.3

12.4 Involvement of NGOs 12.4

12.5 Selection of NGOs 12.5

12.6 Communication and Awareness Campaigns 12.8

Annexure 1: Terms of Reference 12.9

Annexure 2: List of NGOs Operating in Haryana Contacted by Mail During the Study 12.13

Annexure 3: Profile of NGOs and Institutions Visited 12.17
13. Summary of Findings and Recommendations
13.1

13.1 Air Environment 13.4

13.2 Water Environment 13.7

13.3 Waste Management and Sanitation 13.10

13.4 Energy 13.13

13.5 Land Environment 13.14

13.6 Livestock 13.18

13.7 Assessment of Village Resource Management Microplans 13.18

13.8 Environmental Impact Assessment of Village Natural Resource Plans 13.18

13.9 Recommendations for Adjusting HCFP Activities 13.19
13.10 Institutional and Community Capacity Building Initiatives 13.20
14. References
14.1

Appendix 1: Environmental Baseline Data A.1
Appendix 2: Environmental Baseline Data (Averages) A.5
Appendix 3: Check List of Environmental Issues A.6
Appendix 4: Village Environmental Assessment Report A.8

Institute for Sustainable Development 11.4 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
PREFACE

This document is the result of the “Community Environmental Management Study”
commissioned by the Haryana Community Forestry Project (HCFP), Forest Department,
Government of Haryana, in order to understand the environmental implications of the
activities planned under the Project and to suggest environmental interventions that
could be implemented in the project villages. The wider objective of the Study is village
institutional strengthening to facilitate sustainable community-based environmental
management in Haryana villages affected by environmental issues related to resource
depletion and degradation.

The Community Environmental Management Study was undertaken by the Institute for
Sustainable Development (ISD) with the help of an International Consultant (Mr. Paolo
Mori) in the 60 first selected target villages covering 10 civil districts and five project
divisions of the State representing various agro-ecological zones of the Project
intervention area. The field work for the Study was jointly carried out by the members of
the ISD team and the International Consultant. The ISD team consisted of the following
members.

Mr. O.N. Kaul Mr. Shashikar Bharadwaj
Mr. Atul Kansal Mr. Purushottam Pathak
Ms. Bharti Solanky Mr. Neeraj Sharma
Mr. Sanjay Gupta Mr. Suraj Bhan
Mr. Jagdish Sharma

While the ISD team focused on (i) preparation of base line environmental assessment of
the 60 first project villages and to identify specific environmental issues in the project
area, (ii) assessing the extent to which environmental concerns have been included in
the Village Resource Management Microplans (VRMMs), and (iii) developing
environmental improvement interventions to enhance environmental benefits of HCFP;
Mr. Mori dealt with (i) conducting Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the
microprojects selected by the communities for implementation under the HCFP, (ii)
recommending adjustments in HCFP activities to reduce the adverse environmental
impacts, if any, and to enhance the positive impacts, and (iii) identifying and assessing
local environmental NGOs for their potential involvement in community training on
environment related aspects and prepare Terms of Reference (TOR) for NGO
intervention in institutional and community strengthening to support environmental
actions in the project villages.

Accordingly, the members of the ISD team have contributed Sections 1 to 9 and
Sections 13 to 14 of this document, whereas Mr. Mori has authored Sections 10 to 12.
The document is, therefore, a joint effort of the ISD and the International Consultant, Mr.
Paolo Mori.

I have great pleasure in submitting this report for consideration and implementation by
the HCFP.

New Delhi O.N. Kaul
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.5 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
June 30, 2001 Executive Director
Institute for Sustainable Development
New Delhi
ABBREVIATIONS

AFPRO - Action for Food Production
BDO - Block Development Officer
BHC - Benzene Hexa-Chloride
CAPART - Council for Advancement of Peoples’ Action and Rural
Technologies
CAPs - Corrective Action Plans
CD - Community Development
CFL - Compact Fluorescent Lamp
CH4 - Methane
CO - Carbon Monoxide
CO2 - Carbon Dioxide
CPCB - Central Pollution Control Board
CPRs - Common Property Resources
CSSRI - Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
DA - Development Alternatives
DAHD - Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying
DAINET - Development Alternatives Information Network
DAP - Diammonium Phosphate
DAs - Draught Animals
DC - Deputy Commissioner
DDT - Dioxy-Dicholoro-Triethane
DOST - Development Organisation for Sustainable Transformation
EEG - Energy Environment Group
EIA - Environmental Impact Assessment
EOP - End of the Project
EPA - Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
ERC - Energy Research Centre
EU - European Union
FAO - Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations
FYM - Farm Yard Manure
777FGDs - Focus Group Discussions
FEW - Fuelwood Equivalent
FFA - Farm Forestry Association
FPC - Forest Protection Committee
GHGs - Green House Gase(s)
GI - Galvanised Iron
GOH - Government of Haryana
GOI - Government of India
gm - gram
GWP - Global Warming Potential
HAU - Haryana Agricultural University
HC - Hydrocarbons
HCFP - Haryana Community Forestry Project
HFD - Haryana Forest Department
HNYKS - Haryana Nav Yuvak Kala Sangam
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.6 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
HRMS - Hill Resource Management Society
HSPCB - Haryana State Pollution Control Board
IGAs - Income Generating Activities
IPM - Integrated Pest Management
ISD - Institute for Sustainable Development
JFM - Joint Forest Management
LUPs - Land Use Plans
l - litre
lpcd - Litres per capita per day
LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas
MNES - Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources
MITC - Minor Irrigation Tubewell Corporation
MOEF - Ministry of Environment and Forests
MRL - Maximum Residue Limit
MS - Mild Steel
µg - microgram
mg - milligram
MW - Megawatt
NA - Not Applicable
NAAQS - National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NAAQMS - National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations
NGOs - Non-Governmental Organisations
ng - Nanogram
Nm3 - Normal meter cube
NO - Nitric Oxide
NO2 - Nitrogen Dioxide
NOx - Oxides of Nitrogen
NPIC - National Programme on Improved Chulha
NWFP - Non-Wood Forest Products
PA - Participatory Assessment
PAH - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
PAU - Panjab Agricultural University
PFA - Poultry Farmers Association
PIC - Products of Incomplete Combustion
PIDT - People’s Institute for Development and Training
PM10 - Particulate Matter less than 10 µm size
POPs - Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides
ppm - Parts per million
PVC - Poly-Vinyl Chloride
qt - Quintal
RA - Rapid Appraisal
RCC - Reinforced Cement Concrete
RSPM - Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter
SC - Scheduled Caste
SFD - State Forest Department
SHG - Self-Help Groups
SO2 - Sulphur Dioxide
SPCB - State Pollution Control Board
SPM - Suspended Particulate Matter
SPACE - society for Protection and Conservation of Environment
SRETA - Society for Rural Economy and Technology Advancement
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.7 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
SVPK - Samaj Vikas Prayatan Kendra
TERI - Tata Energy Research Institute
TBS - Tarun Bharat Sangh
TOR - Terms of Reference
UNICEF - United Nations Children’s Fund
VDCs - Village Development Committees
VE - Village Entry
VLUPs - Village Land Use Plans
VRMC - Village Resource Management Committee
VRMMs - Village Resource Management Microplans
WWF - World Wild Fund for Nature
GLOSSARY

