(12) Genomics - Holdensclass.com

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Intro


Turn in yesterday’s lab assignment.


Start work on worksheet “Gene Therapy
and the Case of Jesse Gelsinger”
assignment 17. Turn this in at AV cart
when completed.


Assignment 18 “Do Genetically Modified
Foods Need Stricter Controls?” should be
done for homework.

The Human Genome Project

What is a genome?


Genome


all the inheritable traits of an
organism.



Human Genome


all the inheritable traits
of human beings.



Human Genome Project


an international
study of the entire human genetic material.

How does the human genome
stack up?

Organism

Genome Size
(Bases)

Estimated
Genes

Human (
Homo sapiens
)

3 billion

30,000

Laboratory mouse (
M. musculus
)

2.6 billion

30,000

Mustard weed (
A. thaliana
)

100 million

25,000

Roundworm (
C. elegans
)

97 million

19,000

Fruit fly (
D. melanogaster
)

137 million

13,000

Yeast (
S. cerevisiae
)

12.1 million

6,000

Bacterium (
E. coli
)


4.6 million

3,200

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)


9700

9

ELSI: Ethical, Legal,

and Social Issues


Privacy and confidentiality of genetic information
.


Fairness in the use of genetic information

by insurers, employers, courts, schools,
adoption agencies, and the military, among others.


Psychological impact, stigmatization, and discrimination

due to an individual’s
genetic differences.


Reproductive issues

including adequate and informed consent and use of genetic
information in reproductive decision making.



Clinical issues

including the education of doctors and other health
-
service providers,
people identified with genetic conditions, and the general public about capabilities,
limitations, and social risks; and implementation of standards and quality
-
control
measures.

U.S. Department of Energy Genome Programs, Genomics and Its Impact on Science and Society, 2003


Uncertainties associated with gene tests for susceptibilities and complex
conditions

(e.g., heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease).


Fairness in access to advanced genomic technologies
.


Conceptual and philosophical implications

regarding human responsibility, free will
vs genetic determinism, and concepts of health and disease.


Health and environmental issues

concerning genetically modified (GM) foods and
microbes.


Commercialization of products

including property rights (patents, copyrights, and
trade secrets) and accessibility of data and materials.

U.S. Department of Energy Genome Programs, Genomics and Its Impact on Science and Society, 2003

ELSI: Ethical, Legal,

and Social Issues

GTL Applications in

Energy Security and Global Climate Change

Genetic Technology Terms


Recombinant DNA
-

DNA produced by
combining DNA from
different sources

What Are Genetic Engineering
Organisms?


Genetic engineering
-

artificially changing
the genetic information in the cells of
organisms


Transgenic
-

an organism that has been
genetically modified


GMO
-

a genetically modified organism


GEO
-

a genetically enhanced organism

Application of Genetic Engineering


Medical


Agricultural


Industrial production


Environmental protection

What are Genetically Modified
(GM) Foods?


GM is a special set of technologies that
alter the genetic makeup of such living
organisms as animals, plants, or bacteria.


genetically modified=genetically
engineered=transgenic


GM products include medicines and
vaccines, foods and food ingredients,
feeds, and fibers.

Transgenic Crops


herbicide
-

and insecticide
-
resistant
soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola


sweet potato resistant to a virus that could
decimate most of the African harvest


rice with increased iron and vitamins that
may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian
countries


variety of plants able to survive weather
extremes

Percentage of Transgenic Crops
Grown Worldwide in 2003


United States (63%)


Argentina (21%)


Canada (6%)


Brazil (4%)


China (4%)

Gene Therapy


Gene


basic unit of heredity.


Therapy


treatment for disease or
disorder.


Gene Therapy


the application of genetic
engineering to the transplantation of genes
into human cells in order to cure a disease
caused by a genetic defect, as a missing
enzyme.