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Business Driven Data Communications

Michael S. Gendron, Ph.D.


Instructor’s Manual


Chapter One


©
2013

Pearson Education, Inc, Publishing as Prentice Hall
Business Driven Data Communications

Instructor’s Manual


©
20
13

Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall

Instructors Manual

Chapter 1
Page
2

of
14


LECTURE OUTLINE


This chapter introduces many network concepts and the
Network Components

of the

ICT
Infrastructure Architecture,
which were discussed in the Introduction to Information
Technology Infrastructure. In the current chapter
,

we are specifically looking at those
items/concepts that are traditionally thought of as networking and telecommuni
cations
equipment, including network switching and routing hardware, media, and servers,
outside vendor interconnects and associated items. Network architecture, standards, OSI,
TCP/IP, and the Internet, as well as encapsulation and addressing are introduc
ed in this
chapter. Examples are provided using the opening vignette.
This chapter attempts to
strike a balance between providing enough technical material so the business
system’s analyst can make informed recommendations, and an appropriate business
focu
s.


These learning objectives permeate this chapter and are interwoven throughout. The
students should master these learning objective
s when this chapter is complete
. The
instructor should stress these things and use examples to make sure the student has
m
astered these objectives.


1.

Know what
Analog
and
Digital
communications are, and how they differ

2.

Understand
Standards

and
Protocols
are, and why they are important

3.

Review the
TCP/IP
communications model and apply it to
encapsulated
layered
communications.

4.

I
ntroduce
Addressing,

and what it takes to communicate over the Internet


This is an outline of the
chapter


Introduction

Data Representation and Signal Propagation

Data Representation


Analog and Digital

Signal Propagation and Propagation Effects

Data Co
mmunications Techniques

Serial VS Parallel

Full VS Half Duplex

Message Synchronization

Modulation and Multiplexing

Data Compression

Symmetric vs. Asymmetric Communications

Speed Measurements and Bandwidth

Client
-
Server Computing

Computer Network and Carrie
r Concepts

Carrier Circuits

Geographic Scope

Communications Interoperability

Business Driven Data Communications

Instructor’s Manual


©
20
13

Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall

Instructors Manual

Chapter 1
Page
3

of
14


Introduction to Layering and TCPIP

Regulations, Standards, and TCP/IP

Protocols

Layers and Hardware

Wired Media and Network Typologies

Wired Media

Typologies

Switching Hierarchies

Phone System and Circuit Switching

Data Networks and Packet Switching

Addressing

TCP/IP Layers, Protocols and Communication

TCP/IP
-
OSI Architecture and How it Works

The material in the last two sections above (
TCP/IP Layers, Protocols and
Communication AN
D TCP/IP
-
OSI Architecture and How it Works)

are especially
difficult for students to master. Tools to assist students to master these are included
below

and located on the book adopter’s website
http://bddc.gendron.i
nfo

under the
EXTENSION menu
. Th
e

tool
in this instructor’s manual
is a paper and pencil tool
used to reinforce addressing and layered communications.

The website contains
animation for layered communications.

END OF CHAPTER QUEST
IONS


ASSURANCE OF LEARN
ING

1.

Discuss why analog and digital are important, how they differ, and what the
relationship is between them.

o

The answer to why analog and digital are important is simple, but
student
s may find the material difficult
. Analog data is what we use every
day a
nd represents things like an analog clock or a thermometer. Digital
data is the representation of real life events or information in a form
usable by ICT. This also describes the relationship between analog and
digital data. Digital data represents real li
fe events/information (e.g., a
thermometer which is analog) in an ICT usable form.

2.

Think of an office or building you are familiar with: What are the things in that
building that would cause major propagation effects for a wired network? What
can be done t
o minimize them? How would a wireless network be any different?

o

Answers will differ based on the office or building the student selects. But
the answer should include the appropriate propagation effect and a
resolution. For example, if a building has a lar
ge number of machines that
generate EMI the resolution would be to move ICT equipment or media to
a location where EMI is less. The important point is that the student is
able to understand what a propagation effect is and how to avoid or deal
with them.

3.

A
nalyze why interoperability is important from the perspective of the customer
and vendor.

Business Driven Data Communications

Instructor’s Manual


©
20
13

Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall

Instructors Manual

Chapter 1
Page
4

of
14


o

It’s all about competition. Interoperability provides the customer choices
in the marketplace and fosters competition because vendors are required
to make their equip
ment to known standards. It is interoperability that
creates the cross
-
vendor marketplace for equipment. Vendors consider
interoperability important because it allows them to create standards
-
based equipment that can compete in the marketplace, yet compete

based
on price, availability of options and other features. Students should be
encouraged to give examples of how customers and vendors benefit from
interoperability.

4.

Describe and analyze why the TCP/IP

OSI hybrid model is important to
businesses. Do the

same for the OSI model.

o

Students should be encouraged to create a diagram of the Hybrid Model
and OSI model side
-
by
-
side and show how they relate. More importantly
,

the student should discuss how the models create a competitive
marketplace through interop
erability and standards.

5.

Select an application (e.g., browser, e
-
mail, FTP, Real Player) and draw the five
-
layer hybrid TCP/IP

OSI communication model showing how messages are
encapsulated through layered communications.

o

Again, answer
s

will vary based on
the application selected. The point that
that the student is able to show how an encapsulated message is created
through drawing the five layer model. The student must be able to
describe how a message is built and passed through the five layer model.
This

is a precursor to understanding addressing.

6.