Aanganwadi - A village level institution concerned with pre-primary
education and health of women, infants and children
Aara - Local sawmill
Aawas - Small country kilns for baking of earthen pots
Anwla - Emblica officinalis
Arhar - Pigeon pea
Awal - First grade bricks
Bajra - Millet
Bajre-Ki-Toori - Bajra straw
Barseen - Egyptian clover
Bathua - Weed in agriculture fields
Ber - Zizyphus
Bhabbar - Eulaliopsis binata
Bhida - A convex lid placed as a cover on a Kund/Diggi,
traditionally made from Phog wood and plastered with
mud
Bhusa - Wheat straw
Bitodas/Gohars - Temporary stores for storage of dung cakes during
monsoon
Cheri - Maize grown as a fodder crop
Chos - Hill torrents characterised by flash flows and swift
currents
Choti Elaichi - Small cardamom
Chowkidar - Watchman
Chulhas - Cookstoves
Dhoob/Dabra - Cynodon dactylon
Datun - Branch cutting of Neem used for cleaning of teeth
Desi Aam - Local variety of grafted mango
Desi Bhatta - Family brick Kiln
Dilla - Weed in agriculture fields
Doyum - Second grade bricks
Drumstick - Moringa oleifera
Eucalyptus - Eucalyptus hybrid (E. tereticornis)
Frash - Tamrix
Gajrela - Weed in agriculture fields
Ganne-Ka-Patta- Aur-Chilka - Sugar cane leaves and bark
Gaudaan - Donating a cow
Gaumutra - Cow urine
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.8 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
Gehoon-Aur-Jau-Ka-Atta - Mixed wheat and barley flour
Gobar - Dung
Gauchar/Gocharan/ Gaucharan - Common grazing land
Guar - Bean
Gulli danda - Weed in agriculture fields
Hadda Rodi - An area set aside in a village, for disposal of carcasses
of dead animals, generally outside the habitation
Hamam - A local device for heating water
Hodhis - Underground cemented tanks meant for collecting and
storing rainwater for drinking.
Jaamun - Syzygium cumini
Jal - Salvadora persica
Jal Ghar - Water Works
Jamadar - A person who carries waste from households to Kurdis.
Jami - Fodder crop
Jamindar - Landowner
Jayi - Weed in agriculture fields
Jhanti - Prosopis cineraria
Jhoond - Saccharum spontaneum
Johad - Johads are basically embankments to arrest rainwater
during the monsoon season. In some areas of India, the
Johad bed is later used to cultivate crops. These
community structures serve multiple purposes - meet
domestic water requirements of the villagers, meet
drinking and other water requirements of the livestock
population, and help in groundwater recharge.
Jowar - Sorghum
Jungali Jayi - Weed in agriculture fields
Kabariwala - Local scrap dealer
Kaga roti - Weed in agriculture fields
Kanyadaan - Giving a daughter in marriage to her future husband
generally by the father of the bride
Kareer/Della - Capparis aphylla
Karnal grass - Leptochloa fusca
Khail - A concrete water tank provided with a number of taps
for domestic use of the villagers.
Khala - A cemented drain connecting a canal to Jal Ghar
Khoya - Concentrated milk used for making sweets
Khur Galna - Foot-and-Month disease
Kikar - Acacia nilotica
Kodhra - Weed in agriculture fields
Kuchcha - Temporary
Kuis - A well located next to a river with diameter and depth
smaller than a normal dug well
Kumhar - Potter
Kunds/Diggis - Underground storage system of rainwater harvesting
in the villages, where water is used for drinking
Kurdi - An area earmarked for waste disposal in a village
Laxmi - Goddess of prosperity
Maddhi - Temple
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.9 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
Mahila Mandal - A village level institution concerned with socio-
economic development of women in rural society
Makki-Ki-Roti - Bread made out of maize flour
Marla - A measure of land - 160 Marlas make one acre
Matter bail - Weed in agriculture fields
Mavatha - Cultivation on sand dunes of a monsoon crop and
wherever possible, a winter crop too, generally gram
Medhs - Cement structures resembling a large wash basin ment
for drinking of water by cattle.
Mesquite - Prosopis Juliflora
Mohalla - Locality
Nallah - Stream
Nambardaar - A Government official at the village level
Narma-Ka-Patta - Leaves of a variety of cotton
Neem - Azadirachta indica
Nilgai - Blue bull
Nimbu - Lemon
Nirmali - Strychnos potatorum
Panchayat - An institution of self-government at the village level –
Also called Gram Panchayat
Parali - Paddy straw
Phirni - Village ring road within which most of the habited
area of the village is located
Phog - Calligonum polygonoides
Pradhan - Chairman, Village Resource Management Committee
Pucca - Permanent
Rann - Alkali/saline patches
Rehras - Locally made carts generally pulled by donkeys or
horses
Rohida - Tecomella undulata
Sag - Mustard leaves
Samities - Societies
Sarpanch - Head of the Village Panchayat
Sarson-Ka-Patta - Mustard leaves
Sarson-Ke-Toori - Mustard leaves
Semi-pucca - Semi-permanent
Seyam - Third grade bricks
Shaal - Weed in agriculture fields
Shamak - Weed in agriculture fields
Shamlat - Common land owned by a group of families in a
village, to whom tenurial rights are inheritable
Shamshan Ghat - Cremation ground
Shatta - Weed in agriculture fields
Shisham - Dalbergia sissoo
Shora - Saline land
Takhadia - Weed in agriculture fields
Talls - Depots
Tanda - Agriculture residues (mainly stalks) of various crops
Tasla - A broad and shallow pan-shaped container
Toori - Dry fodder
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.10 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP









Institute for Sustainable Development 11.11 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The State of Haryana, with a total land area of 43,910 sq. km and a population of over 16
million (1991 census), is one of the smallest states of the Indian Union. Over the years, the
State has experienced major forms of natural resource depletion and environmental
degradation through soil erosion, depletion and degradation of forest cover and water
resources, decline in land fertility and productivity, poor drainage and increasing salinity and
alkalinity, encroachment of common lands, atmospheric pollution, and climate change.
Consequently, Government of Haryana (GOH) is very concerned about the existing state of
affairs and its attendant social, economic, and ecological/environmental repercussions. It is
strongly felt that these environmental effects call for a major intervention by the Government,
the private sector, Non-Government Organisations (NGOs), and the local communities.

In this context and with financial assistance from the European Union (EU), the Haryana
Forest Department (HFD) is currently implementing the Haryana Community Forestry Project
(HCFP) in 300 villages located in 43 Community Development (CD) Blocks in ten districts of
the State, targeting a population of about 606,000 (estimates for 1999). The overall objective of
the Project is capacity building of the local communities to improve the natural environment
and to preserve land fertility by sustainable management of natural resources through
activities undertaken in a participatory manner.

It is now widely acknowledged that the benefits to be realised from the State’s natural
resources and the environment must be optimised for the present and future generations. To
address this issue, the State Government is ensuring that appropriate interventions are made in
the development planning process, both at the micro- as well as at macro- levels.

With the above background, the HCFP felt it necessary to undertake a "Community
Environmental Management Study" in order to understand the environmental implications of
the activities planned under the Project and to develop environmental improvement micro-
projects for the project villages. The Study has a wider objective of village institutional
strengthening to facilitate sustainable community-based environmental management in
Haryana villages affected by environmental issues related to resource depletion and
degradation. The Study will assist the Project in formulating a Community Capability
Enhancement Initiative for strengthening environmental management in its target villages
through implementation of environmental improvement micro-projects.

This document is an output of the above Study undertaken by the Institute for Sustainable
Development (ISD) New Delhi, in the 60 first selected target villages spread over 10 civil
districts and five project forest divisions of the State, representing various agro-ecological
zones, of the Project intervention area.

The present report is structured in thirteen sections. While Sections 1 and 2 give the necessary
background and a brief introduction to the Study, Section 3 describes the approach and
methodology adopted for carrying out the Study. Sections 4 to 9 deal with Environmental
Baseline Assessment and details of Suggested Environmental Interventions; Sections 10 to 12
discuss the EIA of village natural resource plans, Recommendations for adjusting HCFP
activities, and Institutional and community capacity building initiatives. Section 13 is a
summary of findings and proposed interventions/recommendation, some of which are
mentioned hereafter.

Institute for Sustainable Development 11.12 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
• A detailed account of baseline environmental assessment for projects villages has been
presented. For each of the environmental components, major issues have been discussed
along with case studies from the villages.

• A compilation of environmental issues is presented in Table 13.1 and Figure 13.1. For
each environmental issue, the level of its intensity has been marked. The indicated level of
intensity is based on combined assessment of the villagers and the ISD team. The ten most
important environmental issues (presented in a descending order) are as follows. The
figures in brackets indicate the total number of villages that reported High, Medium and
Low intensity of a specific issue:

• Damages by blue bulls (29, 16, 12)
• Pollution of Johads (15, 11, 8)
• Drainage of domestic wastewater (5, 16, 11)
• Dying of trees due to termite attack or other diseases (2, 13, 13)
• Dust storms (3, 7, 17)
• Wastage of domestic wastewater (2, 11, 12)
• Pollution from garbage collection/Hadda Rodis (3, 12, 6)
• Quality of drinking water (3, 10, 8)
• Fuelwood pressure on forest resources (3, 8, 8)
• Lowering of the groundwater table (2, 6, 9)

• For all significant environmental issues, environmental interventions that could be taken
up either by HCFP or other State and Central agencies have been suggested which are
detailed under respective Sections and the Summary in Section 13. These pertain to Air
(Section 4), Water (Section 5), Waste Management (Section 6), Energy (Section 7), Land
(Section 8), and Livestock (Section 9). As all suggested interventions do not directly come
under the framework of activities that are planned under HCFP, it would be necessary to
involve other agencies in implementation of corrective actions for some of the
environmental problems. These agencies have been indicated in the respective
interventions. Depending on the availability of technical and financial resources, HCFP’s
role in the process could be defined. Before full-scale implementation of the suggested
interventions, it may be necessary to conduct a detailed feasibility to develop specific
environmental micro-projects for each of project villages. These micro-projects could then
be integrated into the overall project framework of HCFP
.

• A review of the 60 Village Resource Management Microplans (VRMMs) revealed that
though they were quite comprehensive with respect to other parameters, their coverage of
environmental issues such as water supply, wastewater disposal, drainage, solid waste
management, pollution control, energy sources and consumption, local industrial
activities, etc. were not adequately covered in all the reports. However, in some villages,
environmental issues had been addressed as the local community had expressed their
interest to develop some environmental improvement microprojects.

• A sample of forty-five Village Natural Resource Plans was analysed to assess the
plantation patterns set by the communities and individual farmers, followed by an EIA
carried out on the basis of 18 indicators related to forest cover, land, water and air. The
results show that: (1) village woodlots have been proposed on 60% of the total Panchayat
land, (2) most of the available land within and around villages has been earmarked for tree
planting, (3) Farm Forestry has been planned on approximately 16% of the total private
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.13 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
farmlands, and farmers prefer low-tree-density agro-forestry systems rather than block
plantations, (4) the degree of biodiversity of the proposed plantations is generally good,
(5) Eucalyptus woodlots in the project villages do not show negative environmental impacts
related to soil and water conservation, (6) medium positive impact is generally expected on
degraded areas; as for eroded lands, the intensity of erosion is often such that plantations
alone are not deemed sufficient, (7) increasing the availability of dung for FYM, which is
one of the expected benefits of the plantation programme, is likely to be modest, and (8)
unsustainable pressure on common forest resources might not decrease as expected.

• A gap analysis was carried out to compare with the HCFP plantation models, both the
plantation patterns and the results of the EIA, keeping in mind the need to enhance
community participation as mentioned under institutional and community capacity
building initiatives. The results suggest that HCFP should consider adjusting the standard
plantation models on different aspects, which, depending on the model, should include
diversification into sub-models, refining the approach, and/or revision of targets.

• In terms of geographical areas of intervention, priority should be given to the three
southern and western project divisions of Hissar, Bhiwani and Jatusana, and to
Yamunanagar District in the north.

• The study team contacted several NGOs based in Haryana and Delhi, and prepared a
framework for the involvement of NGOs on institutional and community capacity building
to facilitate community-based environmental management in the HCFP villages. It is
suggested that the Project select an experienced NGO who could be involved mainly to: (1)
assist local NGOs in implementing the environmental programmes outlined, (2) assist
project field implementers in the general process of grassroots institutional and community
capacity building, and (3) provide methodological assistance to HFD field staff on various
aspects of Community Forestry.

• It is recommended that the Project concentrate efforts on pilot village clusters affected by
high degree of environmental degradation. The aim is to promote implementation of best
environmental management practices through integration of project mainstream activities
with new initiatives designed to address specific issues.

• It is suggested that the Project should support establishment of a network of schools and
environmental clubs in the Project villages to promote awareness campaigns on various
environmental and resource management issues. It is reported that GOH has decided to
set-up Eco-Clubs in at least 100 selected schools of each district to create awareness about
clean environment. These clubs would help in spreading environmental awareness and
also carry out action-based programmes for protection and improvement of the
environment. This is a welcome step for the Project.
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.14 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
1. BACKGROUND


The Haryana Forest Department (HFD), with financial assistance from the European Union (EU)
is currently implementing the Haryana Community Forestry Project (HCFP) in ten districts of the
State targeting 300 villages. The overall objective of the project is capacity building of the local
communities to improve the natural environment and to preserve land fertility by sustainable
management of natural resources through activities undertaken in a participatory manner.

Over the years, the State has experienced major forms of natural resource depletion and
environmental degradation. These include soil erosion (by wind and water), depletion and
degradation of forest cover and water resources, decline in land fertility and productivity, poor
drainage and increasing salinity and alkalinity on irrigated lands, loss of common lands due to
encroachments, atmospheric pollution caused by rural agri-industries, and climate change.
Government of Haryana (GOH) is very concerned about the deterioration of the State’s natural
resources and the environment and all the economic losses associated with this degradation. The
State Government strongly believe that this environmental impact represents a substantial income
loss to the State and calls for a major intervention by the Government, the private sector, Non-
Government Organisations (NGOs), and the local communities.

The main causes of environmental degradation and resources depletion are believed to be (1)
emphasis on rural production enhancement by farmers, (2) high rate of poverty
1
(3) low literacy
rate
2
, and (4) lack of information and awareness on environmental issues.

Analysis of historical environmental management initiatives in the State reveals that one of the
major problems has been that local communities are not sufficiently involved in environmental
management activities. This has happened mainly because of the following:

• Communities are generally reluctant to carry out environmental management activities,
preferring to support social infrastructure projects and economic activities whenever possible;

• Technical support for environmental management by communities is limited, and technical
service agencies lack resources to operate effectively and widely, and NGOs and the private
sector are not sufficiently strong to fill the development vacuum at the local level;

• Access to funds for environmental projects is limited. The banking system emphasises loans
for production and enterprises oriented projects;

• District, block and village level institutions are not well enough established to promote
environmental management; and

• Environmental education and awareness levels are limited at community level, exacerbated
by low literacy levels and the limitations to environmental management information delivery
systems.

Therefore, it is now strongly believed that the benefits to be realised from the State’s natural
resources and the environment must be maximized for the present and the future generations. To


1
In the year 1996, about 28% of the State’s population was below the poverty line and 20-45% of village households
were landless.
2
The literacy rate in the State was 55.33% as of 1991 (69% for men and 41% for women).

Institute for Sustainable Development 11.15 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
address this issue, the State Government is ensuring that appropriate interventions are made in the
development planning process, both at the micro- as well as at macro- levels.

It is in the above background that the HCFP felt it necessary to undertake a "Community
Environmental Management Study" in order to understand the environmental implications of
activities planned under the Project and to develop environmental improvement micro-projects
for the project villages.

Accordingly the HCFP Commissioned the services of the Institute for Sustainable Development
(ISD), New Delhi, to undertake the above Study to assess the Baseline Environmental Conditions
in the 60 first villages selected by the Project. The Study has a wider objective of village
institutional strengthening to facilitate sustainable community-based environmental management
in Haryana villages, affected by environmental issues related to resource depletion and
degradation. The Study will assist the Project in formulating a Community Capability
Enhancement Initiative for strengthening environmental management in its target villages through
implementation of environmental improvement micro-projects.

This report is an output of the above Study that was carried out by the ISD in the 60 first selected
target villages spread over 10 civil districts and five project forest divisions of the State
representing the various agro-ecological zones, of the Project intervention area.


Institute for Sustainable Development 11.16 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
2. INTRODUCTION

Environment includes the basic natural resources of water, land, air, vegetation and the inter-
relationship that exists among them and all living creatures, be they humans, animals, plants, or
microorganisms. The developmental processes usually produce stresses on the natural resource-
base, which are reflected in the depletion of resources and degradation of the environment. While
the traditional lifestyle in rural areas was often in harmony with the surrounding environment,
increasing human and livestock population and acceleration of developmental processes, often
unplanned for historical, demographic, and even cultural reasons have led to serious ecological
repercussions. There were, of course, environmental issues even in the past, but people had
developed systems to deal with them. There are many examples of traditional systems of
management replaced by modern systems that do not provide solutions to the problems. As
people are caught in the middle between a traditional lifestyle not adapted to modern conditions,
and a new lifestyle that is not sustainable, there is need to develop new eco-friendly strategies
which promote innovations based on traditional knowledge.