Analyze how transport, internet, and MAC addressing interact to facilitate end
-
to
-
end communications, and write a technical description.

o

The key here is the notion of within and between network addressing, and
t
ransport layer application mapping for messages. By showing the
combination of the within network (MAC), between (IP), and application
mapping (Transport Layer Port) relay of datagram’s, the student can
show their understanding of end
-
to
-
end network addres
sing.

END OF CHAPTER QUEST
IONS
-

CASE EXERCISES

1.

Assume that XYZ Inc. wants to build a new Ethernet switch with a number of
unique options. (These options do not matter, but the fact that they are not ratified
by any standards organization does.) The switch

is a 10
-
gigabit Ethernet switch
that comes in several sizes (number of ports). Develop a plan for XYZ Inc. so it
can be sure it is building the switch to the appropriate standards. Make sure you
answer the following: (a) Which standards bodies would XYZ I
nc. have to
contact, and what is the process? (b) How should ZYX Inc. handle any
proprietary options? For example, should it seek to have its options become
standards? (c) Explain the competitive positioning (or lack thereof) that XYZ may
have because it u
ses proprietary options for its hardware; be sure to indicate the
benefits and pitfalls it will face
.

Business Driven Data Communications

Instructor’s Manual


©
20
13

Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall

Instructors Manual

Chapter 1
Page
5

of
14


o

The point of the question is to ensure that the students understand the
difference between ratified and un
-
ratified standards. They also must
understand h
ow those differences effect the competitive position of a
manufacturer of ICT hardware. Finally, they should be able to show how
the selection of a vendor by an organization can affect the organization’s
position in their marketplace.

2.

HealthyWay HMO was d
iscussed in the opening vignette. Prepare a brief report
and presentation indicating how a LAN can help it attain competitive advantage in
the marketplace of HMOs. In your case analysis discuss what things are important
for HealthyWay to consider when sele
cting LAN and WAN technologies
.

o

HealthWay is a good example of how technology can be used to increase
competitive advantage.
S
tudents

with a healthcare background may

see an
extension to the LAN that includes things like the HMO’s involvement in a
Health I
nformation Network that allows record sharing


this may reduce
cost and thereby increase competitive position. The LAN itself should be
built to decrease costs
,

too. The answers to this will vary based on the
student’s healthcare background.

3.

Select a comp
any you are familiar with and write a case analysis that describes its
LAN/WAN. Describe which technologies it uses and how those technologies are
important to the competitive positioning of that company. Support your analysis
by citing Internet and/or pri
nt articles (i.e., trade publications, journal articles).

o

Answers will vary based on the company selected, but must include how
the competitive positioning and organization success is based on
technology that is selected. This question is meant to move the

students
from the “i
f

we build the ICT infrastructure, the users will use it” to “we
need a business reason to build ICT infrastructure.” It may be hard for
students to understand or find a situation where this has already occurred.

USE OF “END OF CHAPT
ER

CASES”

If the instructor is going to use end of chapter cases they should assign the chapter one
cases to students/groups since each chapter builds on the previous

IN
-
C
LASS ACTIVITIES

These activities are designed to reinforce layered communication and wi
thin/between
network addressing and communications. Notes:



Time to complete:

20
-
45 minutes based on student preparedness



Steps to complete:

Trace network frame and pack flow through a network on
paper



Takeaway:

Understand layered communications and within
/between network
addressing and transmission



First Activity:

Routed Network


this shows the student how devices encapsulate
and transmit network packets between networks. (See
Figure
1



Activity One
(Page 1 of 2)
;
Figure
2



Activity One (Page 2 of 2)
;
Figure
3



Activity One
Solution (Page 1 of 2)
;
Figure
4



Acti
vity One Solution (Page 2 of 2)
)

Business Driven Data Communications

Instructor’s Manual


©
20
13

Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall

Instructors Manual

Chapter 1
Page
6

of
14




Second Activity:

Same as the first, except it adds Ethernet Networks and Hosts.
It shows students how within and between networks operate



Business Driven Data Communications

Instructor’s Manual


©
20
13

Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall

Instructors Manual

Chapter 1
Page
7

of
14



Figure
1



Activity One (Page 1 of 2)

Business Driven Data Communications

Instructor’s Manual


©
20
13

Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall

Instructors Manual

Chapter 1
Page
8

of
14



Figure
2



Activity One (Page 2 of 2)

Business Driven Data Communications

Instructor’s Manual


©
20
13

Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall

Instructors Manual

Chapter 1
Page
9

of
14




Figure
3



Activity One Solution (Page 1 of 2)

Business Driven Data Communications

Instructor’s Manual


©
20
13

Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall

Instructors Manual

Chapter 1
Page
10

of
14



Figure
4



Acti
vity One Solution (Page 2 of 2)

Business Driven Data Communications

Instructor’s Manual


©
20
13

Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall

Instructors Manual

Chapter 1
Page
11

of
14




Figure
5



Activity Two (Page 1 of 2)

Business Driven Data Communications

Instructor’s Manual


©
20
13

Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall

Instructors Manual

Chapter 1
Page
12

of
14



Figure
6



Activity Two (Page 2 of 2)

Business Driven Data Communications

Instructor’s Manual


©
20
13

Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall

Instructors Manual

Chapter 1
Page
13

of
14




F
igure
7



Activity Two Solution (Page 1 of 2)

Business Driven Data Communications

Instructor’s Manual


©
20
13

Pearson Education, publishing as Prentice Hall

Instructors Manual

Chapter 1
Page
14

of
14



Figure
8



Activity Two Solution (Page 2 of 2)