The institutional and technical interventions to be suggested in this Study necessarily need to fit
into the overall framework of HCFP. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the activities that are
planned under the Project and what kind of interventions for environmental improvements would
be possible. The objectives of the HCFP, project components and expected key results are
presented hereafter.

2.1 Haryana Community Forestry Project

The HCFP is being implemented by the HFD in 300 villages located in 43 Community
Development (CD) Blocks in ten districts of the State, targeting a population of about 606,000
(estimates for the year 1999). The districts included are: Panchku1a, Ambala, Yamunanagar and
Kurukshetra in the north; Sirsa, Fatehabad and Hissar in the west and Bhiwani (Siwani, Loharu
and Bhiwani CD Blocks), Mahendragarh (Kanina CD Block), and Rewari (Jatusana and Nahar
CD Blocks) in the southwest and south (Figure 2.1). The project intervention zone excludes the
area covered under the Aravalli Project and districts with sodic and salt affected land. The Project
became operational on 30
th
November 1998 and would be implemented through 30
th
June 2008.

The developmental objective of the HCFP is to build the capacity of rural communities to
improve the natural environment and maintain land fertility through sustainable management of
natural resources undertaken in a participatory manner, with the expected results of increased
wood production, improved productivity of common and private lands and greater involvement of
project stakeholders, including women, in planning and management of Common Property
Resources (CPRs). The immediate objectives of the Project are:

• Improved capabilities of village communities to undertake a process of self directed
community development, especially through greater involvement and empowerment of
disadvantaged groups in village decision making;
• Improved and sustainable management of CPRs that have previously been degraded by loss
of biomass and top soil and/or by moving sand;
• Increase in the number of sustainable forestry and agro-forestry interventions in farming
systems;
• Increase in the number of market-led environmentally friendly and energy efficient
technologies introduced in the villages.
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.17 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
FIGURE 2.1
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.18 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
The Various HCFP components that are aimed at meeting the above objectives and reversing the
process of environment and land degradation through restoring vegetal cover mainly focus on the
degraded wastelands, village common lands, farmlands, homestead plots, institutional lands,
riverbanks and areas unsuited for agriculture including private lands. With specific emphasis on
plantations and their management, the project deals holistically with the inter-related elements of
land, water, trees, crops, livestock and livelihood systems of people. The project therefore, also
focuses on meeting the needs of the rural communities for fuel, fodder, timber, fruit and non-
wood forest products (NWFP) on a sustainable basis. The project components are as under:

• Village Woodlots: Establishment of villages woodlots over 7,400 ha of Panchayat lands,
village common land, institutional lands and riverbanks.

• Sand Dune Fixation: Planting of 9,300 ha of moving sand dunes, both on common and
private lands.

• Tree Groves: Establishment of 200 ha of tree groves at 2,500 sites.

• Water Harvesting Dams: Development of micro-watersheds through construction of 18
water-harvesting dams.

• Farm Forestry: Farm forestry plantations over 5,300 ha of private farmland belonging to
small and marginal farmers.

• Poplar Planting: Planting of poplar on 5,000 ha of prime agricultural land in four
northeastern districts (i.e. Ambala, Kurukshetra, Panchku1a and Yamunanagar).

• Kitchen Gardens/Homestead Plots: Establishment of 36,000 Kitchen Gardens over an
approximate area of 180 ha. The Project also targets for establishment of 100 cluster nurseries
managed by women, at least one per cluster of 3-4 villages, besides 10 units of modern
nurseries and two nurseries for poplar planting.

• Community Development: The project aims at strengthening the capacity of the community
through Participatory Assessment (PA), formation of Village Resource Management
Committees (VRMC)/Hill Resource Management Societies (HRMS)/Farm Forestry
Associations (FFA) and microplanning; creation of employment opportunities and support for
income generating activities (IGAs) for women, disadvantaged groups and the educated
unemployed; promotion of energy efficient technologies by developing and introducing
improved energy saving devices to ensure more efficient and reduced use of fuelwood and
dung for domestic cooking and in crematoria.

The key results of project activities are expected to be:

• Disadvantaged groups, including women, scheduled castes, landless and marginal/small
farmers, are empowered and better equipped to be involved in village decision making and
have enhanced capabilities to sustain development activities unassisted;

• Village organisations, such as VRMCs, HRMS, FFA, are developed with capabilities in
sustainable management of village forest/rural resources;

Institute for Sustainable Development 11.19 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
• Arid and semi-arid areas affected by sand dunes and wind erosion are rehabilitated and again
made productive;

• Panchayat, Shamlat and institutional land are rehabilitated and are again productive;

• Micro-watersheds in the Shiwaliks Hills are managed to provide water supplies to various
users;

• Wastelands within the villages are converted into community tree groves for amenity
purposes;

• Multi-species agro-forestry cropping patterns are introduced on marginal and small farms;

• Poplar plantations are established on prime agricultural land;

• Households establish improved homestead plots and/or kitchen-gardens;

• Alternative income generating micro-enterprises are undertaken by disadvantaged groups;

• Energy efficient cooking stoves are introduced in villages;

• Energy efficient crematoria are introduced in rural towns and their hinterlands.

It is clear that all the project components of HCFP have an impact on the village environmental
conditions including on land, water, trees, crops, livestock and livelihood systems of people.
Many of the project components have a localised affect and therefore, their impact is restricted to
the village alone. For example, one of the project components is conversion of the wastelands
within the villages into community tree groves for amenity purposes. This has a direct positive
impact on the specific village but has a limited regional impact. However, management of micro-
watersheds in the Shiwaliks Hills is more regional in nature and would lead to better water
availability in the region for all the users.

2.2 Community Environmental Management Study

The wider objective of this Community Environmental Management Study is village institutional
strengthening to facilitate sustainable community-based environmental management in Haryana
villages affected by environmental issues related to resource depletion and degradation. The basic
task to achieve this objective is to assess the village environmental conditions in the 60 project
villages for preparation of an “Environmental Baseline Assessment Report”, conduct a “Gap
Analysis” and to develop environmental improvement micro-projects.

The overall purpose of the study is to assist the project in formulating a Community Capability
Enhancement Initiative for strengthening environmental management in these 60 selected target
villages through implementation of the suggested environmental improvement micro-projects.
This would be achieved through institutional strengthening and training of rural communities by
local environmental NGOs to support environmental actions in the project villages.

The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is essentially studying the impact of project
activities on various aspects of the environment including land, water, forests, atmosphere etc. In
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.20 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
addition, the already existing activities (in the villages) are to be analysed from the point of view
of their environmental impacts and both positive as well as adverse impacts are to be considered.
The adverse impacts would need to be managed through corrective action plans (CAPs) and
positive impacts are to be enhanced to maximise the overall environmental benefits from the
Project. Both of these objectives would be achieved through (1) adjusting the HCFP activities,
and (2) implementation of environmental micro-projects that are suggested in this Study. The EIA
of HCFP activities and capacity building of rural communities in implementation of
environmental improvement micro-projects would enable the project authorities to maximise the
environmental benefits of the HCFP through community participation. The local environmental
NGOs are expected to play a key role in the success of this initiative.

An EIA requires comprehensive understanding of all the aspects of an activity i.e. social,
technical, financial, institutional and environmental. There are generally cross-sectoral impacts
(increased fuelwood availability leading to reduced use of cow dung for fuel and increased usage
as manure thereby preventing use of chemical fertilizers in the agricultural fields preventing long-
term contamination of groundwater, etc.). Similarly impacts may be short-term or long-term and
local or regional or global. Also same activity may have different environmental impacts in
different ecological settings and depending on the baseline environmental conditions in the
villages.

The present study focuses on detailed analysis of baseline environmental conditions in the 60
project villages and EIA of the project components; developing environmental improvement
micro-projects and suggesting measures, including NGOs involvement, for capacity enhancement
of the rural communities to ensure sustainable environmental management.

Institute for Sustainable Development 11.21 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
3. APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY


The study approach and methodology has been developed to address the specific requirements of
the Terms of Reference (TOR) for this study and to meet the overall objectives. A study-outputs
based approach was adopted in order to execute the work in steps and to move on to the next step
with experience gained from the previous one.

3.1 Study Outputs

The specific outputs expected from the study are as follows:

Baseline Assessment of Village Environmental Conditions

• A baseline assessment of the village environmental conditions in the 60 first HCFP villages,
including assessment of forest, water, soil, fish and animal resources, biodiversity,
atmosphere, human habitat, waste management/pollution, and climate change.

• An assessment of the extent to which the Panchayat
3
and VRMCs have included
environmental concerns in the Village Resource Management Microplans (VRMMs)
prepared with support from HCFP.

• An assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the micro-projects selected by the
communities for implementation under the HCFP.

Identification of Local Environmental NGOs in Haryana

• Identification and assessment of NGOs involved in community training with background in
social/ environmental/ forestry activities in each of the project’s districts.

• Preparation of TOR for NGO intervention in institutional and community strengthening to
support environmental actions in the project villages.

Recommendations for Adjusting HCFP Activities in the Light of the Study Findings.

3.2 Study Area

HCFP is being implemented in 300 villages of 43 CD Blocks in 10 districts of Haryana. This
study required environmental baseline assessment to be carried out in 70 first project villages.
However, during the first year of the Project, only 60 villages were selected for Village Entry
(VE) in 14 CD Blocks from 10 districts. These villages represent the environmental baseline for
the purposes of this report, and provide a 20% sample of all project villages. The aim has been to
have 4-5 villages in each CD Block, thus ensuring that representative villages were located in
each of the main agro-ecological zones within the project area. These villages with their locations
in different agro-ecological zones and CD Blocks are listed in Table 3.1.





3
An institution of self–government at the village level – Also called Gram/Village Panchayat


Institute for Sustainable Development 11.22 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP




Table 3.1: Location of Sample Villages

Climatic
zone
Agro-ecological zone CD block Villages
Moist
Semi-Arid
Kandi Plateau Bilaspur (5) Nagli, Bhagwanpur, Ranjeetpur, Sultanpur,
Shergarh
Raipur Rani (9) Hangola, Hangoli, Kheri, Haripur, Natwal,
Tasrauli, Tabar, Rasidpur, Kakkar Majra
Loamy Central Plain
(mostly irrigated multi
species cropping
patterns)
Naraingarh (5) Nagla, Korwa Khurd, Dehar, Nagla
Rajputan, Baktua
Ladwa (2) Mukarpur, Bodla
Semi-Arid
Clayey Central Plain
(mostly double-
cropping of irrigated
rice)
Babain (1) Sanghaur
Jatusana (3) Purkhottampur, Baldhan Kalan, Babdoli
Nahar (3) Lula Ahir, Bhurthala, Shyamnagar
Kanina (4) Sundrah, Bewal, Bhalkhi, Mundain
Nathusari
Chopta (8)
Tarkanwali, Makhosarani, Kagdana,
Shakar Mandori, Bakarianwali, Nirwan,
Rupawas, Rupana Darba
Loharu (3) Kudal, Alaudinpur, Kharkari
Sandy Western Plain
(mostly former sand
dune areas now under
irrigated agriculture)
Bhiwani (3) Prahladgarh, Dhana Ladanpur, Dhana
Narsan
Siwani (4) Morka, Mithi, Mandoli Khurd, Garwa
Hissar II (6) Bandaheri, Sarsana, Gawar, Gorchi,
Balsammand, Rawalwas Kalan
Arid
Sand dune Plain
(mostly active sand
dunes with limited
irrigation)
Bhattu Kalan
(4)
Dhingsara, Kirdhan, Mehuwala, Banawali

Source: Villages PA Baseline Report, Monitoring and Evaluation Division, HCFP,
Panchkula

The Project area has about 3,000 villages of which 300 villages have to be selected for project
intervention, 60 of them having already been selected in the first project year. This selection is
based on a set of objective criteria conforming to the target groups and forestry model/area
specifications. The selection process is on the basis of the following parameters, in that the
villages:

• have sufficient common land, or are affected by wind erosion from sand dunes, or are suitable
for water harvesting dams.
• possess potential for community mobilisation i.e. the number of households ranges between
200 to 500 (most of the villages in Hissar are, however, larger. The largest being
Balsammand with 1,418 households).
• are socially and economically backward as indicated by the percentage of scheduled castes
and agricultural labour to total population (percentage of 20 or more for each is deemed
sufficient and higher the percentage for these parameters, the greater the priority of a village
for selection).
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.23 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
• are contiguous geographic clusters of three or more for logistic and administrative
convenience and for ease of knowledge sharing between villages.

Villages that meet all the above criteria are put to a Rapid Appraisal (RA) to confirm the
preliminary findings, to assess the willingness of the village community to participate in the
project and that necessary conditions for success exist. In villages with a positive appraisal,
community entry activities are initiated as a prelude to community development through PA,
microplanning and microproject formulation.

3.3 Study Approach

The overall participatory approach adopted by the Project implies development of and
strengthening the capacity of the community for collaborative action, identifying and analysing
their problems, setting goals and actively implementing microprojects.

The ISD study team has been working in most of these villages since 1999. Though the earlier
efforts had focused on Community Entry, Participatory Community Assessment, Community
Institution strengthening, Community Microplanning; Microproject Implementation processes
and Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation, the team had a basic understanding of the
environmental issues likely to be present in the villages. In fact, many of the environmental
issues were discussed in detail at that stage itself because the villagers were keen to include them
in the village development plans. In this Community Environmental Management Study also, the
same PA approach has been adopted and village level environmental issues have been identified
in project villages. In all the villages, major environmental issues and problems of the village
were first discussed in a village meeting followed by a field visit of the village. Though the local
community as a whole is the primary stakeholder in the Project, special attention was paid to the
needs and perspectives of the disadvantaged groups within the communities, namely women,
Scheduled Castes (SC), landless and resource poor farmers. Focus group discussions (FGDs)
were held depending on significance of specific environmental issues in the villages.

During the field visit to the village, all environmentally sensitive locations such as Johads, dug
wells, open wells, Jal Ghar, (Water Works), water taps, village drains, river banks, toilets, tree
groves, kurdis
2
, Chulhas (cookstoves) inside the kitchens, local industries (such as poultry farms,
brick kilns, stone crushers, etc.), areas affected by soil erosion, salinity, water logging, and
plantation areas, etc. were visited. The information exchange between villagers and the team
helped them to assess the village priorities with respect to potential environmental improvement
microprojects. These interactions also helped us in sensitising the villagers on environmental
impacts of their activities and discuss other relatively environmentally friendly alternatives (such
as vermi-composting rather than ordinary composting in Kurdis). The team essentially played the
role of a facilitator with most of the village level environmental information coming from the
villagers through PA exercise.

The fulfillment of the Project's overall objective to improve the natural environment goes well
beyond the scope of a sectoral forestry project, requiring an integrated approach to development.
An Indian village is a complex system (Figure 3.1) in which the land sub-system, the water sub-
system, the livestock sub-system, the energy sub-system, all interact and support each other
(Figure 3.2). The entire village ecosystem is often held in a delicate ecological balance. Trees


2

An area earmarked for waste disposal is generally referred to as a Kurdi in Haryana villages. At some places this is in
the form of a pit and in others just the normal ground surface

Institute for Sustainable Development 11.24 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
provide firewood, which helps villagers to avoid the burning of cow dung and in turn helps them
to maintain productivity of their croplands through application of cowdung as manure.
Simultaneously, trees and crops help to complement the grasslands in the supply of fodder for
domestic animals. Grass is generally available from the grasslands during the monsoon period.
As grass availability declines with the onset of the dry months, crop residues obtained from
croplands and leaf fodder obtained from trees help animals to tide over the critical scarcity period.
However, it is not only the various components of the land sub-system that interact with each
other. Land sub-system interacts with the animal, water and energy sub-systems of the overall
village ecosystem and all these sub-systems interact with each other to sustain overall
productivity and extend economic and ecological stability.
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.25 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
Figure 3.1

FIGURE 3.1 : THE VILLAGE ECOSYSTEM
ENERG
GROUND
WATER
SURFAC
E
WATER
WATER
LIVESTOCK
CROP
S
FOREST &
TREE
GRAZIN
G
LANDS
LAND
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.26 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
Figure 3.2

FIGURE 3.2 : COMPONENTS OF A VILLAGE ECOSYSTEM
MANAGEMENT AND IMPROVEMENT PLAN
N
N
A
A
T
T
U
U
R
R
A
A
L
L




R
R
E
E
S
S
O
O
U
U
R
R
C
C
E
E




B
B
A
A
S
S
E
E


B
B
A
A
S
S
I
I
C
C


N
N
E
E
E
E
D
D
S
S


S
S
O
O
C
C
I
I
A
A
L
L


S
S
T
T
R
R
U
U
C
C
T
T
U
U
R
R
E
E


COMMON RESOURCES
GRAZING
LAND
FOREST
LAND
POND
S
AND
PRIVATE RESOURCES
CROP
LAND
LIVE-
STOCK
PRIVATE
TREES
WELLS
FOOD
FUEL
FODDER
MANURE
BUILDING
MATERIALS
LARGE LAND
HOLDERS
SMALL AND
MARGINAL LAND
HOLDERS
LANDLESS
HOUSE
MALE-FEMALE
RELATIONS
ARTISANAL
RAW MATERIALS
HERBS
DRINKING
WATER
IRRIGATION
WATER
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.27 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
The purpose of this Community Environmental Management Study is to plan for a holistic
enrichment of the entire village ecosystem without destroying the synergy between the various
sub-systems. That is why EIA of HCFP activities are being conducted. Here, the holistic
enrichment means that an approach in which attempts are made to increase the productivity of all
the components of the village ecosystem – from its crop lands to forest lands to grazing lands,
water systems, energy systems and animals – and in a way that the enrichment is sustainable.
Many of the previous rural development efforts have failed because they were fragmented. For
instance, when ponds and tanks were built nothing was done getting an appropriate landuse
implemented in the village to protect the catchment of these tanks. Where animal husbandry or
promoting dairying operations were involved, little attention was paid to increasing fodder
supply. At the same time, there are many success stories (Ralegan Siddhi village, Maharashtra;
Sukhomajri village in Haryana; and water conservation efforts of Tarun Bharat Sangh near
Alwar, Rajasthan) where community participation and holistic approach to development played a
key role in economic and environmental regeneration.

In this background, the present study has been conducted with a holistic view of the environment
within a village ecosystem. Like other components of HCFP, the community development
process is an integral part of this study as well and project mandates the involvement of NGOs in
this component. For the purpose, NGOs have been identified for community training and capacity
building on environmental aspects. The initial list of environmental improvement microprojects
has also been prepared. However, this would require further improvements (before
implementation) based on specific Participatory Community Assessment, Participatory Resource
Planning, Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation, on-the-job training of project field staff, link
workers
3
and members of VRMCs.

3.4 Study Methodology

The overall study framework was divided into the following specific tasks to achieve the study
outputs mentioned in Para 3.1.

Task 1
: Prepare Baseline Environmental Assessment of the 60 first project villages and identify
specific environmental issues in the project area.

Task 2:
Assess the extent to which environmental concerns have been included in the VRMMs.

Task 3:
Conduct EIA of the microprojects selected by the communities for implementation
under the HCFP.

Task 4:
Develop environmental improvement micro-projects to enhance environmental benefits
of HCFP.

Task 5:
Recommend adjustments in HCFP activities to reduce the adverse environmental
impacts, if any, and to enhance the positive impacts.



3
Link workers (to serve as para-extension staff) are selected from among the educated unemployed youth of the
village. Each village normally has one male and one female Link Worker. They serve as a link between the Project and
the community and render all assistance to build up their skills in collaborative development action. They work as the
channels for the project's monitoring and information needs at the micro-level and are paid by the Project for three
years.

Institute for Sustainable Development 11.28 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
Task 6
: Identify and assess local environmental NGOs for their potential involvement in
community training on environment related aspects and prepare TOR for NGO
intervention in institutional and community strengthening to support environmental
actions in the project villages.

The study methodology for accomplishment of the above tasks is detailed below:

Task 1: Prepare Baseline Environmental Assessment of the Project Villages and Identify
Specific Environmental Issues in the Project Area

In order to assess the village environmental conditions and to gather baseline data on the status of
environmental resources (forests, water, soil, fish and animal resources, biodiversity, atmosphere,
human habitat, waste management/pollution, and climate change, etc.), a wide range of survey
and assessment techniques were employed during the course of the study. These included review
of existing information and reports of the HCFP and other relevant documents, stakeholder
consultations at all levels, village community meetings, field visits within the villages, checklist
surveys, demonstration of water quality tests using portable water monitoring kits, etc.

Review of existing reports

The village level information on socio-economic pattern, demographic data, housing, status of
land resources, status of surface and ground water resources, water supply, water harvesting
structures, forests and human resources, etc. was collected during the earlier phases of the project.
This data has been included in the VE reports, Village PA reports and VRMMs proposals for the
project villages. The study team reviewed these reports and other related documents with the
following objectives:

• A sample of these reports were reviewed to evaluate the contents and to identify information
gaps with respect to the requirements of this study;

• All the 60 VRMMs (45 in English and 15 in Hindi) were reviewed to assess the extent to
which the VRMCs had included environmental concerns in the these proposals;

• During the course of the study, all the reports were reviewed prior to visiting the specific
villages so as to focus the community interactions on the key issues;

• In the absence of microprojects village microplans (VRMMs) were reviewed to assess the
potential environmental impacts of the proposals made in these microplans.

• All other relevant documents/reports were also reviewed in so far as they met the
requirements of this study.

A review of the above reports revealed that though they were quite comprehensive with respect to
other parameters, the coverage of environmental issues such as water supply, waste water
disposal, drainage, solid waste management, pollution control, energy sources and consumption,
local industrial activities, etc. were not adequately covered in all the reports. However, in some
villages, the environmental issues had also been addressed because the local community had
expressed their interest to develop some environmental improvement microprojects. Hence, the
primary and secondary information collected earlier was extensively used for the current study to
avoid any duplication of effort.
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.29 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP

Preparation of survey tools and pre-testing

A checklist of issues to be covered in the environmental survey was developed and pre-tested in a
couple of villages. A copy of this checklist is placed at Appendix 1 and 2. Prior to field testing of
the checklist, two two-days “train-the-trainers” sessions were held in the ISD camp office at
Raipur Rani in the month of October 2000. The training focussed on the village environmental
resources and how they could be impacted by the project and local village activities. The village
ecosystem was dealt with in detail and possible interactions among village sub-systems and their
environmental impacts were also discussed.

Environmental awareness material dealing with sanitation, solid waste management, energy
conservation, vermi-composting, pollution control, soil erosion, water harvesting, soil and water
conservation measures, etc. was procured from various agencies, for use in the field surveys. The
low cost portable water monitoring kit
44
was procured from the Central Pollution Control Board
(CPCB), New Delhi, who also trained our team in the use of this kit.

The field team was briefed and trained in the usage of designed formats, environmental
awareness material and water quality monitoring kits. The training focused on use of PA
techniques in village environmental resource assessment exercise.

Village meetings and reconnaissance surveys

Each of the 60 villages was surveyed by the ISD team to have first hand feel of environmental
conditions of the village and to identify environmental issues that would require attention either
in the short-term or long-term. The team selected for the study was the same that had previously
worked in these villages. The team members had therefore, already spent sufficient time with the
villagers and had good knowledge of the sensitive issues. As such, they were well received in the
villages during this study.

Main fieldwork comprised FGDs with the community along the lines of pre-tested checklist.
Depending on the sensitivities of issues and the social groups within a village, FGDs were held
separately with different stakeholders including landless labourers, women, SC, etc. in all the
villages. The village meetings were organised at a common place for the villagers at a time
convenient to them. The average size of the group in village meetings was around 30. These
meetings commenced with an explanation of the objectives of the study and its relevance to
HCFP activities. The villagers were informed that the study was being conducted to develop
environmental improvement microprojects that would help them improve village environmental
conditions. During discussions, care was taken to ensure that poorest and least articulate
members of the community are able to voice their concern regarding the environmental
conditions of their village. The principal areas of enquiries and assessment techniques are
presented in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2: Areas of Enquiry and Assessment Techniques

Area of enquiry
Stakeholders consulted
Research and assessment


4

For the purpose, the team used the Low Cost Water Testing Kit developed by Central Pollution Control Board. The
kit has been fabricated as a portable laboratory provided with the apparatus and reagents needed for the field-testing to
assess the quality of water under field conditions. The kit enables the user to assess the physical, chemical,
bacteriological and biological quality of water in the field.

Institute for Sustainable Development 11.30 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
techniques
Baseline natural resource
assessment
Separate informal groups of men,
women, landless, labourers, etc.
Reconnaissance survey, FGDs
and Case studies
Inclusion of environmental
concerns in the action plans
Separate informal groups of men and
women
FGDs and review of existing
reports
Potential environmental impact
of the village activities
Separate informal groups of men and
women
FGDs and review of existing
reports
The village meetings provided an overview of environmental problems in the village, historical
trends, experience of rural communities with other interventions such as improved Chulhas,
biogas plants, community toilets, etc.

Subsequently a reconnaissance survey of the village was carried out to assess the status of
environmental resources and to identify environmentally sensitive receptors. This visit also
provided the study team an opportunity to review previous attempts on environmental
improvement projects such as use of improved Chulhas, biogas plants, toilets, etc. At the same
time the study team briefed the villagers on various aspects of solid waste disposal, open drains,
need for safe and hygienic conditions, sanitation, health effects in children and women due to
exposure to kitchen smoke, water conservation, revival of traditional water harvesting systems,
rehabilitation of Johads
5
, etc. Based on the village reconnaissance survey, the village resource
map was updated to include the environmental resources and problem points for each of the
villages.
The study team prepared a comprehensive checklist of environmental issues and ranked them as
of low, medium and high intensities for each of the project villages surveyed. The ranking was
based on study team’s assessment of villagers’ perception of the problem after thorough
discussions with them on all the issues. A copy of the format used for the purpose is enclosed at
Appendix 3. During these interactions villagers were also probed on their knowledge and attitude
towards environment and changes in their perceptions towards environmentally sustainable
village development over time.
Demonstration of low-cost water quality monitoring kits

In each of the project villages, a demonstration of the low cost water quality monitoring kit was
undertaken. As water is the most important resource within a village and as water quality has
been a major cause of concern in Indian villages, it was considered necessary to sensitise the
villagers to this aspect. Groundwater is the main source of water in the villages and hence water
quality testing was carried out in the villages analysing the samples collected from the
handpumps, taps and wells. This demonstration helped establish a need for scientific approach to
environmental management in the villages and stimulated debate and further discussions.

For the purpose, the study team used the Low Cost Water Testing Kit developed by the CPCB.
The kit has been fabricated as a portable laboratory provided with the apparatus and reagents
needed for field-testing to assess the quality of water under field conditions. It enables the user to
assess the physical, chemical, bacteriological and biological quality of water in the field. As it
was not practically possible to do complete analysis of all the parameters during the village visit
nor that was the objective of this exercise, a select list of parameters were chosen. These included
pH, fluorides, hardness, nitrates and calcium. These parameters are important from human health
point of view as well as good indicators of the water quality for other uses such as washing of
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.31 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
clothes, agricultural usage, etc. Also the analytical methods for these were colorimetric
65
having a
strong impact on the village community.
Preparation of baseline environmental assessment reports and case studies
Based on the information gathered, a baseline environmental assessment report was prepared for
each of the project villages. These reports include an assessment of water, land, air, agriculture,
forestry, livestock and energy resources and also an appraisement of waste disposal and
management practices and energy use in the villages. A Baseline Environmental Assessment
Report for village Rasidpur is placed at Appendix 4.

Specific case studies are included in this report to highlight the key problems in the villages and
to evaluate the best management practices for specific environmental issues so as to develop
environmental improvement micro-projects.

Task 2: Assess the Extent to Which Environmental Concerns have been Included in the
VRMMs.

This has been dealt with under Task 1 earlier in that all the VRMMs (45 in English and 15 in
Hindi) were examined to assess the extent of village environmental concerns included in these
plans.

Task 3: Conduct EIA of Microprojects Selected by the Communities for Implementation
Under the HCFP.

At the time of this study, microprojects for the project villages were not available. The lack of
micro projects means that the feasibility of the planned interventions is not known. It was
therefore, agreed that VRMMs be reviewed and assessed with respect to their environmental
impact. These plans essentially include only forestry and agro-forestry activities. All the VRMMs
available in English, from 45 villages, were analysed. The 45-village sample includes 8-10
villages from each Project division and represents 15% of the total number of villages that will be
involved in project activities.

The following indicators were selected to assess the potential environmental impacts of the
planned plantations and suggest adjustments of project models:

Impact on biological environment: quantity and quality of forest cover

• Available common property lands planted with woodlots
• Quality of forest cover improved
• Greenery established within and around villages
• Forest cover outside forest areas increased
• Percentage of total Panchayat land brought, or maintained under forest cover
• Percentage of nominal forest area per total village land


5

Johads are basically embankments to arrest rainwater during the monsoon season. In some areas of India, the Johad
bed is later used to cultivate crops. These community structures serve multiple purposes - meet domestic water
requirements of the villagers, meet drinking and other water requirements of the livestock population, and help in
groundwater recharge.

6

Colorimetric methods use change in color as an indicator of the concentration of specific parameter in the water
sample.

Institute for Sustainable Development 11.32 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
• Forest biodiversity increased
• Habitat for wildlife improved
• Forests as sink for greenhouse gases

Impact on land environment: land degradation and erosion


• Moving sand dunes on Panchayat and private lands stabilized
• Riverbank and gully erosion decreased
• Unsustainable exploitation of fodder and fuelwood resources decreased
• Conservation of soil improved
• Availability of dung for Farm Yard Manure (FYM) increased

Impact on water environment: water quantity and quality


• Conservation of water on farmland soil improved
• Conditions of the water table improved



Impact on air environment: air quality


• Wind damage to crop decreased
• Dust pollution decreased
• Microclimatic conditions within the village improved.

Task 4: Develop Environmental Improvement Microprojects to Enhance Environmental
Benefits of HCFP.

Based on an assessment of the baseline environmental conditions in the villages and analysis of
planned HCFP activities, a number of environmental interventions are suggested.

Task 5: Recommend adjustments in HCFP activities to reduce the adverse environmental
impacts, if any, and to enhance the positive impacts.

Based on the EIA of HCFP activities carried out as part of this study and identification of
environmental issues in each of the project villages, appropriate recommendations have been
made to adjust HCFP activities in order to enhance their environmental benefits, as follows:

• Adjustments in the existing components and models of plantations in use under HCFP;

• New environmental improvement micro-projects have been suggested for inclusion in the
HCFP.

Task 6: Identify and Assess Local Environmental NGOs for their Potential Involvement in
Community Training on Environment Related Aspects and Prepare TOR for
NGO Intervention in Institutional and Community Strengthening to Support
Environmental Actions in the Project Villages.

The EIA of HCFP activities and capacity building of rural communities in implementation of
environmental improvement micro-projects would enable the project authorities to maximise the
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.33 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
environmental benefits of the HCFP through community participation. The local environmental
NGOs are expected to play a key role in the success of this initiative. NGOs, in fact, have a very
important role which begins with the project entry into a village and goes upto project exit stage.
The community training is an important aspect for sustainable resource management and NGOs
are the key players in this process. Even for the environmental improvement microprojects, there
is a need to enhance the community capacity to develop, implement, evaluate and monitor these
microprojects. The long-term success of these initiatives would depend on the ability of the
community to manage the development process without external assistance, resolving possible
conflicts, evolving methodologies for distribution of benefits, and sustaining resource use.
Traditionally, the culture of knowledge transfer and natural resource management has been part
of the daily routine activities of the villagers. Also, one could witness maximum extent of
resource recycling and reuse widely practised in village communities. However with time, the
situation has changed and the process of knowledge transfer has weakened. Also, it is important
for sustainable development that there is an exchange of information and views about
developmental initiatives taking place outside the village environment. This can be achieved
through a participatory approach of information exchange and sharing. This is where local NGOs
can play a major role. NGOs working in the surroundings have a much better understanding of
the local socio-economics, culture, values, customs and traditions and are therefore, most
effective in communicating the right messages to the communities. It is, therefore, imperative
that a right set of local NGOs is identified as part of this project who can
work with the project authorities to successfully implement the environmental improvement
microprojects. These NGOs should at a minimum have experience in community training with
background in social, environmental and forestry activities.

At the same time, the local NGOs sometimes may have the limitation of lack of exposure to
various national level initiatives in rural resources management and this may limit their ability to
deal with specific environmental issues in a village. It was therefore considered appropriate to
select NGOs at two levels: (1) At the local level within the state of Haryana, preferably in
proximity to the project area, (2) Specialist NGOs to work with the local NGOs and the village
communities, preferably close to the project area. As there are many national level, specialist
NGOs based in Delhi, and Delhi is in close proximity to the project area, a number of NGOs have
been identified for involvement in the project activities. The study team has also prepared a
framework TOR for these NGO interventions in institutional and community strengthening to
support environmental action in project villages.

3.5 Report Structure

The present report on “Community Environmental Management Study” is structured in thirteen
sections. Sections 1 to 9 deal with Environmental Baseline Assessment and details of Suggested
Environmental Interventions; essentially including outputs of Tasks 1, 3 and part of 4. Sections
10 to 12 deal with EIA of village natural resource plans, Recommendations for adjusting HCFP
activities, and Institutional and community capacity building initiatives; essentially including
outputs of Tasks 2, 5, 6 and part of 4. Section 13 gives a summary of findings and proposed
interventions. Brief contents of different Sections of the report are given below:

Section 1 : Background

Section 2 : Introduction.

Section 3 : Study Approach and Methodology, includes approach to the study
and details of the methodology adopted.
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.34 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP

Section 4 : Air Environment, includes assessment of air quality problems in the
project villages, impact analysis of neighbouring activities on the village
air quality problems, and details of suggested environmental
interventions, etc.

Section 5 : Water Environment, includes assessment of water resources in the
project villages, analysis of problems related to availability and quality
of water, review of traditional water harvesting systems in the villages,
and details of suggested environmental interventions, etc.

Section 6 : Waste Management and Sanitation, includes assessment of solid waste
management, human wastes management, agricultural and livestock
waste management and industrial waste management in the project
villages, and details of suggested environmental interventions, etc.

Section 7 : Energy, includes assessment of energy needs, sources of energy, fuel
choices, use of energy efficient devices, etc., and details of suggested
environmental interventions, etc.



Section 8 : Land Environment, includes assessment of land related environmental
problems in project villages such as soil erosion, salinity, water logging,
etc., assessment of agricultural practices related environmental issues,
and details of suggested environmental interventions, etc.

Section 9 : Livestock, includes assessment of livestock and cattle related
environmental issues in the project villages.

Section 10 : EIA of village natural resource plans.

Section 11 : Recommendation for adjusting HCFP activities.

Section 12 : Institutional and Community Capacity Building Initiatives including
NGOs Involvement.

Section 13 : Summary of Findings and Interventions/Recommendations, includes
summary of environmental issues across all the project villages and
suggested environmental interventions thereof.

Section 14 : References.
Institute for Sustainable Development 11.35 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
4. AIR ENVIRONMENT

The quality of air environment is defined by the ambient air quality of the region. The ambient air
quality of an area is mainly a function of (1) the background levels of air pollutants, (2) the
sources of air pollution in the area, and (2) the assimilative capacity of the environment to
neutralize air pollution. Air is meant to be polluted when the imbalance in the air quality is to
such an extent that it starts causing deleterious effects
6
.

Air pollution is primarily a problem of urban areas and ambient air quality in the urban centres of
India is a major environmental issue. Some of the Indian cities such as New Delhi, Calcutta and
Mumbai are among the world’s most polluted cities because of poor air quality. In Delhi alone,
about 80% of the children are estimated to be suffering from respiratory disorders as they are
forced to breathe polluted air. The situation is really serious in hundreds of other Class I and II
cities of India. Some of the major pollutants are particulate matter, sulphur dioxide (SO
2
), oxides
of nitrogen (NO
x
), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), photochemical oxidants (e.g.
ozone), metals (e.g. lead) and other gases and vapours (hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, etc.)
7
. The
main sources of air pollution are the increasing number of vehicles on the roads, higher
background levels of dust i.e. suspended particulate matter (SPM) due to inadequate green areas
near the cities, uncontrolled emissions from industries, etc. At the same time, illegal felling of
forests and increasing use of fuelwood as an energy source is leading to loss of forest cover and
green areas, near and within cities, further limiting the assimilative capacity of the environment.

The overall situation, from the point of view of ambient air quality, is, however, not that alarming
in the rural environment and the situation is no different in the HCFP villages. The concentration
of air pollutants at a particular time is a function of the quantity and type of pollutant introduced
into the atmosphere and the ability of the atmosphere to disperse/absorb these and also on various
physico-chemical dissipation processes liable to remove air pollutants through self-purification.
The ambient air quality pattern, therefore, changes from location to location and with time of the
day, week and year. In most of the HCFP villages, there are only limited sources of air pollution
and there is still sufficient assimilative capacity in the village environment as not to allow build-
up of concentrations of air pollutants. The environmental baseline assessment of the HCFP
villages, from the air quality perspective, is presented in this Section.


6

The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) have been stipulated by the Ministry of Environment &
Forests (MOEF), Government of India (GOI), for different landuses including (1) rural and residential areas, (2)
industrial areas, and (3) sensitive areas.


7

SO
2
is formed during combustion where sulphur present in fuel gets oxidized emitting SO
2
with the exhaust gases.
SO
2
is scavenged from the atmosphere due to sulphuric acid formation, conversion to sulphate salts and during
photochemical oxidation process.

NO
X
are generally recognized as sum of nitric oxides (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO
2
); nitric oxides are formed during
combustion as a result of oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen, while NO
2
is formed at low temperatures when nitric
oxide combines with excess oxygen in the combustion system. NO
x
are scavenged from the atmosphere through
formation of nitric acid, nitrics or nitrates and through their dry deposition.

CO is produced due to incomplete combustion of carbon from vehicles, coal combustion , fuel oil combustion, solid
waste disposal and refuse burning, etc.

Institute for Sustainable Development 11.36 Community Env Mgt Study-HCFP
4.1 Sources of Air Pollution

The main sources of air pollution in the HCFP villages include the following:

• Industrial pollution due to rural agri-industries;
• Dust pollution due to various activities;
• Energy consumption within the villages;
• Odour pollution due to various sources.

4.2 Industrial Pollution

Over the last two decades, many new rural industries have come up in the project area. The main
industrial development can be seen in Ambala Project Division where there has been a
proliferation of poultry farms and brick kilns. One stone crusher was also noted in the area. No
major industrial development is seen in other parts of the Project. The villages which are in the
proximity of these industries are obviously affected to a greater extent than the villages which are
further away. The problem is further aggravated in those villages which are located in the
predominantly downwind direction
8
.

4.2.1 Brick kilns

There are 129 brick kilns in Raipur Rani CD Block of Ambala Project Division. Many of these
are very close to HCFP villages and, therefore, have a direct socio-economic and environmental
impact on these villages. The villages most affected by this problem are Natwal and Kakkar
Majra. There are three kilns in Natwal and a total of 16 brick kilns in Kakkar Majra. In all other
divisions, relatively much less number of brick kilns were noticed but they are not perceived as
an environmental problem by the villagers. In Hissar Project Division, some small captive kilns
were seen, within the project villages, that are primarily used by villagers for making bricks for
their own use (these are described later in this section). No major commercial brick making
activity was noticed in other project divisions of the study area except Ambala.







8
The air quality trends fluctuate seasonally as well as annually in an area due to interplay of various factors viz.
release of air pollutants at source, transport, diffusion, dilution and scavenging of air pollutants in the environment in
which meteorological factors play a significant role. The seasonal variations in the air quality are caused by fluctuation
in seasonal conditions, diversity in physical and climatic conditions, meteorological conditions and turbulence in
atmosphere. The climatic factors such as moisture, temperature, sunlight and air movements influence the attack rate of